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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavior of stable carbon isotope of phthalate acid esters during photolysis under ultraviolet irradiation

Authors: Peng, X; Li, X; Feng, L (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1639220

[Less] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl . . . [More] The photolysis of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl (DMP), di-n-butyl (DBP), and di-n-octyl (DOP) phthalates) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254nm in laboratory experiments was investigated by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry through a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS). The degradation processes of DMP, DBP and DOP were well described by a first-order kinetic, with rate constants of 0.02636, 0.1005 and 0.958h(-1) for DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, indicating that the photolysis rate of PAEs is related to the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The results of TOC analysis indicated that PAEs could not be completely mineralized under UV irradiation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs produced during photolysis was evaluated with compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Pronounced (13)C-enrichment, with maximum δ(13)C shifts of Δδ(13)CDMP=10.04±0.13‰ (f=0.09), Δδ(13)CDBP=7.4±0.19‰ (f=0.06) and Δδ(13)CDOP=2.9±0.17‰ (f=0.25) in the residual DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, were clearly a direct evidence for photolysis of three PAEs. The order of stable carbon isotope fractionation of the three PAEs during photolysis, DMP>DBP>DOP, is an inverse function of the number of carbon atoms in molecule. The kinetic isotope effects (KIE) values, from 1.0018 to 1.0045 for the three PAEs, were consistent with the KIE values (1.00-1.03) of the C-O bond cleavage reported in literature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment

Authors: Luo, Y; Guo, W; Ngo, HH; Nghiem, LD; Hai, FI; Zhang, J; Liang, S; Wang, XC (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 2219790

[Less] Micropollutants are emerging as a new challenge to the scientific community. This review provides a . . . [More] Micropollutants are emerging as a new challenge to the scientific community. This review provides a summary of the recent occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment including sewage, surface water, groundwater and drinking water. The discharge of treated effluent from WWTPs is a major pathway for the introduction of micropollutants to surface water. WWTPs act as primary barriers against the spread of micropollutants. WWTP removal efficiency of the selected micropollutants in 14 countries/regions depicts compound-specific variation in removal, ranging from 12.5 to 100%. Advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and membrane bioreactors can achieve higher and more consistent micropollutant removal. However, regardless of what technology is employed, the removal of micropollutants depends on physico-chemical properties of micropollutants and treatment conditions. The evaluation of micropollutant removal from municipal wastewater should cover a series of aspects from sources to end uses. After the release of micropollutants, a better understanding and modeling of their fate in surface water is essential for effectively predicting their impacts on the receiving environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

Authors: He, W; Qin, N; Kong, X; Liu, W; He, Q; Ouyang, H; Yang, C; Jiang, Y; Wang, Q; Yang, B; Xu, F (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1639216

[Less] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake . . . [More] The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ6PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953μgL(-1), with the average value of 4.042±3.929μgL(-1). The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ6PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ6PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources

Authors: Santhi, VA; Mustafa, AM (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1332544

[Less] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin . . . [More] A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disposition of the emerging brominated flame retardant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, in female Sprague Dawley rats: Effects of dose, route and repeated administration

Authors: Knudsen, GA; Sanders, JM; Birnbaum, LS (2017) Xenobiotica 47:245-254. HERO ID: 3350281

[Less] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, . . . [More] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, elsewhere: TeBrDEPH, TBPH, or BEHTBP) is used as an additive brominated flame retardant in consumer products.

2. Female Sprague Dawley rats eliminated 92-98% of [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP unchanged in feces after oral administration (0.1 or 10 μmol/kg). A minor amount of each dose (0.8-1%) was found in urine after 72 h. Disposition of orally administered BEH-TEBP in male B6C3F1/Tac mice was similar to female rats.

3. Bioaccumulation of [(14)C]-radioactivity was observed in liver and adrenals following 10 daily oral administrations (0.1 μmol/kg/day). These tissues contained 5- and 10-fold higher concentrations of [(14)C]-radioactivity, respectively, versus a single dose.

4. IV-administered [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP (0.1 μmol/kg) was slowly eliminated in feces, with >15% retained in tissues after 72 h. Bile and fecal extracts from these rats contained the metabolite mono-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP).

5. BEH-TEBP was poorly absorbed, minimally metabolized and eliminated mostly by the fecal route after oral administration. Repeated exposure to BEH-TEBP led to accumulation in some tissues. The toxicological significance of this effect remains to be determined. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (Project ZIA BC 011476).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care product use among adults in NHANES: Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and phenols and use of mouthwash and sunscreen

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Colacino, JA; Lewis, RC; Meeker, JD (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:326-332. HERO ID: 3230216

[Less] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting . . . [More] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.27.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies

Authors: James-Todd, TM; Meeker, JD; Huang, T; Hauser, R; Seely, EW; Ferguson, KK; Rich-Edwards, JW; Mcelrath, TF (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:160-166. HERO ID: 3230224

[Less] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and . . . [More] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (P<0.05). When evaluating patterns by race/ethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse pregnancy and child health outcomes.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 February 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Substrate-dependent aromatic ring fission of catechol and 2-aminophenol with O2 catalyzed by a nonheme iron complex of a tripodal N4 ligand

Authors: Lakshman, TR; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, B; Paine, TK (2016) Dalton Transactions (Online). HERO ID: 3223954

[Less] The catalytic reactivity of an iron(ii) complex [(TPA)Fe(II)(CH3CN)2](2+) () (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) . . . [More] The catalytic reactivity of an iron(ii) complex [(TPA)Fe(II)(CH3CN)2](2+) () (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) towards oxygenative aromatic C-C bond cleavage of catechol and 2-aminophenol is presented. Complex exhibits catalytic and regioselective C-C bond cleavage of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (H2DBC) to form intradiol products, whereas it catalyzes extradiol-type C-C bond cleavage of 2-amino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol (H2AP). The catalytic reactions are found to be pH-dependent and the complex exhibits maximum turnovers at pH 5 in acetonitrile-phthalate buffer. An iron(iii)-catecholate complex [(TPA)Fe(III)(DBC)](+) () is formed in the ring cleavage of catechol. In the extradiol-type cleavage of H2AP, an iron(iii)-2-iminobenzosemiquinonate complex [(TPA)Fe(III)(ISQ)](2+) () (ISQ = 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-iminobenzosemiquinonate radical anion) is observed in the reaction pathway. This work shows the importance of the nature of 'redox non-innocent' substrates in governing the mode of ring fission reactivity.