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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of biochemical responses of Bacopa monnieri L. upon exposure to arsenate

Authors: Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, RD (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017520

[Less] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation . . . [More] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation by edible and medicinal plants and associated health risks for the humans. In this study, phytotoxicity imposed upon exposure to arsenate [As(V); 0-250 μM for 1-7 days] and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri L. vis-à-vis As accumulation. Plants accumulated substantial amount of As (total 768 μg g(-1) dw at 250 μM As(V) after 7 days) with the maximum As retention being in roots (60%) followed by stem (23%) and leaves (17%). The level of cysteine and total nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) increased significantly at all exposure concentrations and durations. Besides, the level of metalloid binding ligands viz., glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased significantly at the studied concentrations [50 and 250 μM As(V)] in both roots and leaves. The activities of various enzymes viz., arsenate reductase (AR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) showed differential but coordinated stimulation in leaves and roots to help plants combat As toxicity up to moderate exposure concentrations (50 μM). However, beyond 50 μM, biomass production was found to decrease along with photosynthetic pigments and total soluble proteins, whereas lipid peroxidation increased. In conclusion, As accumulation potential of Bacopa may warrant its use as a phytoremediator but if Bacopa growing in contaminated areas is consumed by humans, it may prove to be toxic for health. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stabilization of tetrahedral P4 and As4 molecules as guests in polymeric and spherical environments

Authors: Schwarzmaier, C; Schindler, A; Heindl, C; Scheuermayer, S; Peresypkina, EV; Virovets, AV; Neumeier, M; Gschwind, R; Scheer, M (In Press) Angewandte Chemie (International Edition). HERO ID: 2064217

[Less] As you like it: [Ag(η(2) -As4 )2 ](+) [pftb](-) can be used to store yellow arsenic (As4 ). From it, . . . [More] As you like it: [Ag(η(2) -As4 )2 ](+) [pftb](-) can be used to store yellow arsenic (As4 ). From it, As4 can be easily released to give concentrated, light-stable solutions. These As4 solutions, and those of white phosphorus (P4 ), allowed molecular As4 and P4 to be encapsulated inside giant, spherical aggregates and polymeric matrices, enabling the first determination of their EE (E=P, As) bond lengths by diffraction methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Lewis base stabilized parent arsanylborane H2 AsBH2 ⋅NMe3

Authors: Marquardt, C; Adolf, A; Stauber, A; Bodensteiner, M; Virovets, AV; Timoshkin, AY; Scheer, M (In Press) Chemistry: A European Journal. HERO ID: 1798802

[Less] Exclusively hydrogen substituted arsanylboranes: The synthesis of the unprecedented Lewis base stabilized . . . [More] Exclusively hydrogen substituted arsanylboranes: The synthesis of the unprecedented Lewis base stabilized monomeric parent compound of the arsanylborane H2 AsBH2 ⋅NMe3 was achieved in a one-pot reaction in high yield and purity. The analogous phosphanylborane was synthesized in a similar manner. A series of different reactions was performed on H2 AsBH2 ⋅NMe3 to show its broad reactivity pattern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

Authors: Li, C; Srivastava, RK; Elmets, CA; Afaq, F; Athar, M (In Press) Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. HERO ID: 1936067

[Less] Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. . . . [More] Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The WKRY6 transcription factor is a key player in a multifaceted defense against arsenate

Author: Hofmann, NR (In Press) Plant Cell. HERO ID: 1936071

[Less] Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic, nonessential metalloid that may have played a large role in the evolution . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic, nonessential metalloid that may have played a large role in the evolution of life (Oremland et al., 2009). Arsenate [As(V)] is taken up and moved through the plant by phosphate (Pi) transporters (reviewed in Mendoza-Cózatl et al., 2011). Previously, it was reported that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to As(V) led to specific repression of genes responsible for Pi uptake, including that for the high-affinity phosphate transporter PHT1;1 (Catarecha et al., 2007). New work from Castrillo et al. (pages 2944–2957) reveals that this repression is just one aspect of a rapid and sensitive As(V)-specific defense response.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

WRKY6 transcription factor restricts arsenate uptake and transposon activation in arabidopsis

Authors: Castrillo, G; Sánchez-Bermejo, E; de Lorenzo, L; Crevillén, P; Fraile-Escanciano, A; Tc, M; Mouriz, A; Catarecha, P; Sobrino-Plata, J; Olsson, S; Leo Del Puerto, Y; Mateos, I; Rojo, E; Hernández, LE; Jarillo, JA; Piñeiro, M; Paz-Ares, J; Leyva, A (In Press) Plant Cell. HERO ID: 1936078

[Less] Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a . . . [More] Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a major threat during the early evolution of plants. The most prevalent chemical form of arsenic is arsenate, whose similarity to phosphate renders it easily incorporated into cells via the phosphate transporters. Here, we found that arsenate stress provokes a notable transposon burst in plants, in coordination with arsenate/phosphate transporter repression, which immediately restricts arsenate uptake. This repression was accompanied by delocalization of the phosphate transporter from the plasma membrane. When arsenate was removed, the system rapidly restored transcriptional expression and membrane localization of the transporter. We identify WRKY6 as an arsenate-responsive transcription factor that mediates arsenate/phosphate transporter gene expression and restricts arsenate-induced transposon activation. Plants therefore have a dual WRKY-dependent signaling mechanism that modulates arsenate uptake and transposon expression, providing a coordinated strategy for arsenate tolerance and transposon gene silencing.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate accumulation and arsenate-induced glutathione export in astrocyte-rich primary cultures

