Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


920 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalate esters in distillates by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (USVADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

Authors: Montevecchi, G; Masino, F; Zanasi, L; Antonelli, A (2017) Food Chemistry 221:1354-1360. HERO ID: 3515158

[Less] A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid . . . [More] A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction (USVADLLME) approach was optimised and applied for the first time to a historical series of brandies. These contaminants are widely spread in the environment as a consequence of about half century of use in different fields of applications. The concern about these substances and the recent legal restrictions of China in distillates import need a quick and sensitive method for their quantification. The proposed method, moreover, is environmentally oriented due to the disposal of micro-quantities of solvent required. In fact, sub-ppm-limits of detection were achieved with a solvent volume as low as 160μL. The analysed samples were within the legal limits, except for some very ancient brandies whose contamination was probably due to a PAEs concentration effect as a consequence of long ageing and for the use of plastic pipelines no more operative.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate Esters on Hands of Office Workers: Estimating the Influence of Touching Surfaces

Authors: Shi, Wei; Guo, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, D; Han, Z; Zhang, X; Yu, H; Giesy, JP (2017) Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4:1-5. HERO ID: 3520009

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little is known about the associations between masses on hand wipes and the frequency or duration of touching surfaces, especially surfaces in office environments. Relationships between PAEs on hands and multiple surfaces in offices were investigated. Wipes of hands, computers, and mobile phones as well as dust on furniture were collected from SS offices in China. Positive associations were found between masses of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DnBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) on wipes of hands and wipes of keyboards of computers. When workers used keyboards with polymer covers (dust covers), masses of these lipophilic PAEs on hands were significantly correlated with masses on keyboards rather than dust on furniture, For workers who used keyboards without polymer covers, masses on hands were related to masses in dust on furniture. Use of polymer covers containing PAEs and less washing of hands could increase the extent of exposure via hand to body of office workers, which could further result in as much as 10-fold greater hazard. Thus, more hand washing and less use of polymer products containing PAEs were recommended for office workers to reduce exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Non-target analysis of household dust and laundry dryer lint using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Authors: Ouyang, X; Weiss, JM; de Boer, J; Lamoree, MH; Leonards, PE (2017) Chemosphere 166:431-437. HERO ID: 3455857

[Less] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable . . . [More] Household dust and laundry dryer lint are important indoor environmental matrices that may have notable health effects on humans due to chronic exposure. However, due to the sample complexity the studies conducted on these sample matrices until now were almost exclusively on the basis of target analysis. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC × LC-ToF MS) was applied, to enable non-target analysis of household dust as well as laundry dryer lint for the first time. The higher peak capacity and good orthogonality of LC × LC, together with reduced ion suppression in the MS enabled rapid identification of environmental contaminants in these complex sample matrices. A number of environmental contaminants were tentatively identified based on their accurate masses and isotopic patterns, including plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides, drug metabolites, etc. The identity of seven compounds: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate, n-benzyl butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, tributyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate and N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide was confirmed using two-dimensional retention alignment and their concentrations in the samples were semi-quantitatively determined.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predicting the gas-phase concentration of semi-volatile organic compounds from airborne particles: Application to a French nationwide survey

Authors: Wei, W; Mandin, C; Blanchard, O; Mercier, F; Pelletier, M; Le Bot, B; Glorennec, P; Ramalho, O (2017) Science of the Total Environment 576:319-325. HERO ID: 3454652

[Less] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, . . . [More] Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition indoors between the gas phase, airborne particles, settled dust, and other surfaces. Unknown concentrations of SVOCs in the gas phase (Cg) can be predicted from their measured concentrations in airborne particles. In previous studies, the prediction of Cg depended largely on choosing a specific equation for the calculation of the particle/gas partition coefficient. Moreover, the prediction of Cg is frequently performed at a reference temperature rather than the real indoor temperature. In this paper, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was developed to predict the distribution of SVOCs' Cg from their concentrations in airborne particles at the target indoor temperature. Moreover, the distribution of the particle/gas partition coefficient of each SVOC at the target temperature was used. The approach was validated using two measured datasets in the literature: the predicted Cg from concentrations measured in airborne particles and the measured Cg were generally of the same order of magnitude. The distributions of the Cg of 66 SVOCs in the French housing stock were then predicted. The SVOCs with the highest median Cg, ranging from 1ng/m(3) to >100ng/m(3), included 8 phthalates (DEP, DiBP, DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMP, DiNP, and DMEP), 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene), 2 alkylphenols (4-tert-butylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol), 2 synthetic musks (galaxolide and tonalide), tributyl phosphate, and heptachlor. The nationwide, representative, predicted Cg values of SVOCs are frequently of the same order of magnitude in Europe and North America, whereas these Cg values in Chinese and Indian dwellings and the Cg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. dwellings are generally higher.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al-Saleh, I; Elkhatib, R; Al-Rajoudi, T; Al-Qudaihi, G (2017) Science of the Total Environment 578:440-451. HERO ID: 3469247

