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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An arsenic-contaminated field trial to assess the uptake and translocation of arsenic by genotypes of rice

Authors: Lei, M; Tie, B; Zeng, M; Qing, P; Song, Z; Williams, PN; Huang, Y (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1337505

[Less] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important . . . [More] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg(-1), with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg(-1). The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root ≫ soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

High Resolution Mapping of Complex Traits with a Four-Parent Advanced Intercross Yeast Population

Authors: Cubillos, FA; Parts, L; Salinas, F; Bergström, A; Scovacricchi, E; Zia, A; Illingworth, CJ; Mustonen, V; Ibstedt, S; Warringer, J; Louis, EJ; Durbin, R; Liti, G (In Press) Genetics (Online). HERO ID: 2064246

[Less] A large fraction of human complex trait heritability is due to a high number of variants with small . . . [More] A large fraction of human complex trait heritability is due to a high number of variants with small marginal effects, and their interactions with genotype and environment. Such alleles are more easily studied in model organisms, where environment, genetic makeup and allele frequencies can be controlled. Here, we examine the effect of natural genetic variation on heritable traits in a very large pool of baker's yeast from a multi-parent 12(th) generation intercross. We selected four representative founder strains to produce the SGRP-4X mapping population, and sequenced 192 segregants to generate an accurate genetic map. Using these individuals, we mapped 25 loci linked to growth traits under heat stress, arsenite and paraquat, the majority of which were best explained by a diverging phenotype caused by a single allele in one condition. By sequencing pooled DNA from millions of segregants grown under heat stress, we further identified 34 and 39 regions selected in haploid and diploid pools respectively, with most of the selection against a single allele. While the most parsimonious model for the majority of loci mapped using either approach was the effect of an allele private to one founder, we could validate examples of pleiotropic effects, and complex allelic series at a locus. SGRP-4X is a deeply characterised resource that provides a framework for powerful and high-resolution genetic analysis of yeast phenotypes, and serves as a test bed for testing avenues to attack human complex traits.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of arsenic on modification of promyelocytic leukemia (PML): PML responds to low levels of arsenite

Authors: Hirano, S; Watanabe, T; Kobayashi, Y (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 2088511

[Less] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, . . . [More] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, it has been used as a therapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which is caused by a fusion protein comprising retinoic acid receptor-α and promyelocytic leukemia (PML). PML, a nuclear transcription factor, has a RING finger domain with densely positioned cysteine residues. To examine PML-modulated cellular responses to iAs(3+), CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells were each used to establish cell lines that expressed ectopic human PML. Overexpression of PML increased susceptibility to iAs(3+) in CHO-K1 cells, but not in HEK293 cells. Exposure of PML-transfected cells to iAs(3+) caused PML to change from a soluble form to less soluble forms, and this modification of PML was observable even with just 0.1μM iAs(3+) (7.5ppb). Western blot and immunofluorescent microscopic analyses revealed that the biochemical changes of PML were caused at least in part by conjugation with small ubiquitin-like modifier proteins (SUMOylation). A luciferase reporter gene was used to investigate whether modification of PML was caused by oxidative stress or activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) in CHO-K1 cells. Modification of PML protein occurred faster than activation of the ARE in response to iAs(3+), suggesting that PML was not modified as a consequence of oxidative stress-induced ARE activation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indium diffusion and native oxide removal during the ALD of TiO2 films on InAs(100) surfaces

Authors: Ye, L; Gougousi, T (In Press) . HERO ID: 1797772

[Less] A thermal ALD process with tetrakis dimethyl amino titanium and H2O as reagents has been used to deposit . . . [More] A thermal ALD process with tetrakis dimethyl amino titanium and H2O as reagents has been used to deposit TiO2 films on native oxide and etched InAs(100) surfaces at 200°C. TiO2 was deposited on etched InAs(100) surface without the formation of undesirable interfacial layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data on a series of films of increasing thickness deposited on surfaces covered with native oxide has shown that the surface arsenic oxides are removed within the first 2-3 nm of film deposition. The indium oxides however after an initial reduction seem to persist and increase in intensity with film thickness. For a 6.4 nm TiO2 film, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile data demonstrate accumulation of indium oxides at the TiO2 film surface. When the topmost layer of the indium/TiO2 film is removed then a sharp interface between the TiO2 film and the InAs substrate is detected. This observation demonstrates that the surface oxides diffuse through fairly thick TiO2 films and may subsequently be removed by reaction with the precursor and amine by products of the ALD reaction. These finding underscore the importance of diffusion in understanding the so called "interface clean-up" reaction and its potential impact on the fabrication of high quality InAs and other III-V based MOS devices.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dicopper(II) metallacyclophanes with electroswitchable polymethyl-substituted para-phenylene spacers

