Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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1,330 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deproteinized natural rubber film forming polymeric solutions for nicotine transdermal delivery

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Amnuaikit, T; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1332535

[Less] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with . . . [More] Film forming polymeric solutions were prepared from DNRL blended with MC, PVA, or SAG, together with dibutylphthalate or glycerine used as plasticizers. These formulations were easily prepared by simple mixing. In a preliminary step, in situ films were prepared by solvent evaporation in a Petri-dish. Their mechanical and physicochemical properties were determined. The in vitro release and skin permeation of nicotine dissolved in these blended polymers were investigated by a modified Franz diffusion cell. The formulations had a white milky appearance, and were homogeneous and smooth in texture. Their pH was suitable for usage in skin contact. The mechanical property of in situ films depended on the ingredients but all compatible films were in an amorphous phase. The DNRL/PVA was shown to be the most suitable mixture to form completed films. The in vitro release and skin permeation studies demonstrated a biphasic release that provided an initial rapid release followed by a constant release rate that fitted the Higuchi's model. Nicotine loaded DNRL/PVA series were selected for the stability test for 3 months. These formulations needed to be kept at 4°C in tight fitting containers. In conclusion, film forming polymeric solutions could be developed for transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Boberg data for HERO ID 806135 from email communication

Author: Boberg, J (2016) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3102218

[Less] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via . . . [More] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via email communication with Dr. Julie Boberg):

Boberg, J; Christiansen, S; Axelstad, M; et al. (2010) Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats. Reproductive Toxicology. 2011 Feb; 31(2):200-9. [HERO ID 806135]

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genetic research and structural dysplasia assessment of anorectal malformations in neonatal male rats induced by di(n-butyl) phthalate

Authors: Liu, ZH; Li, EH; Xu, DL; Sun, WL; Hong, Y; Zhao, W; Xia, SJ; Jiang, JT (2016) Environmental Toxicology 31:261-268. HERO ID: 2510780

[Less] This study was the first to investigate the genetic abnormalities and structural dysplasia of anorectal . . . [More] This study was the first to investigate the genetic abnormalities and structural dysplasia of anorectal malformations (ARMs) in male rats induced by di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP). DBP was administered to timed-pregnant rats to establish the ARM rat model. The incidence of ARMs in male offspring was 39.5%. In neonatal period, decreased body weight and anogenital distance were observed. The general image and histological analysis of male offspring confirmed the presence of ARMs. Anatomical examination of the ARM male rats revealed the dysplasia in solid organs (heart-lung, liver, spleen, and kidney). The decreases of serum testosterone concentration and androgen receptor expression in terminal rectum were indicative of the antiandrogenic effects of DBP. Moreover, significant decreased mRNA expressions of these androgen-related genes such as sonic hedgehog, Gli2, Gli3, bone morphogenetic protein 4, Wnt5a, Hoxa13, Hoxd13, fibroblast growth factor 10, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 were found in terminal rectum of the ARM male pubs. These results demonstrated that development of ARM rats was impaired by maternal exposure to DBP. The antiandrogenic effects of DBP disturbing the androgen-related signaling networks might play an important role in the occurrence of ARMs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Changes of c-Myc and DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels in the rat livers induced by dibutyl phthalate treatment

Authors: Urbanek-Olejnik, K; Liszewska, M; Winczura, A; Kostka, G (2016) Toxicology and Industrial Health 32:801-808. HERO ID: 2219793

