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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability

Authors: Bolan, N; Mahimairaja, S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1579241

[Less] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components . . . [More] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biogeochemical patterns in a river network along a land use gradient

Authors: Kamjunke, N; Büttner, O; Jäger, CG; Marcus, H; von Tümpling, W; Halbedel, S; Norf, H; Brauns, M; Baborowski, M; Wild, R; Borchardt, D; Weitere, M (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1677559

[Less] The Bode catchment (Germany) shows strong land use gradients from forested parts of the National Park . . . [More] The Bode catchment (Germany) shows strong land use gradients from forested parts of the National Park (23 % of total land cover) to agricultural (70 %) and urbanised areas (7 %). It is part of the Terrestrial Environmental Observatories of the German Helmholtz association. We performed a biogeochemical analysis of the entire river network. Surface water was sampled at 21 headwaters and at ten downstream sites, before (in early spring) and during the growing season (in late summer). Many parameters showed lower concentrations in headwaters than in downstream reaches, among them nutrients (ammonium, nitrate and phosphorus), dissolved copper and seston dry mass. Nitrate and phosphorus concentrations were positively related to the proportion of agricultural area within the catchment. Punctual anthropogenic loads affected some parameters such as chloride and arsenic. Chlorophyll a concentration and total phosphorus in surface waters were positively related. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was higher in summer than in spring, whereas the molecular size of DOC was lower in summer. The specific UV absorption at 254 nm, indicating the content of humic substances, was higher in headwaters than in downstream reaches and was positively related to the proportion of forest within the catchment. CO2 oversaturation of the water was higher downstream compared with headwaters and was higher in summer than in spring. It was correlated negatively with oxygen saturation and positively with DOC concentration but negatively with DOC quality (molecular size and humic content). A principle component analysis clearly separated the effects of site (44 %) and season (15 %), demonstrating the strong effect of land use on biogeochemical parameters.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic incorporation in synthetic struvite (NH4MgPO4•6H2O): A synchrotron XAS and single-crystal EPR study

Authors: Lin, J; Chen, N; Pan, Y (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 2088500

[Less] Struvite, a common biomineral and increasingly important fertilizer recovered from wastewater treatment . . . [More] Struvite, a common biomineral and increasingly important fertilizer recovered from wastewater treatment plants, is capable of sequestering a wide range of heavy metals and metalloids, including arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) analyses and microbeam synchrotron X-ray flurorescence (μ-SXRF) mapping show that struvite formed under ambient conditions contains up to 547±15 ppm As and that the uptake of As is controlled by pH. Synchrotron As K-edge XANES spectra measured at 20 K show that As5+ is the predominant oxidation state in struvite, irrespective of Na2HAsO4•7H2O or NaAsO2 as the source for As. Modeling of As K-edge EXAFS data suggest that local structural distortion associated with the substitution of As5+ for P5+ in struvite reaches up to 3.75 Å. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated struvite disclose five [AsO3]2- radicals and one [AsO4]2- radical. These arsenic-centered oxyradicals are all readily attributed to form from diamagnetic [AsO4]3- precursors during irradiation, providing further support for exclusive incorporation and local structural expansion beyond the first shell of As5+ at the P site in struvite.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

LC-ICP-MS analysis of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf (Northern Aegean Sea, Greece)

Authors: Pell, A; Kokkinis, G; Malea, P; Pergantis, SA; Rubio, R; López-Sánchez, JF (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 2064233

[Less] The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos . . . [More] The content of total arsenic and arsenic compounds in the dominant seaweed species in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea was determined in samples collected in different seasons. Total arsenic was determined by acid digestion followed by ICP-MS. Arsenic speciation was analyzed by water extraction followed by LC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations in the seaweeds ranged from 1.39 to 55.0mgkg(-1). Cystoseira species and Codium fragile showed the highest total As contents, while Ulva species (U. intestinalis, U. rigida, U. fasciata) had the lowest Arsenosugars, the most common arsenic species in seaweeds, were found in all samples, and glycerol-arsenosugar was the most common form; however, phosphate-arsenosugar and sulfate-arsenosugar were also present. Inorganic arsenic was measured in seven algae species and detected in another. Arsenate was the most abundant species in Cystoseira barbata (27.0mgkg(-1)). Arsenobetaine was measured in only one sample. Methylated arsenic species were measured at very low concentrations. The information should contribute to further understanding the presence of arsenic compounds in dominant seaweeds from the Thermaikos Gulf.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

