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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Remediation of inorganic arsenic in groundwater for safe water supply: A critical assessment of technological solutions

Authors: Mondal, P; Bhowmick, S; Chatterjee, D; Figoli, A; Van der Bruggen, B (In Press) Chemosphere. [Review] HERO ID: 1519091

[Less] Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or . . . [More] Arsenic contaminations of groundwater in several parts of the world are the results of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, and have a large impact on human health. Millions of people from different countries rely on groundwater containing As for drinking purposes. This paper reviews removal technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane processes) with attention for the drawbacks and limitations of these applied technologies. The technologies suggested and applied for treatment of As rich water have various problems, including the need for further treatment of As containing secondary waste generated from these water treatment processes. More efficient technologies, with a lower tendency to generate waste include the removal of As by membrane distillation or forward osmosis, instead of using pressure driven membrane processes and subsequently reducing soluble As to commercially valuable metallic As are surveyed. An integrated approach of two or more techniques is suggested to be more beneficial than a single process. Advanced technologies such as membrane distillation, forward osmosis as well as some hybrid integrated techniques and their potentials are also discussed in this review. Membrane processes combined with other process (especially iron based technologies) are thought to be most sustainable for the removal of arsenic and further research allowing scale up of these technologies is suggested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metabolism of arsenic and its toxicological relevance

Authors: Watanabe, T; Hirano, S (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. [Review] HERO ID: 1255658

[Less] Arsenic is a worldwide environmental pollutant and a human carcinogen. It is well recognized that the . . . [More] Arsenic is a worldwide environmental pollutant and a human carcinogen. It is well recognized that the toxicity of arsenicals largely depends on the oxidoreduction states (trivalent or pentavalent) and methylation levels (monomethyl, dimethyl, and trimethyl) that are present during the process of metabolism in mammals. However, presently, the specifics of the metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenicals have yet to be confirmed. In mammals, there are two possible mechanisms that have been proposed for the metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenicals, oxidative methylation, and glutathione conjugation. Oxidative methylation, which was originally proposed in fungi, is based on findings that arsenite (iAs(III)) is sequentially converted to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) in both humans and in laboratory animals such as mice and rats. However, recent in vitro observations have demonstrated that arsenic is only methylated in the presence of glutathione (GSH) or other thiol compounds, which strongly suggests that arsenic is methylated in trivalent forms. The glutathione conjugation mechanism is supported by findings that have shown that most intracellular arsenicals are trivalent and excreted from cells as GSH conjugates. Since non-conjugated trivalent arsenicals are highly reactive with thiol compounds and are easily converted to less toxic corresponding pentavalent arsenicals, the arsenic-glutathione conjugate stability may be the most important factor for determining the toxicity of arsenicals. In addition, "being a non-anionic form" also appears to be a determinant of the toxicity of oxo-arsenicals or thioarsenicals. The present review discusses both the metabolism of arsenic and the toxicity of arsenic metabolites.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioreporters and biosensors for arsenic detection. Biotechnological solutions for a world-wide pollution problem

Authors: Merulla, D; Buffi, N; Beggah, S; Truffer, F; Geiser, M; Renaud, P; van der Meer, JR (In Press) Current Opinion in Biotechnology. [Review] HERO ID: 1338620

[Less] A wide variety of whole cell bioreporter and biosensor assays for arsenic detection has been developed . . . [More] A wide variety of whole cell bioreporter and biosensor assays for arsenic detection has been developed over the past decade. The assays permit flexible detection instrumentation while maintaining excellent method of detection limits in the environmentally relevant range of 10-50μg arsenite per L and below. New emerging trends focus on genetic rewiring of reporter cells and/or integration into microdevices for more optimal detection. A number of case studies have shown realistic field applicability of bioreporter assays.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Therapeutic roles of curcumin: Lessons learned from clinical trials

Authors: Gupta, SC; Patchva, S; Aggarwal, BB (2013) AAPS Journal 15:195-218. [Review] HERO ID: 1337513

[Less] Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component . . . [More] Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin's pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E(2), prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin has been investigated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

Authors: Wilson, VS; Keshava, N; Hester, S; Segal, D; Chiu, W; Thompson, CM; Euling, SY (2013) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 271:299-308. [Review] HERO ID: 2064305

[Less] The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation . . . [More] The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh

Authors: Jiang, J-Q; Ashekuzzaman, SM; Jiang, A; Sharifuzzaman, SM; Chowdhury, SR (2013) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10:18-46. [Review] HERO ID: 1508630

