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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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3,912 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

How human activities in commercial areas contribute to phthalate ester pollution in street dust of Taiwan

Authors: Lee, ST; Chi Thanh, V; Lin, C; Kang-Shin, C; Villanueva, MC; Chen, YC (2019) Science of the Total Environment 647:619-626. HERO ID: 5704245

[Less] Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) poses health risks to humans. Much research has been performed evaluating . . . [More] Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) poses health risks to humans. Much research has been performed evaluating PAE levels in foodstuffs, river sediment and drinking water, but little attention has been paid to their presence in urban outdoor environments where human activities are highly intense. Here we evaluated PAE presence and distribution in street dust in Kaohsiung, the most industrialized city in Taiwan. Our results showed that PAEs were ubiquitous in fifty-two street-dust samples (levels of total PAEs 5.4–989.2 mg kg−1). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the most abundant congener observed and made up 85.0%, 79.7%, and 97.2% of the total PAEs found in industrial, residential and commercial areas, respectively. PAE levels in street dust in commercial areas (night markets) were significantly higher, suggesting a higher risk of contamination on people present in these areas (H value > χU2). In residential and commercial areas, the higher the intensity of human activity, the higher the PAE content observed. PAE content decreased progressively from the center to the outskirts of the Houjing night market, suggesting that the increased human and consumer activities inside this commercial hotspot were the main PAE source in street dust. Children had higher estimated daily intakes (DIs) than adults and dermal absorption contributed more to these levels than oral ingestion. Although all calculated DIs were below referenced danger thresholds, street dust PAEs in the area should remain an environmental concern especially since night markets play an important role in Taiwanese/Asian culture and economy. Contrary to other studies, PAEs in this study were found less related to industrial manufacturing activities but highly linked to commercial activities. These findings are relevant for future pollution prevention efforts dedicated to mitigating public exposure to PAEs.PAE levels in street dust are related to commercial activities. Night markets, an important commercial activity in Taiwan, were found to contribute considerably to PAE contamination in street dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nontargeted metabolomic analysis to unravel the impact of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress on root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Authors: Wang, Y; Ren, W; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Teng, Y; Christie, P; Luo, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:212-219. HERO ID: 4829302

[Less] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots . . . [More] Root exudates are the main media of information communication and energy transfer between plant roots and the soil. Understanding the response of root exudates to contamination stress is crucial in revealing the rhizoremediation mechanisms. Here, we investigate the response of alfalfa root exudates to bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) stress based on nontargeted metabolomic analysis. Alfalfa root exudates were collected using greenhouse hydroponic culture and analysed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 314 compounds were identified in alfalfa root exudates of which carbohydrates, acids and lipids accounted for 28.6, 15.58 and 13.87%, respectively. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) shows that DEHP exerted an important influence on the composition and quantity of root exudates. Fifty metabolites were clearly changed even at lower concentrations of DEHP, including common carbohydrates, fatty acids and some special rhizosphere signal materials, such as 4',5-dihyrroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone. DEHP stress significantly suppressed carbohydrate metabolism but promoted fatty acid metabolism. However, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle showed little change in response to DEHP stress.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care products use and phthalate exposure levels among pregnant women

Authors: Hsieh, CJ; Chang, YH; Hu, A; Chen, ML; Sun, CW; Situmorang, RF; Wu, MT; Wang, SL; TMICS study group (2019) Science of the Total Environment 648:135-143. HERO ID: 5620298

[Less] Fetuses are susceptible to phthalates, known endocrine disrupting chemicals, within sensitive windows . . . [More] Fetuses are susceptible to phthalates, known endocrine disrupting chemicals, within sensitive windows of development. It is crucial to determine the major sources of phthalates to reduce exposure. This study aims to examine the associations between usage patterns of personal care products (PCPs) and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites across pregnancy in a multi-hospital based birth cohort.During 2012–2015, we conducted a birth cohort study named the Taiwan Mother Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Usage patterns of PCPs were obtained using structured questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy. Spot urine samples were collected at each trimester, and levels of eleven phthalate metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The association of PCPs use with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations was assessed using GEE models.Among the 1676 pregnant women participated in TMICS, 281 who provided two or three urine samples across pregnancy were included. The levels of several phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with the use of PCPs, particularly leave-on PCPs. With the increasing use of skin toners (11.7%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 22.9%), lipsticks (13.2%; 95% CI: 4.6%, 22.5%), and essential oils (21.8%; 95% CI: 9.1%, 36.0%), individuals are exposed to higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, a positive trend was found regarding the number of leave-on PCPs used and the measured change in MEP concentrations (P for trend = 0.01). Other positive associations included MBzP and body lotions (7.9%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 16.2%). With regard to rinse-off PCPs, we found a positive association between urinary MBzP and shampoo use, and a negative association between urinary MMP and face wash.Leave-on PCPs were found to be a more probable source of phthalate exposure than the use of rinse-off PCPs. We suggest pregnant women reduce the frequency of leave-on PCPs use during pregnancy to avoid such phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perioperative exposure to suspect neurotoxicants from medical devices in newborns with congenital heart defects

