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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disposition of the emerging brominated flame retardant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, in female Sprague Dawley rats: Effects of dose, route and repeated administration

Authors: Knudsen, GA; Sanders, JM; Birnbaum, LS (2017) Xenobiotica 47:245-254. HERO ID: 3350281

[Less] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, . . . [More] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, elsewhere: TeBrDEPH, TBPH, or BEHTBP) is used as an additive brominated flame retardant in consumer products.

2. Female Sprague Dawley rats eliminated 92-98% of [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP unchanged in feces after oral administration (0.1 or 10 μmol/kg). A minor amount of each dose (0.8-1%) was found in urine after 72 h. Disposition of orally administered BEH-TEBP in male B6C3F1/Tac mice was similar to female rats.

3. Bioaccumulation of [(14)C]-radioactivity was observed in liver and adrenals following 10 daily oral administrations (0.1 μmol/kg/day). These tissues contained 5- and 10-fold higher concentrations of [(14)C]-radioactivity, respectively, versus a single dose.

4. IV-administered [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP (0.1 μmol/kg) was slowly eliminated in feces, with >15% retained in tissues after 72 h. Bile and fecal extracts from these rats contained the metabolite mono-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP).

5. BEH-TEBP was poorly absorbed, minimally metabolized and eliminated mostly by the fecal route after oral administration. Repeated exposure to BEH-TEBP led to accumulation in some tissues. The toxicological significance of this effect remains to be determined. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (Project ZIA BC 011476).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care product use among adults in NHANES: Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and phenols and use of mouthwash and sunscreen

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Colacino, JA; Lewis, RC; Meeker, JD (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:326-332. HERO ID: 3230216

[Less] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting . . . [More] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.27.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies

Authors: James-Todd, TM; Meeker, JD; Huang, T; Hauser, R; Seely, EW; Ferguson, KK; Rich-Edwards, JW; Mcelrath, TF (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:160-166. HERO ID: 3230224

[Less] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and . . . [More] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (P<0.05). When evaluating patterns by race/ethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse pregnancy and child health outcomes.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 February 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Substrate-dependent aromatic ring fission of catechol and 2-aminophenol with O2 catalyzed by a nonheme iron complex of a tripodal N4 ligand

Authors: Lakshman, TR; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, B; Paine, TK (2016) Dalton Transactions (Online). HERO ID: 3223954

[Less] The catalytic reactivity of an iron(ii) complex [(TPA)Fe(II)(CH3CN)2](2+) () (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) . . . [More] The catalytic reactivity of an iron(ii) complex [(TPA)Fe(II)(CH3CN)2](2+) () (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) towards oxygenative aromatic C-C bond cleavage of catechol and 2-aminophenol is presented. Complex exhibits catalytic and regioselective C-C bond cleavage of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (H2DBC) to form intradiol products, whereas it catalyzes extradiol-type C-C bond cleavage of 2-amino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol (H2AP). The catalytic reactions are found to be pH-dependent and the complex exhibits maximum turnovers at pH 5 in acetonitrile-phthalate buffer. An iron(iii)-catecholate complex [(TPA)Fe(III)(DBC)](+) () is formed in the ring cleavage of catechol. In the extradiol-type cleavage of H2AP, an iron(iii)-2-iminobenzosemiquinonate complex [(TPA)Fe(III)(ISQ)](2+) () (ISQ = 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-iminobenzosemiquinonate radical anion) is observed in the reaction pathway. This work shows the importance of the nature of 'redox non-innocent' substrates in governing the mode of ring fission reactivity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate

Authors: Koksal, C; Nalbantsoy, A; Yavasoglu, NUK (2016) Cytotechnology 68:213-222. HERO ID: 3344531

[Less] Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household . . . [More] Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household applications. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BCP using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of BCP was investigated on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells) by MTT assay. The result showed that BCP inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value = 0.29 A mu g/mL). For genotoxicity assessment, tested concentrations of BCP demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix with the Salmonella strain TA100 in the Ames test. Results showed that BCP is a secondary mutagenic substance even in low concentrations. The data obtained from 28-days repeated toxicity tests on mice revealed that BCP caused abnormalities of chromosome number, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks, was assessed by Comet assay. The test result shows that BCP seemed to have genotoxic potential at a high level of exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains

Authors: Vararu, F; Moreno-García, J; Zamfir, CI; Cotea, VV; Moreno, J (2016) Food Chemistry 197:373-381. HERO ID: 3052878

[Less] Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces . . . [More] Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A multi-laboratory evaluation of microelectrode array-based measurements of neural network activity for acute neurotoxicity testing

Authors: Vassallo, A; Chiappalone, M; De Camargos Lopes, R; Scelfo, B; Novellino, A; Defranchi, E; Palosaari, T; Weisschu, T; Ramirez, T; Martinoia, S; Johnstone, AF; Mack, CM; Landsiedel, R; Whelan, M; Bal-Price, A; Shafer, TJ (2016) NeuroToxicology 60:280-292. HERO ID: 3350299