[Less] Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking . . . [More] Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contamination and adulteration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs): an overview of systematic reviews

Authors: Posadzki, P; Watson, L; Ernst, E (2013) European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 69:295-307. [Review] HERO ID: 1256736

[Less] PURPOSE: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews is to summarise and critically evaluate the . . . [More] PURPOSE: The aim of this overview of systematic reviews is to summarise and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews of the adulteration and contamination of herbal medicinal products (HMPs). METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant systematic reviews. RESULTS: Twenty-six systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria. The most commonly HMPs were adulterated or contaminated with dust, pollens, insects, rodents, parasites, microbes, fungi, mould, toxins, pesticides, toxic heavy metals and/or prescription drugs. The most severe adverse effects caused by these adulterations were agranulocytosis, meningitis, multi-organ failure, perinatal stroke, arsenic, lead or mercury poisoning, malignancies or carcinomas, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, nephrotoxicity, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, renal or liver failure, cerebral edema, coma, intracerebral haemorrhage, and death. Adulteration and contamination of HMPs were most commonly noted for traditional Indian and Chinese remedies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively these data suggest that there are reasons for concerns with regards to the quality of HMPs. Adulteration and contamination of HMPs can cause serious adverse effects. More stringent quality control and its enforcement seem to be necessary to avoid health risks.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Molecular features in arsenic-induced lung tumors

Authors: Hubaux, R; Becker-Santos, DD; Enfield, KSS; Rowbotham, D; Lam, S; Lam, WL; Martinez, VD (2013) Molecular Cancer 12:20. [Review] HERO ID: 1519049

[Less] Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, which potentially affects ~160 million people worldwide via . . . [More] Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen, which potentially affects ~160 million people worldwide via exposure to unsafe levels in drinking water. Lungs are one of the main target organs for arsenic-related carcinogenesis. These tumors exhibit particular features, such as squamous cell-type specificity and high incidence among never smokers. Arsenic-induced malignant transformation is mainly related to the biotransformation process intended for the metabolic clearing of the carcinogen, which results in specific genetic and epigenetic alterations that ultimately affect key pathways in lung carcinogenesis. Based on this, lung tumors induced by arsenic exposure could be considered an additional subtype of lung cancer, especially in the case of never-smokers, where arsenic is a known etiological agent. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the various mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenicity and the specific roles of this metalloid in signaling pathways leading to lung cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

Authors: Farzan, SF; Karagas, MR; Chen, Y (2013) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 272:384-390. [Review] HERO ID: 1797821

[Less] BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure . . . [More] BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications.

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models.

METHODS: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms "arsenic", "in utero", "transplacental", "prenatal" and "fetal".

DISCUSSION: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects.

CONCLUSIONS: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic

Authors: Cohen, SM; Arnold, LL; Beck, BD; Lewis, AS; Eldan, M (2013) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 43:711-752. [Review] HERO ID: 2064196

[Less] Inorganic arsenic (iAs) at high exposures is a human carcinogen, affecting mainly the urinary bladder, . . . [More] Inorganic arsenic (iAs) at high exposures is a human carcinogen, affecting mainly the urinary bladder, lung and skin. We present an assessment of the mode of action (MOA) of iAs's carcinogenicity based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency/International Programme on Chemical Safety (USEPA/IPCS) framework, focusing primarily on bladder cancer. Evidence is presented for a MOA involving formation of reactive trivalent metabolites interacting with critical cellular sulfhydryl groups, leading to cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation. Metabolism, kinetics, cell transport, and reaction with specific proteins play a critical role in producing the effects at the cellular level, regardless of cell type, whether urothelium, lung epithelium or epidermis. The cytotoxicity induced by iAs results in non-cancer toxicities, and the regenerative cell proliferation enhances development of epithelial cancers. In other tissues, such as vascular endothelium, different toxicities develop, not cancer. Evidence supporting this MOA comes from in vitro investigations on animal and human cells, from animal models, and from epidemiological studies. This MOA implies a non-linear, threshold dose-response relationship for both non-cancer and cancer end points. The no effect levels in animal models (approximately 1 ppm of water or diet) and in vitro (>0.1 µM trivalent arsenicals) are strikingly consistent. Cancer effects of iAs in humans generally are not observed below exposures of 100-150 ppb in drinking water: below these exposures, human urine concentrations of trivalent metabolites are generally below 0.1 µM, a concentration not associated with bladder cell cytotoxicity in in vitro or animal models. Environmental exposures to iAs in most of the United States do not approach this threshold.