Authors: Meyer, N; Koehler, Y; Tulpule, K; Dringen, R (In Press) Neurochemistry International. HERO ID: 1519021

[Less] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. . . . [More] Arsenate is a toxic compound that has been connected with neuropathies and impaired cognitive functions. To test whether arsenate affects the viability and the GSH metabolism of brain astrocytes, we have used primary astrocyte cultures as model system. Incubation of astrocytes for 2 h with arsenate in concentrations of up to 10 mM caused an almost linear increase in the cellular arsenic content, but did not acutely compromise cell viability. The presence of moderate concentrations of arsenate caused a time- and concentration-dependent loss of GSH from viable astrocytes which was accompanied by a matching increase in the extracellular GSH content. Half-maximal effects were observed for arsenate in a concentration of about 0.3 mM. The arsenate-induced stimulated GSH export from astrocytes was prevented by MK571, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance protein 1. Exposure of astrocytes to arsenite increased the specific cellular arsenic content and stimulated GSH export to values that were similar to those observed for arsenate-treated cells, while dimethylarsinic acid was less efficiently accumulated by the cells and did not modulate cellular and extracellular GSH levels. The observed strong stimulation of GSH export from astrocytes by arsenate suggests that disturbances of the astrocytic GSH metabolism may contribute to the observed arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Proteomic approach of adaptive response to arsenic stress in Exiguobacterium sp. S17, an extremophile strain isolated from a high-altitude Andean Lake stromatolite

Authors: Belfiore, C; Ordoñez, OF; Farías, ME (In Press) Extremophiles. HERO ID: 1519035

[Less] The North-Western part of Argentina is particularly rich in wetlands located in the Puna in an altitude . . . [More] The North-Western part of Argentina is particularly rich in wetlands located in the Puna in an altitude between 3,600 and 4,600 m above sea level. Most of these high-altitude Andean lakes are inhospitable areas due to extreme habitat conditions such as high contents of toxic elements, particularly arsenic. Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from stromatolites in Laguna Socompa, exhibited remarkable tolerance to high arsenic concentration, i.e., it tolerated arsenic concentration such as 10 mM of As(III) and 150 mM of As(V). A proteomics approach was conducted to reveal the mechanisms that provide the observed outstanding resistance of Exiguobacterium sp. S17 against arsenic. A comparative analysis of S17, exposed and unexposed to arsenic revealed 25 differentially expressed proteins. Identification of these proteins was performed by MALDI-TOF/MS revealing upregulation of proteins involved in energy metabolism, stress, transport, and in protein synthesis being expressed under arsenic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first proteomic study of arsenic tolerance in an Exiguobacterium strain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Auxin and its transport play a role in plant tolerance to arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Krishnamurthy, A; Rathinasabapathi, B (In Press) Plant, Cell and Environment. HERO ID: 1519070

[Less] The role of auxin in plant development is well known; however, its possible function in root response . . . [More] The role of auxin in plant development is well known; however, its possible function in root response to abiotic stress is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of auxin transport in plant tolerance to oxidative stress caused by arsenite. Plant response to arsenite [As(III)] was evaluated by measuring root growth and markers for stress on seedlings treated with control or As(III)-containing medium. Auxin transporter mutants aux1, pin1 and pin2 were significantly more sensitive to As(III) than the wild type (WT). Auxin transport inhibitors significantly reduced plant tolerance to As(III) in the WT, while exogenous supply of indole-3-acetic acid improved As(III) tolerance of aux1 and not that of WT. Uptake assays using H(3) -IAA showed As(III) affected auxin transport in WT roots. As(III) increased the levels of H2 O2 in WT but not in aux1, suggesting a positive role for auxin transport through AUX1 on plant tolerance to As(III) stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signalling. Compared to the WT, the mutant aux1 was significantly more sensitive to high-temperature stress and salinity, also suggesting auxin transport influences a common element shared by plant tolerance to arsenite, salinity and high-temperature stress.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Batch effects and pathway analysis: Two potential perils in cancer studies involving DNA methylation array analysis

Authors: Harper, KN; Peters, BA; Gamble, MV (In Press) Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. HERO ID: 1579252

[Less] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role . . . [More] Background: DNA methylation microarrays have become an increasingly popular means of studying the role of epigenetics in cancer, though the methods used to analyze these arrays are still being developed and existing methods are not always widely disseminated among microarray users. Methods: We investigated two problems likely to confront DNA methylation microarray users: 1) batch effects; and 2) the use of widely available pathway analysis software to analyze results. First, DNA taken from individuals exposed to low and high levels of drinking water arsenic were plated twice on Illumina's Infinium 450K humanmethylation array, once in order of exposure and again following randomization. Second, we performed simulations in which random CpG sites were drawn from the 450K array and subjected to pathway analysis using Ingenuity's IPA software. Results: The majority of differentially methylated CpG sites identified in Run One were due to batch effects; few sites were also identified in Run Two. In addition, the pathway analysis software reported many significant associations between our data, randomly drawn from the 450K array, and various diseases and biological functions. Conclusions: Data from our own laboratory illustrate the pitfalls of not properly controlling for chip-specific batch effects as well as using pathway analysis software created for gene expression arrays to analyze DNA methylation array data. Impact: We present evidence that 1) chip-specific effects can simulate plausible differential methylation results; and 2) popular pathway analysis software developed for expression arrays can yield spurious results when used in tandem with methylation microarrays.