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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup

Authors: Jackson, BP; Taylor, VF; Karagas, MR; Punshon, T; Cottingham, KL (In Press) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 1015755

[Less] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice-based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces arsenic into these products. OBJECTIVE: We determined the concentration and speciation of arsenic (As) in commercially available brown rice syrups, and in products containing OBRS including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high energy foods used by endurance athletes. METHODS: We used ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the internet or in stores in the Hanover, NH area. DISCUSSION: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethylarsenate (DMA). An 'organic' toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the EPA safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Inorganic As was the main As species in the majority of food products tested in this study. CONCLUSIONS: There are currently no US regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi to an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An arsenic-contaminated field trial to assess the uptake and translocation of arsenic by genotypes of rice

Authors: Lei, M; Tie, B; Zeng, M; Qing, P; Song, Z; Williams, PN; Huang, Y (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1337505

[Less] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important . . . [More] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg(-1), with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg(-1). The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root ≫ soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Natural decrease of dissolved arsenic in a small stream receiving drainages of abandoned silver mines in Guanajuato, Mexico

Authors: Ramos Arroyo, YR; Serafín Muñoz, AH; Yanez Barrientos, E; Rodriguez Huerta, I; Wrobel, K; Wrobel, K (In Press) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1936024

[Less] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical . . . [More] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical parameters, metals/metalloids and arsenic species were determined. One of the mine drainages was found as a point source of contamination with 309 μg L(-1) of dissolved arsenic; this concentration declined rapidly to 10.5 μg L(-1) about 2 km downstream. Data analysis confirmed that oxidation of As(III) released from the primary sulfide minerals was favored by the increase of pH and oxidation reduction potential; the results obtained in multivariate approach indicated that self-purification of water was due to association of As(V) with secondary solid phase containing Fe, Mn, Ca.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contributions of natural arsenic sources to surface waters on a high grade arsenic-geochemical anomaly (French Massif Central)

Authors: Bossy, A; Grosbois, C; Hendershot, W; Beauchemin, S; Crouzet, C; Bril, H (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1244039

[Less] The subwatershed studied drains a non-exploited area of the St-Yrieix-la-Perche gold mining district . . . [More] The subwatershed studied drains a non-exploited area of the St-Yrieix-la-Perche gold mining district (French Massif Central) and it is located on an arsenic (As) geochemical anomaly. In this context, it is important to know the geochemical processes involved in the transfer of As from solid environmental compartments to the aquatic system. The stream showed a temporal variation of dissolved As (As(d)) content from 69.4μg.L(-1) in the low flow period to 7.5μg.L(-1) in the high flow period. Upstream, ground- and wetland waters had As(d) concentrations up to 215 and 169μg.L(-1), respectively. The main representative As sources were determined at the subwatershed scale with in-situ monitoring of major and trace element contents in different waters and single extraction experiments. The As sources to stream water could be regrouped into two components: (i) one As-rich group (mainly in the low flow period) with groundwater, gallery exploration outlet waters and wetland waters, and (ii) one As-poor group (mainly in the high flow period) with rainwaters and soil solutions. In the soil profile, As(d) showed a significant decrease from 52.4μg.L(-1) in the 0-5cm superficial soil horizon to 14.4μg.L(-1) in the 135-165cm deep soil horizon. This decrease may be related to pedogenic processes and suggests an evolution of As-bearing phase stability through the soil profile. Quantification of As(d) fluxes at the subwatershed scale showed that groundwater was the major input (>80%) of As(d) to surface water. Moreover, natural weathering of the As-rich solid phases showed an impact on the As release, mainly from superficial soil horizons with runoff contributing about 5% to As input in surface water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of arsenic levels in soil and water with urinary arsenic concentration of residents in the vicinity of closed metal mines

Authors: Cho, Y; Seo, S; Choi, S-H; Lee, S; Kim, K; Kim, H-J; Choi, J-W (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. HERO ID: 1248978

[Less] Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious . . . [More] Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious health problems, in particular cancer. Health hazard attributed to As in contaminated soil and water in the vicinity of closed or abandoned metal mines may be high. Little is known about how environmental exposure to As has affected the health of resident near closed metal mines. The objectives of this study were to compare the urinary level of As for those living near closed metal mines (the exposed group) with that of non-exposed group; and to investigate the correlation between As levels in soil (Soil(As)) and water (Water(As)) and the urinary levels (Urine(As)) of residents in the exposed group. Data for Soil(As) and Water(As) were obtained from the national environmental survey performed between 2003 and 2005 by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. To measure Urine(As), 2674 and 237 subjects were selected from 67 closed metal mines (exposed areas) and two rural areas (non-exposed areas), respectively. Five milliliters of urine samples were taken, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Urine(As). Of all the exposed areas, high Soil(As) and Water(As) areas that exceed the Korean standards of As in soil (6mg/kg-soil) and stream or groundwater (0.05mg/l-water) were classified to evaluate the health risks in high polluted areas. Also, high Urine(As) group was defined as 20μg/g creatinine or more. Student's t-test was performed to compare the Urine(As) level between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by a logistic analysis to evaluate the risk for high Urine(As) level from high Soil(As) and Water(As) areas. The mean of urinary As were 8.90±8.34μg/g-creatinine for the exposed group and 7.68±4.98μg/g creatinine for the non-exposed group, respectively; and the significant difference of urinary As level was observed between both groups (p<0.05). Moreover, the means for urinary As of people in areas with high As level in soil and water were significantly higher than that for the control areas (p<0.001), and these differences were more pronounced for the As level in water. The odds of subjects with high Urine(As) were positively and significantly associated with living in the areas with high As level in soil (OR=1.62; 95% C.I.=1.13-2.31). These associations were much stronger for the areas with high Water(As) (OR=3.79; 95% C.I.=2.32-6.19). These results indicate that the high level of As in environment may increase the risk of having high urinary As level of people in the exposed areas.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of arsenic bioaccumulation in different organs of the nutritionally important catfish, Clarias batrachus (L.) exposed to the trivalent arsenic salt, sodium arsenite

