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Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative toxicity, oxidative stress and endocrine disruption potential of plasticizers in JEG-3 human placental cells

Authors: Pérez-Albaladejo, E; Fernandes, D; Lacorte, S; Porte, C (2017) Toxicology In Vitro 38:41-48. HERO ID: 3469255

[Less] Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans . . . [More] Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans and to cross the placental barrier, being embryonic and fetal development a particularly vulnerable period. This work investigates the comparative toxicity and ability to interfere with the synthesis of steroids and to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) of a selected number of plasticizers, including bisphenol A (BPA), nonyl- (NP) and octylphenol (OP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), in the human placenta JEG-3 cells. Moreover, the bioavailability of chemicals in culture medium has been investigated. After 24h exposure, OP and NP showed the highest cytotoxicity (EC50: 36-40μM) followed by BPA (138-219μM), whereas no significant toxicity was observed for phthalates. Notwithstanding, BBP and DBP significantly decreased P450 aromatase activity (experimental IC50: 14-15μM), while NP and OP (20μM) increased the activity. Overall, this study evidences the differential toxicity and ability to modulate placental aromatase activity of some of the compounds nowadays used as plasticizers, and highlights the need of an accurate determination of the bioavailability of chemicals to improve the sensitivity of in-vitro tests.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings

Authors: Lin, Q; Chen, S; Chao, Y; Huang, X; Wang, S; Qiu, R (2017) Environmental Pollution 220:421-430. HERO ID: 3515165

[Less] Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate . . . [More] Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The cave microbiome as a source for drug discovery: Reality or pipe dream?

Authors: Ghosh, S; Kuisiene, N; Cheeptham, N (2017) Biochemical Pharmacology 134:18-34. [Review] HERO ID: 3483282

[Less] This review highlights cave habitats, cave microbiomes and their potential for drug discovery. Such . . . [More] This review highlights cave habitats, cave microbiomes and their potential for drug discovery. Such studies face many challenges, including access to remote and pristine caves, and sample collection and transport. Inappropriate physical and chemical growth conditions in the laboratory for the isolation and cultivation of cave microorganisms pose many complications including length of cultivation; some cave microorganisms can take weeks and even months to grow. Additionally, DNA extraction from cave environmental samples may be difficult due to the high concentration of various minerals that are natural DNA blocking agents. Once cave microorganisms are grown in the lab, other problems often arise, such as maintenance of pure culture, consistency of antimicrobial activity and fermentation conditions for antimicrobial production. In this review, we suggest that, although based on what has been done in the field, there is potential in using cave microorganisms to produce antimicrobial agents, one needs to be highly committed and prepared.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)-Induced Apoptosis and Neurotoxicity are Mediated via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) but not by Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα), Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ), or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Mouse Cortical Neurons

Authors: Wójtowicz, AK; Szychowski, KA; Wnuk, A; Kajta, M (2017) Neurotoxicity Research 31:77-89. HERO ID: 3515170

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is one of the most commonly used phthalate esters. DBP . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is one of the most commonly used phthalate esters. DBP is widely used as a plasticizer in a variety of household industries and consumer products. Because phthalates are not chemically bound to products, they can easily leak out to enter the environment. DBP can pass through the placental and blood-brain barriers due to its chemical structure, but little is known about its mechanism of action in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DBP in mouse neocortical neurons in primary cultures. DBP stimulated caspase-3 and LDH activities as well as ROS formation in a concentration (10 nM-100 µM) and time-dependent (3-48 h) manner. DBP induced ROS formation at nanomolar concentrations, while it activated caspase-3 and LDH activities at micromolar concentrations. The biochemical effects of DBP were accompanied by decreased cell viability and induction of apoptotic bodies. Exposure to DBP reduced Erα and Pparγ mRNA expression levels, which were inversely correlated with protein expression of the receptors. Treatment with DBP enhanced Ahr mRNA expression, which was reflected by the increased AhR protein level observed at 3 h after exposure. ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ antagonists stimulated DBP-induced caspase-3 and LDH activities. AhR silencing demonstrated that DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity are mediated by AhR, which is consistent with the results from DBP-induced enhancement of AhR mRNA and protein expression. Our study showed that AhR is involved in DBP-induced apoptosis and neurotoxicity, while the ERs and PPARγ signaling pathways are impaired by the phthalate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In utero exposure of high-dose di-n-butyl phthalate resulted in opposite effects on testicular cell apoptosis in late embryonic and pubertal male rat offspring

