Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)


172 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate Esters on Hands of Office Workers: Estimating the Influence of Touching Surfaces

Authors: Shi, Wei; Guo, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, D; Han, Z; Zhang, X; Yu, H; Giesy, JP (2017) Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4:1-5. HERO ID: 3520009

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known to be transferred to hands by contact with surfaces, however, little is known about the associations between masses on hand wipes and the frequency or duration of touching surfaces, especially surfaces in office environments. Relationships between PAEs on hands and multiple surfaces in offices were investigated. Wipes of hands, computers, and mobile phones as well as dust on furniture were collected from SS offices in China. Positive associations were found between masses of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DnBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) on wipes of hands and wipes of keyboards of computers. When workers used keyboards with polymer covers (dust covers), masses of these lipophilic PAEs on hands were significantly correlated with masses on keyboards rather than dust on furniture, For workers who used keyboards without polymer covers, masses on hands were related to masses in dust on furniture. Use of polymer covers containing PAEs and less washing of hands could increase the extent of exposure via hand to body of office workers, which could further result in as much as 10-fold greater hazard. Thus, more hand washing and less use of polymer products containing PAEs were recommended for office workers to reduce exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Al-Saleh, I; Elkhatib, R; Al-Rajoudi, T; Al-Qudaihi, G (2017) Science of the Total Environment 578:440-451. HERO ID: 3469247

[Less] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants . . . [More] Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater might have the potential to induce genetic damage, despite their low levels. Genotoxicity, however, may also have been due to the presence of other contaminants. Our preliminary findings should be of concern to Saudi agriculture because long-term irrigation with treated wastewater could lead to the accumulation of PAEs and BPA in the soil and ultimately reach the human and animal food chain. WTPs need to remove pollutants more efficiently. Until then, a cautious use of treated wastewater for irrigation is recommended to avoid serious health impacts on local populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organic compound composition in soil and sediments collected in Jackson, Mississippi

Authors: Gołębiowski, M; Stepnowski, P; Hemmingway, T; Leszczyńska, D (2016) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 51:553-560. HERO ID: 3159455

[Less] The aim of our study was to identify organic pollutants found in soil and sediment samples collected . . . [More] The aim of our study was to identify organic pollutants found in soil and sediment samples collected within the Jackson, MS metropolitan area. The chemical characterization of the organic compound fractions in soil and sediment samples was carried out by separating the organic fraction using column chromatography (CC) and quantitatively analyzing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and other organic compounds using gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six compounds were identified and quantified in the soil samples and 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the sediment samples. The PAHs, n-alkanes and other organic compound profiles in the soil and sediment samples were compared. The percentage contents of the organic compounds in the soil samples were very diverse (from traces to 12.44 ± 1.47%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations were n-alkanes: n-C31 (12.44 ± 1.47%), n-C29 (11.64 ± 1.21%), and n-C33 (8.95 ± 1.08%). The components occurring in smaller quantities (from 1% to 5%) were 2 PAHs (fluoranthene 1.28 ± 0.25%, pyrene 1.16 ± 0.20%), 10 n-alkanes from n-C21 (1.25 ± 0.29%) to n-C32 (2.67 ± 0.52%) and 11 other compounds (e.g., 2-pentanol, 4-methyl (3.33 ± 0.44%), benzyl butyl phthalate (4.25 ± 0.59%), benzenedicarboxylic acid (1.14 ± 0.08%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy (3.15 ± 0.41) and hexadecanoic acid (2.52 ± 0.34). The soil samples also contained 30 compounds present in concentrations <1% (e.g., anthracene (0.13 ± 0.04%), n-C20 (0.84 ± 0.21%) and acetic acid (0.12 ± 0.04%). The compounds present in the highest concentrations in the sediment samples were PAHs: pyrene (7.73 ± 1.15%) and fluoranthene (6.23 ± 1.07%) and n-alkanes: n-C31 (6.74 ± 1.21%), n-C29 (6.65 ± 0.98%) and n-C27 (6.13 ± 1.09%). The remaining organic compounds were present in smaller quantities (< 5%).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate in China

Authors: Zhang, L; Jiang, DG; Sui, HX; Wu, PG; Liu, AD; Yang, DJ; Liu, ZP; Song, Y; Li, N (2016) Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 29:365-373. HERO ID: 3350205

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population.

METHODS: The BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 food categories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency.

RESULTS: It was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged ⋝2 years was 1.03 μg/kg bw per day and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw per day). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. .