Authors: Kumar, R; Banerjee, TK (In Press) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1249010

[Less] Pattern of arsenic bioaccumulation in six organ systems (blood, brain, gills, liver, muscles and skin) . . . [More] Pattern of arsenic bioaccumulation in six organ systems (blood, brain, gills, liver, muscles and skin) of Clarias batrachus was analysed following exposure to sublethal (1 mg L(-1); 5 % of 96 h LC(50) value) concentration of sodium arsenite. After 60 days of treatment the liver accumulated highest concentration (9.711 ± 0.138 μg g(-1) dry wt of tissue.) of arsenic followed by gills (6.156 ± 0.154) > blood (6.070 ± 0.043) > muscles (5.756 ± 0.123) > skin (5.606 ± 0.140) > brain (2.350 ± 0.205). The bioaccumulations of arsenic in all the tissues were time dependant and increased with exposure period. Although the exposed fish loaded with arsenic did not die after prolonged treatment (60 days), the amount of arsenic accumulated made them unsuitable for human consumption. Due to depletion of the proteineous components of their muscles, the body mass of the exposed fish decreased without corresponding decrease in their length. This made the fish lean and thin. These proteineous moieties of the muscles and other tissue systems of the stressed fish were mobilized for breakdown to generate additional requirement of energy to combat the arsenic toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Adnan, SNSB; Yusoff, S; Chua, YP (In Press) . HERO ID: 1519032

[Less] A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill . . . [More] A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental impact of flood: The study of arsenic speciation in exchangeable fraction of flood deposits of Warta river (Poland) in determination of finger prints of the pollutants origin and the ways of the migration

Authors: Kozak, L; Skolasińska, K; Niedzielski, P (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1070315

[Less] The paper presents the application of the hyphenated technique - high-performance liquid chromatography . . . [More] The paper presents the application of the hyphenated technique - high-performance liquid chromatography with atomic absorption spectrometry detection with hydride generation (HPLC-HG-AAS) - in the determinations of inorganic forms of arsenic: As(III) and As(V) in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits. The separation of analytical signals of the determined arsenic forms was obtained using an ion-exchange column in a chromatographic system with the atomic absorption spectrometer as a detector, at the determination limits of 5ngg(-1) for As(III) and 10ngg(-1) for As(V). Flood deposits were collected after big flood event in valley of the Warta river which took place in summer 2010. Samples of overbank deposits were taken in Poznań agglomeration and vicinity (NW Poland). The results of determinations of arsenic forms in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits allowed indication of a hypothetical path of deposits migration transported by a river during flood and environmental threats posed by their deposition by flood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and geochemical behavior of arsenic in a coastal aquifer-aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China

Authors: Wang, Y; Jiao, JJ; Cherry, JA (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1070356

[Less] Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161μg/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from . . . [More] Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161μg/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from the confined basal aquifer underlying the aquitard of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Both aquatic arsenic in pore water and solid arsenic in the sediments in the basal aquifer and aquitard were identified. Arsenic speciation of groundwater in the basal aquifer was elucidated on a pH-Eh diagram. In the PRD, arsenic is enriched in groundwater having both low and high salinity, and arsenic enriched groundwater is devoid of dissolved oxygen, has negative Eh values, is slightly alkaline, and has abnormally high concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon, but low concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Results of geochemical and hydrochemical analyses and sequential extraction analysis suggest that reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide could be one of the important processes that mobilized solid arsenic. We speculate that mineralization of sedimentary organic matter could also contribute to aquatic arsenic. Scanning electron microscope analysis confirms that abundant authigenic pyrite is present in the sediments. Sulphate derived from paleo-seawater served as the important sulfur source for authigenic pyrite formation. Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite significantly controlled concentrations of aquatic arsenic in the coastal aquifer-aquitard system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

Authors: Molin, M; Ydersbond, TA; Ulven, SM; Holck, M; Dahl, L; Sloth, JJ; Fliegel, D; Goessler, W; Alexander, J; Meltzer, HM (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology. HERO ID: 1070366

[Less] Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals . . . [More] Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were large individual differences in the excretion patterns. Apparently, formation of thio-arsenicals was negatively correlated to AB formation and excretion, possibly indicating a metabolic interrelationship. The results may be of toxicological relevance since DMA and MA have been classified as possibly carcinogenic, and six of the excreted As species were thio-arsenicals which recently have been recognized as toxic, while iAs toxicity is well known.