[Less] We investigated the relationship between dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced hypomethylation of the c-Myc . . . [More] We investigated the relationship between dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced hypomethylation of the c-Myc promoter region (as evident in our early study) and the expression of c-Myc and DNMT1 genes (at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level) in the rat liver. Male Wistar rats received DBP in 1, 3, or 14 daily doses of 1800 mg kg(-1) body weight. Levels of DNMT1, c-Myc mRNA, and proteins were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings indicate that DBP caused an increase in mRNA levels of c-Myc at all time points. The results showed that protein levels of c-Myc in rat liver also increased significantly by DBP treatment, which were more pronounced at last time point (after 14 doses). Furthermore, overexpression of DNMT1gene have been found after one dose of DBP, which was confirmed at the protein level by Western blot analysis. Reduced levels of DNMT1mRNA and proteins (3 and 14 doses) were coordinated with depletion DNA synthesis (reported previously). Based on our previous results and those presented here, the following conclusion could be drawn: (1) DBP exerted biological activity through epigenetic modulation of c-Myc gene expression; (2) it seems possible that DBP-induced active demethylation of c-Myc gene through mechanism(s) linked to generation of reactive oxygen species by activated c-Myc; and (3) control of DNA replication was not directly dependent on c-Myc transcriptional activity and we attribute this finding to DNMT1gene expression which was tightly coordinated with DNA synthesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of di-n-butyl phthalate on testis and the potential protective effects of resveratrol

Authors: Güllen Ünal, S; Take, G; Erdoğan, D; Göktas, G; Sahin, E (2016) Toxicology and Industrial Health 32:777-790. HERO ID: 2219795

[Less] This study aimed to observe the possible protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) against the damage . . . [More] This study aimed to observe the possible protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) against the damage of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on the testis. The study was conducted in 6 groups of rats with 6 animals in each group aged 20 days. The groups include group 1: control group; group 2: solvent (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 10 ml/kg); group 3: 500 mg/kg/day DBP; group 4: 500 mg/kg/day DBP + 20 mg/kg/day RSV; group 5: 1000 mg/kg/day DBP; and group 6: 1000 mg/kg/day DBP + 20 mg/kg/day RSV. Groups were treated by gavage for 30 days. Indirect immunohistochemical staining was performed with c-kit, AT1, and ER-α antibodies. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method was used for apoptosis. It was found in the DBP-applied groups the C-kit immunostaining, which is parallel to increasing dose, decreased in comparison with the control. C-kit reactivity was similar to that of the control group in the group applied with 500 mg/kg/day + RSV; however, the reactivity was not same in the 1000 mg/kg/day DBP-applied group. It was observed that the reactivity of AT1 increased in the DBP-applied groups. RSV reversed these changes with its protective effects. While there was not much difference between the groups in terms of estrogen receptor reactivity, it was observed that the high dose of DBP reduced the level of estrogen receptor and the resveratrol was not at enough levels in all doses. In TUNEL analysis, high doses of DBP increased the apoptosis in all types of cells; nevertheless, the resveratrol application decreased the apoptosis in the low-level DBP dose. In the statistical analysis, while the length of epithelium and the diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased for all the other groups, it reverted to its original state in the RSV-applied groups. In conclusion, DBP (with increasing dose) administration caused cycle and hormonal changes in testis, resveratrol were recovered the cyclic changes but in hormonal changes, RSV is efficient too but inadequate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 rescues the oxidative stress induced by di-N-butylphthalate in testicular Leydig cells

Authors: Shen, B; Wang, W; Ding, L; Sao, Y; Huang, Y; Shen, Z; Zhuo, Y; Wei, Z; Zhang, W (2015) Human & Experimental Toxicology 34:145-152. HERO ID: 2510761

[Less] AIM: This study aimed to determine whether nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor . . . [More] AIM: This study aimed to determine whether nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antagonized the oxidative stress induced by di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) in testicular Leydig cells.

METHODS: Mouse TM3 testicular Leydig cells were treated with Nrf2 knockdown (KD) or overexpression in the presence and absence of DBP. Oxidative profiles were examined. Nrf2 target antioxidant genes were studied, and the effects of Nrf2 inducer sulphoraphane (SFN) were tested.

RESULTS: DBP induced intracellular oxidative stress to a similar extent with Nrf2 KD. Expression and protein levels of Nrf2 were increased together with its target genes, namely heme oxygenase 1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate quinone oxidoreductase 1 and peroxiredoxin 6, following DBP stimulation. Use of SFN not only restored the intracellular oxidative toxicity but also cell proliferation and testosterone secretion in response to DBP.

