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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of biochemical responses of Bacopa monnieri L. upon exposure to arsenate

Authors: Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, RD (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017520

[Less] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation . . . [More] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation by edible and medicinal plants and associated health risks for the humans. In this study, phytotoxicity imposed upon exposure to arsenate [As(V); 0-250 μM for 1-7 days] and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri L. vis-à-vis As accumulation. Plants accumulated substantial amount of As (total 768 μg g(-1) dw at 250 μM As(V) after 7 days) with the maximum As retention being in roots (60%) followed by stem (23%) and leaves (17%). The level of cysteine and total nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) increased significantly at all exposure concentrations and durations. Besides, the level of metalloid binding ligands viz., glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased significantly at the studied concentrations [50 and 250 μM As(V)] in both roots and leaves. The activities of various enzymes viz., arsenate reductase (AR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) showed differential but coordinated stimulation in leaves and roots to help plants combat As toxicity up to moderate exposure concentrations (50 μM). However, beyond 50 μM, biomass production was found to decrease along with photosynthetic pigments and total soluble proteins, whereas lipid peroxidation increased. In conclusion, As accumulation potential of Bacopa may warrant its use as a phytoremediator but if Bacopa growing in contaminated areas is consumed by humans, it may prove to be toxic for health. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture

Authors: Seco-Reigosa, N; Peña-Rodríguez, S; Nóvoa-Muñoz, JC; Arias-Estévez, M; Fernández-Sanjurjo, MJ; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E; Núñez-Delgado, A (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1338680

[Less] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has . . . [More] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6 %), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94 %, As(V) >96 % and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30 % for shell ash; Hg(II) >98 %, As(V) >88 % and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88 % for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was <5 % for both shell ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45 % for shell ash, and between 19 and 0 % for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metal tolerance and larvicidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Authors: Lozano, LC; Dussán, J (In Press) World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1519059

[Less] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes . . . [More] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes and in bioremediation. Mosquito larvae exposed to heavy metals are tolerant to concentrations above the permissible limit for industrial residual waters. In this work, we characterize 51 L. sphaericus strains for metal tolerance and larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.2, OT4b.20, OT4b.25, OT4b.26 and OT4b.58 were as toxic as the spores of the reference strain 2362 against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. 19 Mosquito-pathogenic L. sphaericus strains and 6 non-pathogenic strains were able to grow in arsenate, hexavalent chromium and/or lead. 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analyses clustered 84 % of the metal-tolerant strains in L. sphaericus group 1, which encompasses the mosquitocidal strains. The larvicidal activity of vegetative and sporulated cells and its high tolerance to arsenate, hexavalent chromium and lead indicate that L. sphaericus OT4b.26 is a strong candidate for further studies examining its potential for biological control of mosquitoes in waters contaminated with metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous redox conversion of chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) under acidic conditions

Authors: Wang, Z; Bush, RT; Sullivan, LA; Liu, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1597316

[Less] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful . . . [More] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful as arsenite (As(III)) and hexavalent (Cr(VI)). To simultaneously change their oxidation state from As(III) to As(V), and Cr(VI) to Cr(III), is a potentially effective and attractive strategy for environmental remediation. The coabundance of As(III) and Cr(VI) in natural environments indicates their negligible direct interaction. The addition of H2O2 enables and greatly accelerates the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) and reduction of Cr(VI). These reactions are further enhanced at acidic pH and higher concentrations of Cr(VI). However, the presence of ligands (i.e., oxalate, citrate, pyrophosphate) greatly retards the oxidation of As(III), even though it enhances the reduction of Cr(VI). To explain these results we propose a reaction mechanism where Cr(VI) is primarily reduced to Cr(III) by H2O2, via the intermediate tetraperoxochromate Cr(V). Cr(V) is then involved in the formation of (•)OH radicals. In the presence of ligands, the capacity of Cr(V) to form (•)OH radicals, which are primarily responsible for As(III) oxidation, is practically inhibited. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility for the coconversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) in AMD and real-world constraints to this strategy for environmental remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

EMT and CSC-like properties mediated by the IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via the transcriptional regulator, Snail, are involved in the arsenite-induced neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes

Authors: Jiang, R; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Zhou, Y; Pang, Y; Shen, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, J; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, Q (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. HERO ID: 1337675

[Less] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition . . . [More] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties are essential steps in the initiation of human skin cancers; however, the mechanisms of action remain obscure. We have found that, during the neoplastic transformation induced by a low concentration (1.0 μM) of arsenite in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, the cells undergo an EMT and then acquire a malignant CSC-like phenotype. With longer times for transformation of HaCaT cells, there were increased activations of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), inhibitor nuclear factor-kappa B alpha (IκBα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) RelA and increases in the level of Snail. Further, during the transformation of HaCaT cells, the activation of NF-κB RelA up-regulated Snail levels. Inhibition of NF-κB RelA blocked the arsenite-induced EMT, acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype, and neoplastic transformation. These observations show that EMT, along with acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype mediated by IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via Snail, contributes to a low concentration of arsenite-induced tumorigenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of potential health risk for arsenic and heavy metals in some herbal flowers and their infusions consumed in China

Authors: Zhu, F; Wang, X; Fan, W; Qu, L; Qiao, M; Yao, S (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1338777

