Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


1,027 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Isolation and characterization of two n-butyl benzyl phthalate degrading bacteria

Authors: Yang, Xue; Zhang, Can; He, Z; Hu, X; Guo, Jia; Zhong, Qiu; Wang, J; Xiong, Li; Liu, D (2013) International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 76:8-11. HERO ID: 1465057

[Less] nButyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a phthalic acid ester (PAE) used extensively in the manufacturing . . . [More] nButyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is a phthalic acid ester (PAE) used extensively in the manufacturing of plastics that contributes to the environmental pollution. It easily released to the environment and resistant to degradation. Bioremediation has been proposed for removal of PAEs from contaminated sites. Studies showed that the biodegradation of PAEs was slow if the lateral chain was longer and more complex. Two BBP degrading bacterial strains, HS-B1, HS-B2, were isolated from contaminated sludge in the river of Jingzhou in Hubei province. The two bacteria were identified as Acinetobacter sp. and Arthrobacter sp. by morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. BBP at 500 mg L-1 in the culture medium was tested and after 24 h of culture, chloroform was used to extract the BBP in the culture medium. The initial and the final concentrations of BBP were assessed by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that the bacterium could grow well on BBP as the sole source of carbon and energy. The degradation of 500 mg L-1 BBP by strains HS-B1 and HS-B2 was 28% and 59% after 24 h, respectively. The rate of degradation increased to 40%, 75% respectively with addition of 0.1% LB in 24 h, suggesting that additional sources of growth factors enhanced biodegradation. This study is helpful to the development of microbial resources for bioremediation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A rapid and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quality control of perfumes: simultaneous determination of phthalates

Authors: Lopez-Nogueroles, M; Benede, JL; Chisvert, A; Salvador, A (2013) Analytical Methods 5:409-415. HERO ID: 1464953

[Less] A rapid and sensitive analytical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for perfume analysis . . . [More] A rapid and sensitive analytical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for perfume analysis to determine the phthalates banned by the European Union Regulation on cosmetic samples is presented. This method has been tested in commercial alcoholic perfume samples for the determination of the following seven phthalates: dibutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate, n-pentyl-isopentylphthalate, di-n-pentyl phthalate, diisopentylphthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate. Sample evaporation and redissolution in ethanol is carried out before GC-MS analysis, with no dilution of the sample. External calibration and standard addition calibration are compared to detect possible matrix effects. External calibration could provide good results in some cases but standard addition calibration is recommended as matrix effects are observed in many cases in the determination of the target phthalates. The accuracy of the method has been proven by the analysis of quality control samples prepared from commercial free phthalate perfumes after spiking with known concentrations of the analytes. Accurate results were obtained with limits of detection in the ng mL(-1) range and good repeatability (relative standard deviations lower than 6%). The method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of commercial perfume samples, and the results revealed considerable amounts of dibutyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in some of the analyzed samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of Adult Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters in the Urban Centre of Paris (France)

Authors: Martine, B; Marie-Jeanne, T; Cendrine, D; Fabrice, A; Marc, C (2013) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 90:91-96. HERO ID: 1315297

[Less] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates . . . [More] Human exposure to phthalates was assessed through digestive and respiratory intakes. Six phthalates (DMP, DEP, DnBP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP) were investigated in drinking water, in current foodstuff and in ambient air. Digestive intake was prevailing (92 %) with a major contribution of food (95.5 %). Phthalate intake from water was mainly due to bottled water (60 %) in spite of the minor volume absorbed daily. From the respiratory tract, it was dominated by DEP: 30.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and the part played by indoor air prevailed. Total intake were as ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), for DEHP: 1458, DnBP: 191.8, BBP: 164.3, DEP: 107.7, DMP: 79.1.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identifying sources of phthalate exposure with human biomonitoring: Results of a 48h fasting study with urine collection and personal activity patterns

Authors: Koch, HM; Lorber, M; Christensen, KLY; Pälmke, C; Koslitz, S; Brüning, T (2013) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 216:672-681. HERO ID: 1464613