CONCLUSION: The health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Semi-volatile organic compounds in the particulate phase in dwellings: A nationwide survey in France

Authors: Mandin, C; Mercier, F; Rarnalho, O; Lucas, JP; Gilles, E; Blanchard, O; Bonvallot, N; Glorennec, P; Le Bot, B (2016) Atmospheric Environment 136:82-94. HERO ID: 3230506

[Less] Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), . . . [More] Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one pyrethroid, organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, alkylphenols, synthetic musks, tri-n-butylphosphate and triclosan-were measured on PM10 filters collected over 7 days during a nationwide survey of 285 French dwellings, representative of nearly 25 million housing units. Thirty-five compounds were detected in more than half of the dwellings. PAHs, phthalates and triclosan were the major particle bound SVOCs, with a median concentration greater than 1 ng m(-3) for butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) (median: 1.6 ng m(-3)), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (46 ng m(-3)) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) (7.9 ng m(-3)), and greater than 0.1 ng m(-3) for triclosan (114 pg m(-3)), benzo(a)pyrene (138 pg m(-3)), benzo(b)fluoranthene (306 pg m(-3)), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (229 pg m(-3)), and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (178 pg m(-3)). For most of the SVOCs, higher concentrations were found in the dwellings of smokers and during the heating season. The concentrations of banned SVOCs-namely, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-were correlated. Permethrin, 4-tert-butylphenol and bisphenol-A showed no correlation with the other SVOCs and seemed to have their own specific sources. Most SVOCs were positively associated with PM10 concentration, suggesting that any factor that raises the mass of indoor airborne particles also increases the exposure to SVOCs through inhalation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Phthalates in Milk by Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Tuncel, SG; Senlik, D (2016) Analytical Letters 49:1334-1343. HERO ID: 3352269

[Less] Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was coupled with gas chromatography-mass . . . [More] Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of phthalate esters in milk. Dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dioctyl phthalate were analyzed in five brands of pasteurized Turkish milk. The efficiencies of the extraction procedure for the analytes were between 66 and 100%. The linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves were from 0.025 to 1.000 mu g/mL with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The precision of the method is acceptable with relative standard deviation values below 5%. Dibutyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were commonly observed in milk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalates in plum spirit and their occurrence during plum spirit production

Authors: Jurica, K; Karačonji, IB; Lasić, D; Lušić, DV; Jurica, SA; Lušić, D (2016) Acta Alimentaria 45:141-148. HERO ID: 3352268

[Less] Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that, due to their lipophilicity, migrate more . . . [More] Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that, due to their lipophilicity, migrate more readily into beverages with higher ethanol content. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of phthalates in samples during the plum spirit production and in the final product, plum spirit manufactured by registered producers from five European countries, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A decreasing trend of mean values was observed for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the distillation process went on. Levels of benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased in the distillation phase compared to concentrations in the preceding phases. In commercial plum spirits, DEHP and DiBP were detected in the highest concentrations. Results also indicated that a moderate daily consumption of plum spirit does not pose a health risk regarding the Tolerable Daily Intake of BBP, DEHP, and DBP

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term exposure assessment to phthalates: How do nail analyses compare to commonly used measurements in urine

Authors: Alves, A; Koppen, G; Vanermen, G; Covaci, A; Voorspoels, S (2016) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1036-1037:124-135. HERO ID: 3469303

[Less] Phthalate esters (PEs) are easily metabolized and commonly excreted via urine within 24h, therefore . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PEs) are easily metabolized and commonly excreted via urine within 24h, therefore their bioaccumulation potential is thought to be rather low. In the present study, we developed a sample preparation combined with a new microextraction method to measure seven PE metabolites in nails. The use of whole nails did not result in significantly different levels compared to powdered nails, which makes the method very fast and user friendly. The method was validated using whole nails showing good accuracy, satisfactory precision and low limits of quantification (2-14ng/g). Although method development was the primary aim of the study, the method was also applied to real samples. PEs were measured in nails of 9 individuals collected at 2 distinct time points (15 days apart) and compared to levels in the respective urine samples (daily morning sample for 15 days). Additionally two volunteers have collected two more urine spots (afternoon and evening) per day. Major metabolites in nails were mono (ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and sum of mono-n-butyl and mono-isobutyl phthalate (Σ(MnBP, MiBP)) while MEP and Σ(MnBP, MiBP) were the major ones identified in urine. In urine, first void morning urine reflected higher total excretion (sum of PEs of 7.0μg/g creatinine) for all individuals than the afternoon/evening voids. Participants also filled a questionnaire regarding their life-style. The use of hand care products and consumption of pre-packed food was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oxidative metabolites, while the use of medical devices with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure. Although the metabolism (rate) and other factors that influence the transfer of the analytes from blood or other body compartments into nails needs further investigation, nails can be used to assess exposure to PEs. From our knowledge, urine reflects the excretion of PEs on 'daily basis' while nails show less fluctuation and more stable levels.