FLVCR is necessary for erythroid maturation, may contribute to platelet maturation, but is dispensable for normal hematopoietic stem cell function

Authors: Byon, JCH; Chen, J; Doty, RT; Abkowitz, JL (In Press) Blood. HERO ID: 2064237

[Less] Heme is a pleiotropic molecule that is important for oxygen and oxidative metabolism, most notably as . . . [More] Heme is a pleiotropic molecule that is important for oxygen and oxidative metabolism, most notably as the prosthetic group of hemoglobin and cytochromes. Since, excess free intracellular heme is toxic, organisms have developed mechanisms to tightly regulate its concentration. One mechanism is through active heme export by FLVCR. Previously, we have shown that FLVCR is necessary for embryonic and post-natal erythropoiesis. However, FLVCR is also expressed in numerous other tissues, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To explore a possible role for FLVCR in HSC function, we performed serial, competitive repopulation transplant experiments using FLVCR-deleted and control bone marrow cells, along with wild-type competitor cells. Loss of FLVCR did not impact HSC function under steady-state or myelotoxic stress conditions (such as arsenic or radiation exposure), nor did FLVCR deletion result in alterations in the various progenitor compartments. However, even when 95% of the donor bone marrow cells lacked FLVCR, all red cells in recipient mice were wild-type. This is due to the increased apoptosis of FLVCR-deleted proerythroblasts. Also, remarkably, loss of FLVCR increased megakaryocyte ploidy. Together, these findings show FLVCR is redundant in stem cells, but has critical and contrasting stage-specific roles in discrete hematopoietic lineages.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Speciation and distribution of arsenic in the nonhyperaccumulator macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum

Authors: Mishra, S; Wellenreuther, G; Mattusch, J; Stärk, H-J; Küpper, H (In Press) Plant Physiology. HERO ID: 2064265

[Less] Although arsenic is a common pollutant worldwide, many questions about As metabolism in non-hyperaccumulator . . . [More] Although arsenic is a common pollutant worldwide, many questions about As metabolism in non-hyperaccumulator plants remain. Concentration and tissue dependent speciation and distribution of arsenic was analysed in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum to understand arsenic metabolism in non-hyperaccumulator plants. Speciation was analysed chromatographically (HPLC-(ICP-MS)-(ESI-MS)) in whole-plant extracts and by tissue-resolution confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy (µ XANES) in intact shock-frozen hydrated leaves, which were also used for analysing cellular element distribution through X-ray fluorescence (µ XRF). Chromatography revealed up to 20 As-containing species binding >60% of accumulated As. Of these, eight were identified as thiol-bound (phytochelatins; PCs, glutathione; GSH and cystein) species including three newly identified complexes: Cys-As(III)-PC2, Cys-As-(GS)2 and GS-As(III)-desgly-PC2 complex. Confocal µ XANES showed As(V), As(III), As-(GS)3 and As-PCs with varying ratios in various tissues. The epidermis of mature leaves contained the highest proportion of thiol- (mostly PC-) bound As, while in younger leaves a lower proportion of As was thiol-bound. At higher As concentrations, the percentage of unbound As(III) increased in the vein and mesophyll of young mature leaves. At the same time, µ XRF showed an increase of total As in the vein and mesophyll but not in the epidermis of young mature leaves while it was reverse for Zn distribution. Thus, As toxicity was correlated with a change in As distribution pattern and As species, rather than general increase in many tissues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Depth-resolved abundance and diversity of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria in the groundwater of Beimen, a blackfoot disease endemic area of southwestern Taiwan

Authors: Das, S; Kar, S; Jean, J-S; Rathod, J; Chakraborty, S; Liu, H-S; Bundschuh, J (In Press) Water Research. HERO ID: 2088477