[Less] Human biomonitoring studies measuring phthalate metabolites in urine have shown widespread exposure . . . [More] Human biomonitoring studies measuring phthalate metabolites in urine have shown widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population. Diet is thought to be a principle route of exposure to many phthalates. Therefore, we studied urinary phthalate metabolite patterns over a period of strict fasting and additionally recorded personal activity patterns with a diary to investigate non-dietary routes of exposure. Five individuals (3 female, 2 male, 27-47 years of age) fasted on glass-bottled water only over a 48-h period. All urine void events were captured in full, and measured for metabolites of the high molecular weight (HMW) di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), and the low molecular weight (LMW) di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP). In all, 21 metabolites were measured in a total of 118 urine events, including events before and after the fasting period. At the onset of the study all phthalate metabolite concentrations were consistent with levels found in previous general population studies. Metabolites of the HMW phthalates (DEHP, DiNP and DiDP) showed a rapid decline to levels 5-10 times lower than initial levels within 24h of the fast and remained low thereafter. After food consumption resumed, levels rose again. By contrast, metabolites of the LMW phthalates including DMP, DEP, BBzP, DnBP and DiBP showed a cyclical pattern of rising and declining concentrations suggestive of ongoing non-food exposures. Furthermore, metabolites of most of the LMW phthalates (BBzP, DnBP and DiBP) tracked each other remarkably well, suggesting concurrent exposures. Diary entries could not help explain exposure sources for these phthalates, with one exception: rises in MEP concentrations around males' showers suggest personal care products as a major source of DEP. Exposure to HMW phthalates in this cohort appears to be driven by dietary intake, while non-dietary routes such as use of personal care products and ubiquitous sources including dust and indoor air appear to explain exposure to LMW phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants

Authors: Carlstedt, F; Jönsson, BA; Bornehag, CG (2013) Indoor Air 23:32-39. HERO ID: 1315309

[Less] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that . . . [More] Abstract  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P < 0.007) and related to the body area of the infant. Levels of the DEHP metabolites MEHHP (P < 0.01) and MEOHP (P < 0.04) were higher in the 2-month-old infants who were not exclusively breast-fed when compared with breast-fed children. The findings indicate that the use of soft PVC as flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure

Authors: Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, AN; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J (2013) Indoor Air 23:126-133. HERO ID: 1332537

[Less] Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence . . . [More] Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transfer of eight phthalates through the milk chain - A case study

Authors: Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I (2013) Environment International 51:1-7. HERO ID: 1332529

[Less] This survey determined the levels of eight phthalates - i.e. dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate . . . [More] This survey determined the levels of eight phthalates - i.e. dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) - in several Belgian milk and dairy products. Samples were obtained from various farms, a dairy factory and from different shops in order to investigate phthalate contamination "from farm to fork". At several stages in the milk chain, product contamination with phthalates - mostly DiBP, DnBP, BzBP and DEHP - was observed. At farm level, the mechanical milking process and the intake of phthalate containing feed by the cattle were found to be possible contamination sources. At industry and retail level, contact materials including packaging materials were additional contamination sources for phthalates in milk and dairy products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of Photocatalytic Degradation mechanism of Butyl enzyl phthalate ester

Authors: Lu, Yan; Xi, L (2012) HERO ID: 1464954

[Less] Under ultraviolet radiation, the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Butyl enzyl phthalate ester . . . [More] Under ultraviolet radiation, the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of Butyl enzyl phthalate ester (BBP) was studied with TiO2 as the catalyst. As a result, BBP could be degraded efficiently, and the efficiency was 85% after 6h degradation. During the degradation process, the acidity of the degradation system changed obviously. The initial pH of the solution was 6.0, and it increased to 6.23 after 15min degradation, however it decreased to 3.89 after 6h degradation. Some photodegradation intermediates in the different photocatalytic steps were examined and analyzed by means of GC-MS. For the BBP, the photocatalytic degradation firstly reacted on the benzyloxy chain, and new material occured by the recomposition of the educts in the degradation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Selected Endocrine Disrupter Compounds at Trace Levels in Sewage Sludge Samples

Authors: Sonmez, MS; Muz, M; Komesli, OT; Bakirdere, S; Gokcay, CF (2012) HERO ID: 1465025

[Less] Simultaneous determination of endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs), namely diltiazem, progesterone, . . . [More] Simultaneous determination of endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs), namely diltiazem, progesterone, benzylbutylphthalate (BBP), estrone, and carbamazepine (Cbz) were performed by using high performance LC-electrospray tandem MS. The ultrasound-aided sequential extraction of sludge samples was optimized to increase extraction efficiencies of the analytes; ranging between 93.0-98.3% recovery. The limit of detection values for diltiazem, progesterone, BBP, estrone, and Cbz were found as 0.78, 0.72, 0.24, 0.75, and 0.72 mu g/kg, respectively. Sludge samples taken from Ankara Tatlar; Hurma, Lara and Kemer of Antalya, and Middle East Technical University-vacuum rotating membrane wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aeration tanks were analyzed for their EDCs contents under optimized conditions. Diltiazem was found in all the samples in the range between 116.4-180.8 ng/g while progesterone and estrone were not detected in any of the samples analyzed with the exception of Tatlar WWTP. The BBP concentration was between beyond detection and 9195.5 ng/g. In addition, Cbz was found in all the samples ranging from 25.6 to 118.8 ng/g.