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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of biochemical responses of Bacopa monnieri L. upon exposure to arsenate

Authors: Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, RD (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017520

[Less] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation . . . [More] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation by edible and medicinal plants and associated health risks for the humans. In this study, phytotoxicity imposed upon exposure to arsenate [As(V); 0-250 μM for 1-7 days] and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri L. vis-à-vis As accumulation. Plants accumulated substantial amount of As (total 768 μg g(-1) dw at 250 μM As(V) after 7 days) with the maximum As retention being in roots (60%) followed by stem (23%) and leaves (17%). The level of cysteine and total nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) increased significantly at all exposure concentrations and durations. Besides, the level of metalloid binding ligands viz., glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased significantly at the studied concentrations [50 and 250 μM As(V)] in both roots and leaves. The activities of various enzymes viz., arsenate reductase (AR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) showed differential but coordinated stimulation in leaves and roots to help plants combat As toxicity up to moderate exposure concentrations (50 μM). However, beyond 50 μM, biomass production was found to decrease along with photosynthetic pigments and total soluble proteins, whereas lipid peroxidation increased. In conclusion, As accumulation potential of Bacopa may warrant its use as a phytoremediator but if Bacopa growing in contaminated areas is consumed by humans, it may prove to be toxic for health. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability

Authors: Bolan, N; Mahimairaja, S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1579241

[Less] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components . . . [More] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture

Authors: Seco-Reigosa, N; Peña-Rodríguez, S; Nóvoa-Muñoz, JC; Arias-Estévez, M; Fernández-Sanjurjo, MJ; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E; Núñez-Delgado, A (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1338680

[Less] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has . . . [More] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6 %), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94 %, As(V) >96 % and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30 % for shell ash; Hg(II) >98 %, As(V) >88 % and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88 % for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was <5 % for both shell ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45 % for shell ash, and between 19 and 0 % for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metal tolerance and larvicidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Authors: Lozano, LC; Dussán, J (In Press) World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1519059

[Less] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes . . . [More] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes and in bioremediation. Mosquito larvae exposed to heavy metals are tolerant to concentrations above the permissible limit for industrial residual waters. In this work, we characterize 51 L. sphaericus strains for metal tolerance and larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.2, OT4b.20, OT4b.25, OT4b.26 and OT4b.58 were as toxic as the spores of the reference strain 2362 against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. 19 Mosquito-pathogenic L. sphaericus strains and 6 non-pathogenic strains were able to grow in arsenate, hexavalent chromium and/or lead. 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analyses clustered 84 % of the metal-tolerant strains in L. sphaericus group 1, which encompasses the mosquitocidal strains. The larvicidal activity of vegetative and sporulated cells and its high tolerance to arsenate, hexavalent chromium and lead indicate that L. sphaericus OT4b.26 is a strong candidate for further studies examining its potential for biological control of mosquitoes in waters contaminated with metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous redox conversion of chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) under acidic conditions

Authors: Wang, Z; Bush, RT; Sullivan, LA; Liu, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1597316

[Less] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful . . . [More] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful as arsenite (As(III)) and hexavalent (Cr(VI)). To simultaneously change their oxidation state from As(III) to As(V), and Cr(VI) to Cr(III), is a potentially effective and attractive strategy for environmental remediation. The coabundance of As(III) and Cr(VI) in natural environments indicates their negligible direct interaction. The addition of H2O2 enables and greatly accelerates the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) and reduction of Cr(VI). These reactions are further enhanced at acidic pH and higher concentrations of Cr(VI). However, the presence of ligands (i.e., oxalate, citrate, pyrophosphate) greatly retards the oxidation of As(III), even though it enhances the reduction of Cr(VI). To explain these results we propose a reaction mechanism where Cr(VI) is primarily reduced to Cr(III) by H2O2, via the intermediate tetraperoxochromate Cr(V). Cr(V) is then involved in the formation of (•)OH radicals. In the presence of ligands, the capacity of Cr(V) to form (•)OH radicals, which are primarily responsible for As(III) oxidation, is practically inhibited. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility for the coconversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) in AMD and real-world constraints to this strategy for environmental remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers

Authors: Rosso, JJ; Schenone, NF; Pérez Carrera, A; Fernández Cirelli, A (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1337358

[Less] Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination . . . [More] Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence of population genetic effects in Peromyscus melanophrys chronically exposed to mine tailings in Morelos, Mexico

Authors: Mussali-Galante, P; Tovar-Sánchez, E; Valverde, M; Valencia-Cuevas, L; Rojas, E (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1337582