[Less] Herbal tea is consumed widely in China due to their therapeutic efficacy, mild features, and relatively . . . [More] Herbal tea is consumed widely in China due to their therapeutic efficacy, mild features, and relatively low cost. To assess the health risk associated with drinking herbal tea, arsenic and seven heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in eight different types of herbal flowers and their infusions were determined by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy and precision of the analytical method were confirmed by the certified reference material (GBW 07605). The results suggested that significant differences existed in all metal concentrations determined among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions. In general, the concentration of iron was higher than those of seven other metals in the investigated herbal flowers and their infusions. The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual metal and combined metals due to the dietary intakes via consumption of herbal infusions. Both the HQ and HI levels were far below one, suggesting that the dietary intakes of the eight metals determined from daily consumption 4.5 g of the investigated herbal flowers for a normal adult should pose no potential risk to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data

Authors: Singh, EJ; Gupta, A; Singh, NR (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1339169

[Less] The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, . . . [More] The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3 % and the WHO limit in 73.3 % of the groundwater sources with only 26.7 % in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 has an essential role in arsenite-induced expression of FOS, EGR1 and IL8 mRNA in cultured human cell lines

Authors: Suzuki, T; Kita, K; Ochi, T (In Press) Journal of Applied Toxicology. HERO ID: 1340672

[Less] Trivalent inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)] is known to alter the expression of a number of genes associated . . . [More] Trivalent inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)] is known to alter the expression of a number of genes associated with transcription and cell proliferation, which was thought to be one of the possible mechanisms of arsenical carcinogenesis. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying iAs(III) induction of changes in gene expression are not fully understood. Here we examine the role of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (Ser(10) ) in gene regulation when the cells were treated with iAs(III). Among the 34 genes tested, iAs(III) induced mRNA expression of JUN, FOS, EGR1, HMOX1, HSPA1A, IL8, GADD45A, GADD45B and GADD153. Phosphorylation of histone H3 Ser(10) was induced by iAs(III) in interphase cells, and was effectively blocked by the ERKs pathway inhibitor (U0126). U0126 treatment significantly reduced constitutive mRNA expression of FOS and EGR1, and dramatically suppressed the induction of FOS, EGR1 and IL8 mRNA in iAs(III)-treated cells. The other genes, which were induced by iAs(III), were not affected by U0126 treatment. When the histone H3 nonphosphorylatable mutant of serine 10 (S10A) was overexpressed in cells, iAs(III) induction of FOS, EGR1and IL8 expression was significantly decreased as compared with wild-type cells. The other genes induced by iAs(III) were not changed in S10A cells nor by U0126 treatment. In addition, S10A cells were more resistant to iAs(III) cytotoxicity. These results indicated that the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser(10) through the ERKs pathway in interphase cells is an important regulatory event for iAs(III)-mediated gene expression. Aberrant gene expression seems to be an important cause of cytotoxicity and may have some relation to iAs(III) carcinogenicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Factors affecting chelating extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood

Authors: Chang, F-C; Wang, Y-N; Chen, P-J; Ko, C-H (In Press) Journal of Environmental Management. HERO ID: 1519020

[Less] The disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated waste wood is becoming a serious problem in . . . [More] The disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated waste wood is becoming a serious problem in many countries due to potential leaching of hazardous elements from in-service use in the environment or disposal of solutions after remediation; therefore, it is necessary to develop proper remediation techniques. The effects of concentration, extraction period, temperature, and sequential extraction on the extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood using [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were studied. Mobility of metal in the samples was evaluated by using a sequential extraction scheme that could give the information needed to explain different extraction efficiencies for different metals. Results of long-term leaching tests of CCA-treated wood before and after EDDS extraction were used to evaluate Cr, Cu, and As leachability. Kinetic experiments showed that 6 h was the optimum extraction time for all metals and CCA-treated wood. Experimental results showed that EDDS is a very effective chelating agent for the extraction of Cr, Cu, and As from CCA-treated wood. Increased temperature significantly enhanced the extraction efficiency of CCA metals, especially Cr and As. The much better extractability of Cu compared to Cr and As by chelating agents can be attributed to the presence of larger weakly bound fractions. The CCA-treated woods after EDDS extraction have met the EPA's TCLP regulatory limit and could be classified as a non-hazardous waste according to identification standard of hazardous wastes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate accumulation and arsenate-induced glutathione export in astrocyte-rich primary cultures

Authors: Meyer, N; Koehler, Y; Tulpule, K; Dringen, R (In Press) Neurochemistry International. HERO ID: 1519021

[Less] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. . . . [More] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. To test whether arsenate affects the viability and the GSH metabolism of brain astrocytes, we have used primary astrocyte cultures as model system. Incubation of astrocytes for 2 h with arsenate in concentrations of up to 10 mM caused an almost linear increase in the cellular arsenic content, but did not acutely compromise cell viability. The presence of moderate concentrations of arsenate caused a time- and concentration-dependent loss of GSH from viable astrocytes which was accompanied by a matching increase in the extracellular GSH content. Half-maximal effects were observed for arsenate in a concentration of about 0.3 mM. The arsenate-induced stimulated GSH export from astrocytes was prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1. Exposure of astrocytes to arsenite increased the specific cellular arsenic content and stimulated GSH export to values that were similar to those observed for arsenate-treated cells, while dimethylarsinic acid was less efficiently accumulated by the cells and did not modulate cellular and extracellular GSH levels. The observed strong stimulation of GSH export from astrocytes by arsenate suggests that disturbances of the astrocytic GSH metabolism may contribute to the observed arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.