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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An arsenic-contaminated field trial to assess the uptake and translocation of arsenic by genotypes of rice

Authors: Lei, M; Tie, B; Zeng, M; Qing, P; Song, Z; Williams, PN; Huang, Y (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1337505

[Less] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important . . . [More] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg(-1), with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg(-1). The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root ≫ soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of arsenic levels in soil and water with urinary arsenic concentration of residents in the vicinity of closed metal mines

Authors: Cho, Y; Seo, S; Choi, S-H; Lee, S; Kim, K; Kim, H-J; Choi, J-W (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. HERO ID: 1248978

[Less] Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious . . . [More] Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious health problems, in particular cancer. Health hazard attributed to As in contaminated soil and water in the vicinity of closed or abandoned metal mines may be high. Little is known about how environmental exposure to As has affected the health of resident near closed metal mines. The objectives of this study were to compare the urinary level of As for those living near closed metal mines (the exposed group) with that of non-exposed group; and to investigate the correlation between As levels in soil (Soil(As)) and water (Water(As)) and the urinary levels (Urine(As)) of residents in the exposed group. Data for Soil(As) and Water(As) were obtained from the national environmental survey performed between 2003 and 2005 by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. To measure Urine(As), 2674 and 237 subjects were selected from 67 closed metal mines (exposed areas) and two rural areas (non-exposed areas), respectively. Five milliliters of urine samples were taken, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Urine(As). Of all the exposed areas, high Soil(As) and Water(As) areas that exceed the Korean standards of As in soil (6mg/kg-soil) and stream or groundwater (0.05mg/l-water) were classified to evaluate the health risks in high polluted areas. Also, high Urine(As) group was defined as 20μg/g creatinine or more. Student's t-test was performed to compare the Urine(As) level between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by a logistic analysis to evaluate the risk for high Urine(As) level from high Soil(As) and Water(As) areas. The mean of urinary As were 8.90±8.34μg/g-creatinine for the exposed group and 7.68±4.98μg/g creatinine for the non-exposed group, respectively; and the significant difference of urinary As level was observed between both groups (p<0.05). Moreover, the means for urinary As of people in areas with high As level in soil and water were significantly higher than that for the control areas (p<0.001), and these differences were more pronounced for the As level in water. The odds of subjects with high Urine(As) were positively and significantly associated with living in the areas with high As level in soil (OR=1.62; 95% C.I.=1.13-2.31). These associations were much stronger for the areas with high Water(As) (OR=3.79; 95% C.I.=2.32-6.19). These results indicate that the high level of As in environment may increase the risk of having high urinary As level of people in the exposed areas.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Factors affecting chelating extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood

Authors: Chang, F-C; Wang, Y-N; Chen, P-J; Ko, C-H (In Press) Journal of Environmental Management. HERO ID: 1519020

[Less] The disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated waste wood is becoming a serious problem in . . . [More] The disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated waste wood is becoming a serious problem in many countries due to potential leaching of hazardous elements from in-service use in the environment or disposal of solutions after remediation; therefore, it is necessary to develop proper remediation techniques. The effects of concentration, extraction period, temperature, and sequential extraction on the extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood using [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were studied. Mobility of metal in the samples was evaluated by using a sequential extraction scheme that could give the information needed to explain different extraction efficiencies for different metals. Results of long-term leaching tests of CCA-treated wood before and after EDDS extraction were used to evaluate Cr, Cu, and As leachability. Kinetic experiments showed that 6 h was the optimum extraction time for all metals and CCA-treated wood. Experimental results showed that EDDS is a very effective chelating agent for the extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood. Increased temperature significantly enhanced the extraction efficiency of CCA metals, especially Cr and As. The much better extractability of Cu compared to Cr and As by chelating agents can be attributed to the presence of larger weakly bound fractions. The CCA-treated woods after EDDS extraction have met the EPA's TCLP regulatory limit and could be classified as a non-hazardous waste according to identification standard of hazardous wastes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate accumulation and arsenate-induced glutathione export in astrocyte-rich primary cultures