[Less] Effects of environmental chemical pollution can be observed at all levels of biological organization. . . . [More] Effects of environmental chemical pollution can be observed at all levels of biological organization. At the population level, genetic structure and diversity may be affected by exposure to metal contamination. This study was conducted in Huautla, Morelos, Mexico in a mining district where the main contaminants are lead and arsenic. Peromyscus melanophrys is a small mammal species that inhabits Huautla mine tailings and has been considered as a sentinel species. Metal bioaccumulation levels were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and genetic analyses were performed using eight microsatellite loci in 100 P. melanophrys individuals from 3 mine tailings and 2 control sites. The effect of metal bioaccumulation levels on genetic parameters (population and individual genetic diversity, genetic structure) was analyzed. We found a tissue concentration gradient for each metal and for the bioaccumulation index. The highest values of genetic differentiation (Fst and Rst) and the lowest number of migrants per generation (Nm) were registered among the exposed populations. Genetic distance analyses showed that the most polluted population was the most genetically distant among the five populations examined. Moreover, a negative and significant relationship was detected between genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity and internal relatedness) and each metal concentration and for the bioaccumulation index in P. melanophrys. This study highlights that metal stress is a major factor affecting the distribution and genetic diversity levels of P. melanophrys populations living inside mine tailings. We suggest the use of genetic population changes at micro-geographical scales as a population level biomarker.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A new arsenate reductase involved in arsenic detoxification in Anabaena sp. PCC7120

Authors: Pandey, S; Shrivastava, AK; Singh, VK; Rai, R; Singh, PK; Rai, S; Rai, LC (In Press) Functional & Integrative Genomics. HERO ID: 1337651

[Less] In silico analysis followed by experimental validation leads us to propose that the predicted protein . . . [More] In silico analysis followed by experimental validation leads us to propose that the predicted protein All0195 of Anabaena sp. PCC7120 showing enhanced expression under sodium arsenate (Na(2)HAsO(4)) stress belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily with structural similarity to bacterial arsenate reductase. The All0195 protein demonstrated C-X-TC-X-K, NTSG-X(2)-YR, and D-X(2)-L-X-KRP as functional motifs that show similarity to seven known bacterial arsenate reductase family protein homologs with Cys, Arg, and Pro as conserved residues. In view of physicochemical properties, such as aliphatic index, ratio of Glu + Lys to Gln + His, and secondary structure, it was evident that All0195 was also a thermostable protein. The predicted three-dimensional structure on molecular docking with arsenate oxyanion ([Formula: see text]) revealed its interaction with conserved Cys residue as also known for other bacterial arsenate reductase. In silico derived properties were experimentally attested by cloning and heterologous expression of all0195. Furthermore, this protein functionally complemented the arsenate reductase-deficient sodium arsenate-hypersensitive phenotype of Escherichia coli strainWC3110 (ΔarsC) and depicted arsenate reductase activity on purification. In view of the above properties, All0195 appears to be a new arsenate reductase involved in arsenic detoxification in Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

EMT and CSC-like properties mediated by the IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via the transcriptional regulator, Snail, are involved in the arsenite-induced neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes

Authors: Jiang, R; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Zhou, Y; Pang, Y; Shen, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, J; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, Q (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. HERO ID: 1337675

[Less] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition . . . [More] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties are essential steps in the initiation of human skin cancers; however, the mechanisms of action remain obscure. We have found that, during the neoplastic transformation induced by a low concentration (1.0 μM) of arsenite in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, the cells undergo an EMT and then acquire a malignant CSC-like phenotype. With longer times for transformation of HaCaT cells, there were increased activations of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), inhibitor nuclear factor-kappa B alpha (IκBα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) RelA and increases in the level of Snail. Further, during the transformation of HaCaT cells, the activation of NF-κB RelA up-regulated Snail levels. Inhibition of NF-κB RelA blocked the arsenite-induced EMT, acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype, and neoplastic transformation. These observations show that EMT, along with acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype mediated by IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via Snail, contributes to a low concentration of arsenite-induced tumorigenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and sorption properties of arsenicals in marine sediments

Authors: Fauser, P; Sanderson, H; Hedegaard, RV; Sloth, JJ; Larsen, MM; Krongaard, T; Bossi, R; Larsen, JB (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1337685

[Less] The content of total arsenic, the inorganic forms: arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), the methylated . . . [More] The content of total arsenic, the inorganic forms: arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), the methylated forms: monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), trimethylarsenic oxide, tetramethylarsenonium ion and arsenobetaine was measured in 95 sediment samples and 11 pore water samples from the Baltic Sea near the island of Bornholm at depths of up to 100 m. As(III+V) and DMA were detected in the sediment and As(III+V) was detected in the sediment pore water. Average total As concentration of 10.6 ± 7.4 mg/kg dry matter (DM) in the sediment corresponds to previously reported values in the Baltic Sea and other parts of the world. Existing data for on-site measurements of sorption coefficients (Kd) of arsenicals in marine and freshwater sediments show large variability from <1 to >1,000 L/kg. In this work, calculated sorption coefficients (Kd and Koc) for As(III+V) showed significant correlation with depth, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity and sediment classification; for depths <70 m, salinity <11 %, DO >9 mg/L and sand/silt/clay sediments the Kd was 118 ± 76 L/kg DM and for depths >70 m, salinity >11 %, DO < 9 mg/L and muddy sediments the Kd was 513 ± 233 L/kg DM. The authors recommend using the found Kd value for arsenic in marine sediments when conditions are similar to the Baltic Sea. At locations with significant anthropogenic point sources or where the local geology contains volcanic rock and sulphide mineral deposits, there may be significantly elevated arsenic concentrations, and it is recommended to determine on-site Kd values.