Authors: Gaynor, JW; Ittenbach, RF; Calafat, AM; Burnham, NB; Bradman, A; Bellinger, DC; Henretig, FM; Wehrung, EE; Ward, JL; Russell, WW; Spray, TL (2019) Annals of Thoracic Surgery 107:567-572. HERO ID: 5701707

[Less] BACKGROUND: Industrial chemicals are increasingly recognized as potential developmental neurotoxicants. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Industrial chemicals are increasingly recognized as potential developmental neurotoxicants. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), used to impart flexibility and temperature tolerance to polyvinylchloride, and bisphenol A (BPA), used to manufacture polycarbonate, are commonly present in medical devices. The magnitude of exposure in neonates during hospitalization for cardiac operations is unknown.

METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA preoperatively and postoperatively in neonates undergoing cardiac operations and their mothers. Urinary concentrations of these biomarkers reflect recent exposures (half-lives are approximately 6 to 24 hours). Biomarker concentrations in mothers' and infants' preoperative and postoperative samples were compared.

RESULTS: Operations were performed in 18 infants (mean age, 5 ± 4 [SD] days). The maternal sample was obtained on postpartum day 4 ± 4. The preoperative urine sample was obtained on day-of-life 4 ± 2 and the postoperative sample on day-of-life 6 ± 4. Mean maternal concentrations for DEHP metabolites and BPA were at the 50th percentile for females in the United States general population. Infant preoperative concentrations of 1 DEHP metabolite and BPA were significantly higher than maternal concentrations. Postoperative concentrations for all DEHP metabolites were significantly greater than preoperative concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable perioperative exposure to DEHP and BPA for neonates undergoing cardiac operations. Infant concentrations for both BPA and DEHP metabolites were significantly higher than maternal concentrations, consistent with the infant's exposure to medical devices. Further study is needed to determine the potential role of these suspect neurotoxicants in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disability after cardiac operations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of hybrid processes for the removal of volatile organic compounds, plasticizer, and pharmaceutically active compound using sewage sludge, waste scrap tires, and wood chips as sorbents and microbial immobilization matrices

Authors: de Toledo, RA; Hin Chao, U; Shen, T; Lu, Q; Li, X; Shim, H (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:11591-11604. HERO ID: 5436277

[Less] This study evaluated the reutilization of waste materials (scrap tires, sewage sludge, and wood chips) . . . [More] This study evaluated the reutilization of waste materials (scrap tires, sewage sludge, and wood chips) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes/trichloroethylene/cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (BTEX/TCE/cis-DCE), plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and pharmaceutically active compound carbamazepine from artificially contaminated water. Different hybrid removal processes were developed: (1) 300 mg/L BTEX + 20 mg/L TCE + 10 mg/L cis-DCE + tires + Pseudomonas sp.; (2) 250 mg/L toluene + sewage sludge biochar + Pseudomonas sp.; (3) 100 mg/L DEHP + tires + Acinetobacter sp.; and (4) 20 mg/L carbamazepine + wood chips + Phanerochaete chrysosporium. For the hybrid process (1), the removal of xylenes, TCE, and cis-DCE was enhanced, resulted from the contribution of both physical adsorption and biological immobilization removal. The hybrid process (2) was also superior for the removal of DEHP and required a shorter time (2 days) for the bioremoval. For the process (3), the biochar promoted the microbial immobilization on its surface and substantially enhanced/speed up the bioremoval of toluene. The fungal immobilization on wood chips in the hybrid process (4) also improved the carbamazepine removal considerably (removal efficiencies of 61.3 ± 0.6%) compared to the suspended system without wood chips (removal efficiencies of 34.4 ± 1.8%). These hybrid processes would not only be promising for the bioremediation of environmentally concerned contaminants but also reutilize waste materials as sorbents without any further treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters compared with uncoated catheters in Canada: a public payer perspective

Authors: Welk, B; Isaranuwatchai, W; Krassioukov, A; Husted Torp, L; Elterman, D (2018) HERO ID: 4728798

[Less] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime . . . [More] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters (HCICs) compared with uncoated catheters (UCs) among individuals with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NB) due to spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: A Canadian public payer perspective based on data from Ontario; including a scenario analysis from the societal perspective.

METHODS: A previously published Markov decision model was modified to compare the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the two interventions. Three renal function and three urinary tract infection (UTI) health states as well as other catheter-related events were included. Scenario analyses, including utility gain from compact catheter and phthalate free catheter use, were performed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model.

RESULTS: The model predicted that a 50-year-old patient with SCI would gain an additional 0.72 QALYs if HCICs were used instead of UCs at an incremental cost of $48,016, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $66,634/QALY. Moreover, using HCICs could reduce the lifetime number of UTI events by 11%. From the societal perspective, HCICs cost less than UCs, while providing superior outcomes in terms of QALYs, life years gained (LYG), and UTIs. The cost per QALY further decreased when health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) gains associated with compact HCICs or catheters not containing phthalates were included.