Authors: Shen, H; Liao, K; Wu, HF; Lu, HC; Li, Y; Li, Z; Zhang, W (2017) Human & Experimental Toxicology 36:1236-1247. HERO ID: 5680627

[Less] Objective: To investigate the effects of in utero exposure to high-dose di-n -butyl phthalate (DBP) . . . [More] Objective: To investigate the effects of in utero exposure to high-dose di-n -butyl phthalate (DBP) on testicular cell apoptosis in late embryonic and pubertal male rat offspring. Methods: Twenty pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups. During gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19, control group was given 1 ml day-1 of olive oil and experimental group was given DBP 500 mg kg-1 day-1 by gavage. On GD 19.5 and postnatal day (PND) 45, the testes were removed. Morphological analysis of the testes was observed by transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Testicular cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and p53 was presented by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot. Data of the two groups was compared using independent samples t -test and Mann-Whitney test by SPSS 20.0. Results: H&E staining showed that spermatogenetic cells were significantly decreased in DBP exposed pubertal rat testis. The apoptosis index of testes in DBP-treated group was significantly lower on GD 19.5 but higher on PND 45 than that of the controls (p < 0.01). IHC and western blot revealed significantly increased expression of Bcl-2 in GD 19.5 rat testis and Bax and p53 in PND 45 rat testis after DBP exposure, compared with the control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In utero exposure of high-dose DBP resulted in opposite effects on testicular cell apoptosis in late embryonic and pubertal rat offspring. The overexpression of Bcl-2, Bax, and p53 might be related to the occurrence of abnormal apoptosis and finally produce male infertility.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of gender on the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with thyroid hormones in children: a prospective cohort study in Taiwan

Authors: Weng, TI; Chen, MH; Lien, GW; Chen, PS; Lin, JC; Fang, CC; Chen, PC (2017) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14:123. HERO ID: 3515112

[Less] Phthalates are considered endocrine disruptors. Our study assessed the gender-specific effects of phthalate . . . [More] Phthalates are considered endocrine disruptors. Our study assessed the gender-specific effects of phthalate exposure on thyroid function in children. In total, 189 Taiwanese children were enrolled in the study. One-spot urine and blood samples were collected for analyzing 12 phthalate metabolites in urine and thyroid hormones. The association between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum thyroid hormones was determined using a generalized linear model with a log link function; the children were categorized into groups for analysis according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles. The data were stratified according to gender and adjusted for a priori defined covariates. In girls, a positive association existed between urinary di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate) and free thyroxine (T4). In boys, urinary dibutyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites (mono-i-butyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate) were positively associated with free triiodothyronine (T3). After categorizing each exposure into three groups, urinary DEHP metabolites were positively associated with free T3 levels in boys. Our results suggested that DEHP is associated with free T4 in girls and that DBP is associated with free T3 in boys. Higher DEHP metabolite concentrations exerted larger effects on free T3 in boys. These results reveal the gender-specific relationships between phthalate metabolites and thyroid hormones.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalate esters in distillates by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (USVADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Authors: Montevecchi, G; Masino, F; Zanasi, L; Antonelli, A (2017) Food Chemistry 221:1354-1360. HERO ID: 3515158

[Less] A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid . . . [More] A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction (USVADLLME) approach was optimised and applied for the first time to a historical series of brandies. These contaminants are widely spread in the environment as a consequence of about half century of use in different fields of applications. The concern about these substances and the recent legal restrictions of China in distillates import need a quick and sensitive method for their quantification. The proposed method, moreover, is environmentally oriented due to the disposal of micro-quantities of solvent required. In fact, sub-ppm-limits of detection were achieved with a solvent volume as low as 160μL. The analysed samples were within the legal limits, except for some very ancient brandies whose contamination was probably due to a PAEs concentration effect as a consequence of long ageing and for the use of plastic pipelines no more operative.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analytical method for urinary metabolites as biomarkers for monitoring exposure to phthalates by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Author: Yoshida, T (2017) Biomedical Chromatography 31. HERO ID: 3483280