Authors: Meyer, N; Koehler, Y; Tulpule, K; Dringen, R (In Press) Neurochemistry International. HERO ID: 1519021

[Less] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. . . . [More] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. To test whether arsenate affects the viability and the GSH metabolism of brain astrocytes, we have used primary astrocyte cultures as model system. Incubation of astrocytes for 2 h with arsenate in concentrations of up to 10 mM caused an almost linear increase in the cellular arsenic content, but did not acutely compromise cell viability. The presence of moderate concentrations of arsenate caused a time- and concentration-dependent loss of GSH from viable astrocytes which was accompanied by a matching increase in the extracellular GSH content. Half-maximal effects were observed for arsenate in a concentration of about 0.3 mM. The arsenate-induced stimulated GSH export from astrocytes was prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1. Exposure of astrocytes to arsenite increased the specific cellular arsenic content and stimulated GSH export to values that were similar to those observed for arsenate-treated cells, while dimethylarsinic acid was less efficiently accumulated by the cells and did not modulate cellular and extracellular GSH levels. The observed strong stimulation of GSH export from astrocytes by arsenate suggests that disturbances of the astrocytic GSH metabolism may contribute to the observed arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optimal time interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

Authors: Sloothaak, DAM; Geijsen, DE; van Leersum, NJ; Punt, CJA; Buskens, CJ; Bemelman, WA; Tanis, PJ; Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (In Press) British Journal of Surgery. HERO ID: 1519025

[Less] BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been proven to increase local control in rectal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been proven to increase local control in rectal cancer, but the optimal interval between CRT and surgery is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of variations in clinical practice regarding timing of surgery on pathological response at a population level. METHODS: All evaluable patients who underwent preoperative CRT for rectal cancer between 2009 and 2011 were selected from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. The interval between radiotherapy and surgery was calculated from the start of radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR; pathological status after chemoradiotherapy (yp) T0 N0). RESULTS: A total of 1593 patients were included. The median interval between radiotherapy and surgery was 14 (range 6-85, interquartile range 12-16) weeks. Outcome measures were calculated for intervals of less than 13 weeks (312 patients), 13-14 weeks (511 patients), 15-16 weeks (406 patients) and more than 16 weeks (364 patients). Age, tumour location and R0 resection rate were distributed equally between the four groups; significant differences were found for clinical tumour category (cT4: 17·3, 18·4, 24·5 and 26·6 per cent respectively; P = 0·010) and clinical metastasis category (cM1: 4·4, 4·8, 8·9 and 14·9 per cent respectively; P < 0·001). Resection 15-16 weeks after the start of CRT resulted in the highest pCR rate (18·0 per cent; P = 0·013), with an independent association (hazard ratio 1·63, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·20 to 2·23). Results for secondary endpoints in the group with an interval of 15-16 weeks were: tumour downstaging, 55·2 per cent (P = 0·165); nodal downstaging, 58·6 per cent (P = 0·036); and (near)-complete response, 23·2 per cent (P = 0·124). CONCLUSION: Delaying surgery until the 15th or 16th week after the start of CRT (10-11 weeks from the end of CRT) seemed to result in the highest chance of a pCR.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mitochondrial hormesis links low-dose arsenite exposure to lifespan extension

Authors: Schmeisser, S; Schmeisser, K; Weimer, S; Groth, M; Priebe, S; Fazius, E; Kuhlow, D; Pick, D; Einax, JW; Guthke, R; Platzer, M; Zarse, K; Ristow, M (In Press) Aging Cell. HERO ID: 1519026

[Less] Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects . . . [More] Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors, and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C. elegans, co-exposure to ROS scavengers prevents the lifespan-extending capabilities of arsenite, indicating that transiently increased ROS levels act as transducers of arsenite effects on lifespan, a process known as mitohormesis. This requires two transcription factors, namely DAF-16 and SKN-1, which employ the metallothionein MTL-2 as well as the mitochondrial transporter TIN-9.1 to extend life span. Taken together, low-dose arsenite extends lifespan, providing evidence for non-linear dose-response characteristics of toxin-mediated stress resistance and longevity in a multicellular organism. © 2013 The Authors Aging Cell © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Adnan, SNSB; Yusoff, S; Chua, YP (In Press) . HERO ID: 1519032