CONCLUSION: In general, ICERs in the range of CAD$50-100,000 could be considered cost-effective. The ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses suggest that HCICs could be cost-effective. From the societal perspective, HCICs were associated with potential cost savings in our model. The results suggest that reimbursement of HCICs should be considered in these settings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(H2ONO+/HONO/NO2-) in the atmospheric aqueous environment

Authors: Lei, Y; Zhu, C; Lu, J; Chen, R; Xiao, J; Peng, S (2018) HERO ID: 4320321

[Less] The photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(NO2-/HONO/H2ONO+) was investigated . . . [More] The photochemical transformation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) with N(iii)(NO2-/HONO/H2ONO+) was investigated using 365 nm steady-state irradiation and 355 nm laser flash photolysis (LFP) techniques. The results showed that N(iii) concentration, DMP initial concentration and pH values all strongly affected the oxidation efficiency of DMP. The primary step of the reaction was the attack of ˙OH radicals on the aromatic ring to form a DMP-OH adduct, and the bimolecular rate constant was determined to be (5.5 ± 0.4) × 109 M-1 s-1. The DMP-OH adduct not only underwent monomolecular self-decay with a rate constant of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 104 s-1 but also interacted with HONO, H2ONO+ and O2 with rate constants of (6.4 ± 0.4) × 106 M-1 s-1, (8.8 ± 0.5) × 106 M-1 s-1 and (1.6 ± 0.1) × 108 M-1 s-1, respectively. Major transformation products including methyl salicylate, monomethyl phthalate, dimethyl 4-hydroxyphthalate and dimethyl 4-nitrophthalate were identified by GC-MS and characteristics of these secondary contaminants required extra attention.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Melt-based screening method with improved predictability regarding polymer selection for amorphous solid dispersions

Authors: Auch, C; Harms, M; Mäder, K (2018) HERO ID: 4829244

[Less] The predictability of preformulation screening tools for polymer selection in amorphous solid dispersions . . . [More] The predictability of preformulation screening tools for polymer selection in amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) regarding supersaturation and precipitation was systematically examined. The API-polymer combinations were scaled up by means of hot-melt extrusion and spray-drying to verify the predictions. As there were discrepancies between a solvent-based screening and performance of ASD, a new screening tool with improved predictability at minimal investments of time and material is presented. The method refinement resulted in a better correlation between the screening and ASD prototypes. So far, a purely solvent-based screening was used which consisted of film casting by rapid solvent evaporation. This approach was improved by applying a heating step after film casting. Four representative polymers were tested with two different model active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) under non-sink dissolution conditions. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) based polymers showed no benefit towards pure API in the solvent-based screening but good supersaturation as ASD formulations. The extrudates with cellulose derivatives hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) showed lower supersaturation than predicted by the solvent-based screening but performed especially well as spray-dried dispersions (SDD). False negative results for PVP-co-vinyl acetate (PVP-VA64) could be avoided by using the new melt-based screening. Furthermore, comparing the results from the two different screening methods allowed predicting the performance of extrudates vs. SDD with cellulose derivatives as polymeric excipients.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tailoring supersaturation from amorphous solid dispersions

Authors: Li, N; Taylor, LS (2018) HERO ID: 4829419

[Less] The maximum achievable concentration of a drug in solution is dictated by the chemical potential of . . . [More] The maximum achievable concentration of a drug in solution is dictated by the chemical potential of the solid form. Because an amorphous solid has a higher chemical potential than the corresponding crystal form, in the absence of phase transformations, a higher transient solubility is expected. However, the chemical potential of an amorphous drug can be reduced by mixing with another component. Therefore, upon mixing with a polymer to form an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), the maximum solution concentration achieved can be potentially altered, in particular if the polymer is poorly soluble in the dissolution medium. Such changes in the chemical potential of the drug may be a critical factor in determining the maximum achievable solution concentration, and could alter the crystallization driving force of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain insights into the impact of poorly soluble polymers on the "amorphous solubility" of drugs formulated as amorphous solid dispersions. Lopinavir was selected as a model drug with a low crystallization tendency, enabling determination of the amorphous solubility as a function of ASD composition. Model polymers included cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate (CAP), ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit® RL PO (EUD), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), HPMC acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and HPMC phthalate (HPMCP). The "amorphous solubility" of the drug alone was determined and then the changes in maximum achievable concentration were measured as a function of drug loading. Drug-polymer interactions were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and moisture sorption analysis. The results showed that the maximum achievable concentration ("amorphous solubility") of lopinavir varied with the extent of drug-polymer interactions, as well as the drug weight fraction in the ASD. This information is of great value when evaluating the maximum achievable concentration of amorphous systems formulated with pH responsive polymers, and should contribute to a broader understanding of drug phase behavior in the context of ASDs.