[Less] Phthalates, widely used as plasticizers, have been detected in indoor air, but there have been few reports . . . [More] Phthalates, widely used as plasticizers, have been detected in indoor air, but there have been few reports on methods of analyzing urinary metabolites as biomarkers to monitor exposure to di-n-pentyl phthalate or di-n-hexyl phthalate. Presented here is a cost-effective and sensitive analytical method for the determination of urinary metabolites of phthalates containing these two compounds. Nine urinary phthalate metabolites were enzymatically hydrolyzed and extracted with toluene: monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-n-hexyl phthalate, monocyclohexyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate. After transformation to their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives, they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the electron impact ionization mode. The calibration curves for the metabolites were linear at urinary concentrations of up to 30 μg/L, showing that they could be determined accurately and precisely (detection limits 0.1-0.4 μg/L, quantification limits 0.3-1.3 μg/L). The urine samples collected could be stored for up to 1 month at -20°C. The proposed analytical method was used to examine urine samples from seven healthy volunteers. This method should be useful for monitoring phthalate exposure in the general population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Studies on performance evaluation of a green plasticizer made by enzymatic esterification of furfuryl alcohol and castor oil fatty acid

Authors: Mukherjee, S; Ghosh, M (2017) Carbohydrate Polymers 157:1076-1084. HERO ID: 3515156

[Less] The esterification of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA) at 3:1 molar ratio, by . . . [More] The esterification of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA) at 3:1 molar ratio, by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (NS 435 from Novozyme) in a solvent free system gave a maximum yield of 88.64% (%w/w) at 5h. Performance of the FA-COFA ester plasticized Ethyl Cellulose (EC) films were evaluated by surface morphologies, XRD analysis, mechanical properties,thermal properties, water vapor permeability and migration stability test. It was an effective plasticizer with better mechanical properties and thermal stability at the increasing concentration of FA-COFA ester (15-25%) containing EC film, than the traditional plasticizer, i.e; dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in producing good quality films. Chemical structure and the intermolecular interactions between FA-COFA ester and ethyl cellulose chains were the causative agents of these outstanding performances. Therefore, this FA-COFA ester, with significant plasticizing property, at a certain concentration, can be a substitute of DBP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dibutyl phthalate impairs steroidogenesis and a subset of LH-dependent genes in cultured human mural granulosa cell in vitro

Authors: Adir, M; Combelles, CM; Mansur, A; Ophir, L; Hourvitz, A; Orvieto, R; Dor, J; Machtinger, R (2017) Reproductive Toxicology 69:13-18. HERO ID: 3515115

[Less] Exposure to di-butyl phthalate (DBP) exerts negative effects on female fertility in animal models, but . . . [More] Exposure to di-butyl phthalate (DBP) exerts negative effects on female fertility in animal models, but human studies remain limited. Here, the effects of DBP exposure on mural granulosa cell function were investigated in primary cultures from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cultured cells treated with various doses of DBP (0, 0.01μg/mL, 0.1μg/mL, 1μg/mL, 10μg/mL, or 100μg/mL) for 48h were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and qRT-PCR. Treatment with 100μg/mL DBP resulted in significantly lower 17β-estradiol and progesterone production (p<0.01). It also resulted in altered mRNA expression of steroidogenic, angiogenic, and epidermal growth factor-like growth factor genes: CYP11A1 (p<0.001), CYP19A1 (aromatase) (p<0.001), VEGF-A (p<0.02), BTC (p=0.009), and EREG (p=0.04). StAR expression was impaired after exposure to both 10 and 100μg/mL (p<0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Our results indicate that in vitro exposure of granulosa cells to high doses of DBP alters cell functions.