[Less] The role of arsenite oxidizers in natural attenuation of arsenic pollution necessitates studies on their . . . [More] The role of arsenite oxidizers in natural attenuation of arsenic pollution necessitates studies on their abundance and diversity in arsenic-contaminated aquifers. In this study, most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied to monitor depth-wise abundance and diversity of aerobic arsenite oxidizers in arsenic-enriched groundwater of Beimen, southwestern Taiwan. The results revealed that the abundance of arsenite oxidizers ranged from 0.04 to 0.22, and the lowest ratio was observed in the most arsenic-enriched and comparatively more reduced groundwater (depth 200 m) of Beimen 1. The highest ratio was observed in the less arsenic-enriched and less reduced groundwater (depth 60 m) of Beimen 2B. DGGE profiles showed a shift in diversity of arsenite oxidizers, consisting of members of the Betaproteobacteria (61%), Alphaproteobacteria (28%) and Gammaproteobacteria (11%), depending on mainly arsenic concentration and redox level in groundwater. Groundwater with the lowest arsenic and highest dissolved oxygen at Beimen 2B harbored 78% of the arsenite oxidizers communities, while groundwater with the highest arsenic and lowest dissolved oxygen at Beimen 1 and Beimen-Jinhu harbored 17 and 22% of arsenite oxidizers communities, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. was found only in groundwater containing high arsenic at Beimen 1 and Beimen-Jinhu, while arsenite oxidizers belonging to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were dominated in groundwater containing low arsenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage in febrile children living in different areas of Gabon

Authors: Mawili-Mboumba, DP; Nikiéma, R; Bouyou-Akotet, MK; Bahamontes-Rosa, N; Traoré, A; Kombila, M (In Press) HERO ID: 2088478

[Less] BACKGROUND: Considering malaria prevalence declines in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Considering malaria prevalence declines in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, such as Gabon, identification of the human infectious reservoir is important for successful malaria control. Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasites contribute to malaria transmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proportion of microscopic and sub-microscopic gametocyte carriers among febrile patients in two different areas of Gabon.

METHODS: Samples from febrile children aged less than 11 years old were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 at two health centres of Gabon. Patients were screened for the presence of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Gametocyte carriage was determined by microscopy and QT-NASBA.

RESULTS: Gametocytes were detected in 5.3% (n = 16/304) of children by microscopy compared to 45.7% (n = 139/304) by QT-Nasba. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage (ie microscopy negative and QT-Nasba positive) was found in 89.2% (n = 124/139) of patients. Among patients with microscopically detected trophozoites, the proportion of sub-microscopic gametocyte (SMG) carriers was 58.4% (n = 118/202) and 6% in samples from children with negative slides (p < 0.01). In Oyem, where malaria prevalence is three-fold higher than in Owendo, SMG carriage was more frequent (49.0% vs 32.6% in Owendo; p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Sub-microscopic gametocytaemia is common among Gabonese febrile children. They might strongly contribute to maintain malaria transmission. However, further analysis of sub-microscopic parasite carriage among asymptomatic individuals will be helpful to better characterize malaria transmission.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis

Authors: Perry, MR; Wyllie, S; Raab, A; Feldmann, J; Fairlamb, AH (In Press) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. HERO ID: 2088479

[Less] The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with . . . [More] The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg⋅mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg⋅mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chelator-free synthesis of a dual-modality PET/MRI agent

Authors: Chen, F; Ellison, PA; Lewis, CM; Hong, H; Zhang, Y; Shi, S; Hernandez, R; Meyerand, ME; Barnhart, TE; Cai, W (In Press) Angewandte Chemie (International Edition). HERO ID: 2088480

[Less] Old technique, new application: A simple and efficient chelator-free strategy for the synthesis of a . . . [More] Old technique, new application: A simple and efficient chelator-free strategy for the synthesis of a novel dual-modality PET/MRI agent has been developed. Labeling of radioarsenic (*As(III) and *As(V) , *=71, 72, 74, 76) at the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) resulted in *As-SPIONs that can be used for simultaneous PET/MRI in cancer diagnosis, lymph-node mapping, and potentially for internal radiotherapy.