Semi-volatile organic compounds in the particulate phase in dwellings: A nationwide survey in France
Authors: Mandin, C; Mercier, F; Rarnalho, O; Lucas, JP; Gilles, E; Blanchard, O; Bonvallot, N; Glorennec, P; Le Bot, B
Atmospheric Environment 136:82-94.
HERO ID: 3230506
Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), . . .
Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one pyrethroid, organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, alkylphenols, synthetic musks, tri-n-butylphosphate and triclosan-were measured on PM10 filters collected over 7 days during a nationwide survey of 285 French dwellings, representative of nearly 25 million housing units. Thirty-five compounds were detected in more than half of the dwellings. PAHs, phthalates and triclosan were the major particle bound SVOCs, with a median concentration greater than 1 ng m(-3) for butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) (median: 1.6 ng m(-3)), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (46 ng m(-3)) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) (7.9 ng m(-3)), and greater than 0.1 ng m(-3) for triclosan (114 pg m(-3)), benzo(a)pyrene (138 pg m(-3)), benzo(b)fluoranthene (306 pg m(-3)), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (229 pg m(-3)), and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (178 pg m(-3)). For most of the SVOCs, higher concentrations were found in the dwellings of smokers and during the heating season. The concentrations of banned SVOCs-namely, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-were correlated. Permethrin, 4-tert-butylphenol and bisphenol-A showed no correlation with the other SVOCs and seemed to have their own specific sources. Most SVOCs were positively associated with PM10 concentration, suggesting that any factor that raises the mass of indoor airborne particles also increases the exposure to SVOCs through inhalation.