CONCLUSION: Increased Nrf2 activity, for example, by SFN can effectively antagonize the oxidative stress in testicular Leydig cells caused by DBP.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Transdermal nicotine mixed natural rubber-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose film forming systems for smoking cessation: In vitro evaluations

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Taweepreda, W; Amnuaikit, T; Ritthidej, GC (2015) 1-10. HERO ID: 2510803

[Less] Abstract Novel film forming polymeric dispersions for transdermal nicotine delivery were prepared from . . . [More] Abstract Novel film forming polymeric dispersions for transdermal nicotine delivery were prepared from deproteinized natural rubber latex (DNRL) blended with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or glycerin (GLY) as plasticizer. The preliminary molecular compatibility of ingredients was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry characterizations. All film forming polymeric dispersions were elegant in appearance and smooth in texture without agglomeration. Their pH was 7-8. In addition, their viscosity and spreadability showed good characteristics depended on HPMC and plasticizers blended. The transparent in situ dry films with good strength and elasticity were also confirmed by peeling-off. The nicotine release from them revealed an initial fast release that was similar to the release from a concentrated nicotine solution, and followed by slow release pattern from the in situ films. GLY blended formulation produced a higher amount of nicotine permeation through the in vitro pig skin than DBP blends. Ethanol mixing also enhanced nicotine permeation, but it affected the integrity of in situ films. The nicotine release and skin permeation kinetics were by a diffusion mechanism that was confirmed by the Higuchi's model. These formulations were safe without producing any severe skin irritation. However, for the stability they needed to be stored at 4 °C in tightly sealed containers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dose-dependent short-term study of di-n-butyl phthalate on the testicular antioxidant system of Wistar rats

Author: Nair, N (2015) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22:2196-2204. HERO ID: 2510783

[Less] Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a xenobiotic, is widely used in industries as a softener for polyvinyl chloride . . . [More] Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a xenobiotic, is widely used in industries as a softener for polyvinyl chloride resins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether DBP induces oxidative stress in testes of Wistar rats. DBP at doses of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg b.wt. (doses below LD50) was given orally for 7 days. After 24 hrs from the last dose, the animals were killed under ether anesthesia. Nonsignificant increase in testicular weight was observed. Histological studies indicated a dose-related degeneration of germinal, Leydig and Sertoli cells along with loss of spermatozoa in the lumen. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and trace elements-zinc and copper increased while concentrations of total protein, lipid soluble antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, glutathione, total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu-ZnSOD, MnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and metallothionein decreased at all the dose levels. The data suggests that the cellular functions were adversely affected due to impairment of spermatogenesis indicative of oxidative stress as evident by altered antioxidative defense system which appears to mediate through hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The spectrum of changes in testes reflects its susceptibility to phthalate even at low dose with the potential to interfere with critical reproductive function.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon

Authors: Huang, Y; Cui, C; Zhang, D; Li, L; Pan, D (2015) Chemosphere 119:295-301. HERO ID: 2510792

[Less] Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation . . . [More] Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10mgL(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2mgL(-1)) removal in 60min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100mgL(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of magnetic micro-solid phase extraction for analysis of phthalate esters in packaged food

Authors: Makkliang, F; Kanatharana, P; Thavarungkul, P; Thammakhet, C (2015) Food Chemistry 166:275-282. HERO ID: 2510813

[Less] A novel, simple and low cost magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes-poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel-micro-solid . . . [More] A novel, simple and low cost magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes-poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel-micro-solid phase extraction (magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE) sorbent was synthesized by incorporating magnetic particles and MWCNTs into a PVA cryogel. The magnetic-MWCNTs-PVA cryogel-μ-SPE sorbent developed, with a large surface area and macro-porous structure, provided good sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility (%RSD<8) and each sorbent could be used up to 30 times (%RSD<6). This sorbent was applied for the extraction of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in packaged food prior to analysis by gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The concentration of DBP and DEHP in hot-water samples from plastic bags were found in the range 0.04-0.15 μg mL(-1) and 0.03-0.20 μg mL(-1), respectively, but only DEHP was found in clear chicken soup samples in the range 0.02-0.07 μg mL(-1).