[Less] There is a need for methods to screen and prioritize chemicals for potential hazard, including neurotoxicity. . . . [More] There is a need for methods to screen and prioritize chemicals for potential hazard, including neurotoxicity. Microelectrode array (MEA) systems enable simultaneous extracellular recordings from multiple sites in neural networks in real time and thereby provide a robust measure of network activity. In this study, spontaneous activity measurements from primary neuronal cultures treated with three neurotoxic or three non-neurotoxic compounds was evaluated across four different laboratories. All four individual laboratories correctly identifed the neurotoxic compounds chlorpyrifos oxon (an organophosphate insecticide), deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and domoic acid (an excitotoxicant). By contrast, the other three compounds (glyphosate, dimethyl phthalate and acetaminophen) considered to be non-neurotoxic ("negative controls"), produced only sporadic changes of the measured parameters. The results were consistent across the different laboratories, as all three neurotoxic compounds caused concentration-dependent inhibition of mean firing rate (MFR). Further, MFR appeared to be the most sensitive parameter for effects of neurotoxic compounds, as changes in electrical activity measured by mean frequency intra burst (MFIB), and mean burst duration (MBD) did not result in concentration-response relationships for some of the positive compounds, or required higher concentrations for an effect to be observed. However, greater numbers of compounds need to be tested to confirm this. The results obtained indicate that measurement of spontaneous electrical activity using MEAs provides a robust assessment of compound effects on neural network function.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Degradation of phthalate esters and acetaminophen in river sediments using the electrokinetic process integrated with a novel Fenton-like process catalyzed by nanoscale schwertmannite

Authors: Yang, GC; Huang, SC; Wang, CL; Jen, YS (2016) Chemosphere 159:282-292. HERO ID: 3350223

[Less] The main objective of this study was to develop and establish an in situ remediation technology coupling . . . [More] The main objective of this study was to develop and establish an in situ remediation technology coupling nano-schwertmannite/H2O2 process and electrokinetic (EK) process for the removal of phthalates (PAEs) and acetaminophen in river sediments. Test results are given as follows: (1) injection of nano-schwertmannite slurry and H2O2 (collectively, "novel oxidant") into the anode reservoir would yield ·OH radicals that then will be diffused into the sediment compartment and further transported by the electroosmotic flow and/or electrophoresis from the anode end toward the cathode to degrade PAEs and pharmaceuticals in the sediment if any; (2) an electric potential gradient of 1.5 V cm(-1) would help the removal of PAEs and acetaminophen in the blank test, which no "novel oxidants" was added to the remediation system; (3) the practice of electrode polarity reversal would maintain neutral pH for sediment after remediation; (4) injection of equally divided dose of 10 mL novel oxidant into the anode reservoir and four injection ports on the top of sediment chamber would further enhance the removal efficiency; and (5) an extension of treatment time from 14 d to 28 d is beneficial to the removal efficiency as expected. In comparison, the remediation performance obtained by the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is superior to that of the batch degradation test, but is comparable with other EK integrated technologies for the treatment of same contaminants. Thus, it is expected that the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is a viable technology for the removal of phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals from river sediments in large-scale operations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Micellar and sub-micellar ultra-high performance liquid chromatography of hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid positional isomers

Authors: Fasciano, JM; Danielson, ND (2016) Journal of Chromatography A 1438:150-159. HERO ID: 3350323

[Less] Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has been used primarily for the separation of neutral analytes . . . [More] Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has been used primarily for the separation of neutral analytes of varying polarities, most commonly phenols and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, but does not seem to have been used to study aromatic hydroxy acids in detail. We have studied the separation of hydroxybenzoic acid mixtures, including monohydroxybenzoic and dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers by MLC. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) is investigated as the modifying surfactant on a C18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) column (100 × 2.1mm, 1.8 μm). The addition of only SDS (no organic solvent) to the mobile phase reduced the influence of hydrophobic interactions while improving the retention times, resolution, and peak shapes, even at concentrations below the critical micellization concentration (CMC). The UHPLC separation of 7 hydroxybenzoic acids, including 6 dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers and one trihydroxybenzoic acid, is achieved with high efficiency using 0.1% SDS in 1.84 mM sulfuric acid (pH 2.43) mobile phase, in less than 6 min with a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1), and in less than four min with a flow rate of 0.7 mL min(-1). Six monohydroxybenzoic acid isomers are also effectively separated by MLC, using a 0.5% SDS mobile phase modifier, in less than 20 min with a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1), and in less than 14 min with a flow rate of 0.7 mL min(-1). The 3 phthalic acid isomers could be separated using a similar mobile phase and flow rates in less than 6 and 4 min. Solute-micelle equilibrium constants and partition coefficients are calculated for 6 monohydroxybenzoic acids based on a plot of MLC retention factor vs. mobile phase micelle concentration. All aromatic acid isomers studied can be classified as binding solutes in the MLC retention mechanism. Less effective separations are observed with shorter chain surfactants, leading to higher retention times and poor peak shapes. It is concluded that increasing chain length led to more efficient MLC separations, and SDS is the preferred modifying surfactant for the examined separation.