[Less] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants . . . [More] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater might have the potential to induce genetic damage, despite their low levels. Genotoxicity, however, may also have been due to the presence of other contaminants. Our preliminary findings should be of concern to Saudi agriculture because long-term irrigation with treated wastewater could lead to the accumulation of PAEs and BPA in the soil and ultimately reach the human and animal food chain. WTPs need to remove pollutants more efficiently. Until then, a cautious use of treated wastewater for irrigation is recommended to avoid serious health impacts on local populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organic compound composition in soil and sediments collected in Jackson, Mississippi

Authors: Gołębiowski, M; Stepnowski, P; Hemmingway, T; Leszczyńska, D (2016) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 51:553-560. HERO ID: 3159455

[Less] The aim of our study was to identify organic pollutants found in soil and sediment samples collected . . . [More] The aim of our study was to identify organic pollutants found in soil and sediment samples collected within the Jackson, MS metropolitan area. The chemical characterization of the organic compound fractions in soil and sediment samples was carried out by separating the organic fraction using column chromatography (CC) and quantitatively analyzing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and other organic compounds using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six compounds were identified and quantified in the soil samples and 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the sediment samples. The PAHs, n-alkanes and other organic compound profiles in the soil and sediment samples were compared. The percentage contents of the organic compounds in the soil samples were very diverse (from traces to 12.44 ± 1.47%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations were n-alkanes: n-C31 (12.44 ± 1.47%), n-C29 (11.64 ± 1.21%), and n-C33 (8.95 ± 1.08%). The components occurring in smaller quantities (from 1% to 5%) were 2 PAHs (fluoranthene 1.28 ± 0.25%, pyrene 1.16 ± 0.20%), 10 n-alkanes from n-C21 (1.25 ± 0.29%) to n-C32 (2.67 ± 0.52%) and 11 other compounds (e.g., 2-pentanol, 4-methyl (3.33 ± 0.44%), benzyl butyl phthalate (4.25 ± 0.59%), benzenedicarboxylic acid (1.14 ± 0.08%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy (3.15 ± 0.41) and hexadecanoic acid (2.52 ± 0.34). The soil samples also contained 30 compounds present in concentrations <1% (e.g., anthracene (0.13 ± 0.04%), n-C20 (0.84 ± 0.21%) and acetic acid (0.12 ± 0.04%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations in the sediment samples were PAHs: pyrene (7.73 ± 1.15%) and fluoranthene (6.23 ± 1.07%) and n-alkanes: n-C31 (6.74 ± 1.21%), n-C29 (6.65 ± 0.98%) and n-C27 (6.13 ± 1.09%). The remaining organic compounds were present in smaller quantities (< 5%).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate in China

Authors: Zhang, L; Jiang, DG; Sui, HX; Wu, PG; Liu, AD; Yang, DJ; Liu, ZP; Song, Y; Li, N (2016) Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 29:365-373. HERO ID: 3350205

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population.

METHODS: The BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 food categories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency.

RESULTS: It was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged ⋝2 years was 1.03 μg/kg bw per day and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw per day). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. .

CONCLUSION: The health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of Lipophilicity on the Toxicity of Bisphenol A and Phthalates to Aquatic Organisms

Authors: Mathieu-Denoncourt, J; Wallace, SJ; de Solla, SR; Langlois, VS (2016) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 97:4-10. [Review] HERO ID: 3350260

[Less] Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported . . . [More] Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are among the most popular plasticizers used today and have been reported ubiquitously in surface water, ground water, and sediment. For aquatic organisms, BPA was the most toxic (96 h LC50s) to aquatic invertebrates (0.96-2.70 mg/L) and less toxic to fish (6.8-17.9 mg/L). The toxicity of BPA to amphibians differed among developmental stages, with embryos having an LC50 of 4.6-6.8 mg/L and juveniles 0.50-1.4 mg/L. The toxicity of phthalates is affected by aromatic ring substitution, alkyl chain length, and metabolism. The toxicity (96 h LC50s) of phthalates was similar to aquatic invertebrates (0.46-377 mg/L) and fish (0.48-121 mg/L). In general, the toxicity of phthalates appears to be highest around a log KOW of 6, which corresponds to the highest potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the lipophilicity of BPA and phthalates influence their toxicity to aquatic species.