[Less] A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill . . . [More] A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Remediation of inorganic arsenic in groundwater for safe water supply: A critical assessment of technological solutions

Authors: Mondal, P; Bhowmick, S; Chatterjee, D; Figoli, A; Van der Bruggen, B (In Press) Chemosphere. [Review] HERO ID: 1519091

[Less] Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or . . . [More] Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, and have a large impact on human health. Millions of people from different countries rely on groundwater containing As for drinking purposes. This paper reviews removal technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane processes) with attention for the drawbacks and limitations of these applied technologies. The technologies suggested and applied for treatment of As rich water have various problems, including the need for further treatment of As containing secondary waste generated from these water treatment processes. More efficient technologies, with a lower tendency to generate waste include the removal of As by membrane distillation or forward osmosis, instead of using pressure driven membrane processes and subsequently reducing soluble As to commercially valuable metallic As are surveyed. An integrated approach of two or more techniques is suggested to be more beneficial than a single process. Advanced technologies such as membrane distillation, forward osmosis as well as some hybrid integrated techniques and their potentials are also discussed in this review. Membrane processes combined with other process (especially iron based technologies) are thought to be most sustainable for the removal of arsenic and further research allowing scale up of these technologies is suggested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protective role of AQP3 in UVA-induced NHSFs apoptosis via Bcl2 up-regulation

Authors: Xie, H; Liu, F; Liu, L; Dan, J; Luo, Y; Yi, Y; Chen, X; Li, J (In Press) Archives of Dermatological Research. HERO ID: 1519093

[Less] Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water/glycerol-transporting protein that facilitates water, urea, and glycerol . . . [More] Aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water/glycerol-transporting protein that facilitates water, urea, and glycerol transport, can inhibit arsenite-induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl-2. However, whether it has a protective role in ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced apoptosis in normal human skin fibroblasts is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that mild UVA treatment fails to induce oxidative cell stress and apoptosis in normal human skin fibroblasts (NHSFs) overexpressing AQP3. After severe UVA irradiation, there was an increase in oxidative cell stress and apoptosis when AQP3 levels decreased. We also found that silencing AQP3 sensitized NHSFs to low-dose UVA. Overexpressing AQP3 was protective against high-dose UVA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Besides, we observed that Bcl-2 may be involved in UVA-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggested that the water/glycerol-transporting protein AQP3 plays a role in resistance to UVA-induced apoptosis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Batch effects and pathway analysis: Two potential perils in cancer studies involving DNA methylation array analysis

Authors: Harper, KN; Peters, BA; Gamble, MV (In Press) Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. HERO ID: 1579252

[Less] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role . . . [More] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role of epigenetics in cancer, though the methods used to analyze these arrays are still being developed and existing methods are not always widely disseminated among microarray users. Methods: We investigated two problems likely to confront DNA methylation microarray users: 1) batch effects; and 2) the use of widely available pathway analysis software to analyze results. First, DNA taken from individuals exposed to low and high levels of drinking water arsenic were plated twice on Illumina's Infinium 450K humanmethylation array, once in order of exposure and again following randomization. Second, we performed simulations in which random CpG sites were drawn from the 450K array and subjected to pathway analysis using Ingenuity's IPA software. Results: The majority of differentially methylated CpG sites identified in Run One were due to batch effects; few sites were also identified in Run Two. In addition, the pathway analysis software reported many significant associations between our data, randomly drawn from the 450K array, and various diseases and biological functions. Conclusions: Data from our own laboratory illustrate the pitfalls of not properly controlling for chip-specific batch effects as well as using pathway analysis software created for gene expression arrays to analyze DNA methylation array data. Impact: We present evidence that 1) chip-specific effects can simulate plausible differential methylation results; and 2) popular pathway analysis software developed for expression arrays can yield spurious results when used in tandem with methylation microarrays.