Authors: Ferrando-Soria, J; Castellano, M; Ruiz-García, R; Cano, J; Julve, M; Lloret, F; Ruiz-Pérez, C; Pasán, J; Cañadillas-Delgado, L; Armentano, D; Journaux, Y; Pardo, E (In Press) HERO ID: 1797800

[Less] Double-stranded anionic dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclic complexes of the paracyclophane type [Cu2 . . . [More] Double-stranded anionic dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclic complexes of the paracyclophane type [Cu2 L2 ](4-) have been prepared by the Cu(II) -mediated self-assembly of different para-phenylenebis(oxamato) bridging ligands with either zero-, one-, or four-electron-donating methyl substituents (L=N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (ppba; 1), 2-methyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Meppba; 2), and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Me4 ppba; 3)). These complexes have been isolated as their tetra-n-butylammonium (1 a-3 a), lithium(I) (1 b-3 b), and tetraphenylphosphonium salts (1 c-3 c). The X-ray crystal structures of 1 a and 3 c show a parallel-displaced π-stacked conformation with a smaller deviation from perpendicularity between the two benzene rings and the basal planes of the square planar Cu(II) ions when increasing the number of methyl substituents (average dihedral angles (ϕ) of 58.72(7) and 73.67(5)° for 1 a and 3 c, respectively). Variable-temperature (2.0-300 K) magnetic-susceptibility measurements show an overall increase of the intramolecular antiferromagnetic coupling with the number of methyl substituents onto the para-phenylene spacers (-J=75-95, 100-124, and 128-144 cm(-1) for 1 a-c, 2 a-c, and 3 a-c, respectively; H=-JS1 ×S2 ). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements show a reversible one-electron oxidation of the double polymethyl-substituted para-phenylenediamidate bridging skeleton at a relatively low formal potential that decreases with the number of methyl substituents (E1 =+0.33, +0.24, and +0.15 V vs. SCE for 1-3, respectively). The monooxidized dicopper(II) π-radical cation species 3' prepared by the chemical oxidation of 3 with bromine exhibits intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible and near-IR (λmax =595 and 875 nm, respectively) regions together with a rhombic EPR signal with a seven-line splitting pattern due to hyperfine coupling with the nuclear spin of the two Cu(II) ions. Density functional (DF) calculations for 3' evidence a characteristic iminoquinonoid-type short-long-short alternating sequence of CN and CC bonds for both tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamidate bridges and a large amount of spin density of negative sign mainly delocalized along each of the four benzene C atoms directly attached to the amidate N atoms, which is in agreement with a fully delocalized π-stacked monoradical ligand description. Hence, the spins of the two Cu(II) ions (SCu =1/2) that are antiparallel aligned in 3 (OFF state) become parallel in 3' (ON state). Further developments may be then envisaged for this new permethylated dicopper(II) paracyclophane with a redox noninnocent ligand as a prototype for molecular magnetic electroswitch.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis and onwards coordination of an As(I) centered zwitterion

Authors: Dube, JW; Ragogna, PJ (In Press) Chemistry: A European Journal. HERO ID: 1797834

[Less] The bis(phosphino)borate ligand class is used as an anionic anchor to stabilize reactive, low coordinate . . . [More] The bis(phosphino)borate ligand class is used as an anionic anchor to stabilize reactive, low coordinate arsenic centers. The neutral, zwitterionic As(I) species, 2, is formed very cleanly, and isolated in good yields using cyclohexene as a halogen scavenger. The uniqueness of this heterocyclic As(I) compound is on display with the coordination to Group 6 metal centers, (2 M(CO)5 ; M=Cr, Mo, W). The arsenicmetal bond lengths are longer than the related AsPh3 complexes suggesting that compound 2 is a weak sigma donor. The metal complexes reveal a trigonal pyramidal arsenic atom, which provides the first experimental evidence for the presence of two "lone pairs" of electrons on the As(I) center. When more flexible and more electron-donating isopropyl substituents were used, an intermediate (compound 5) in the formation of low coordinate pnictogen compounds was crystallographically characterized. This structure, formally a base-stabilized dichloroarsenium cation, provides an alternative mechanistic proposal to the one described in the literature.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of text messaging to deter early resumption of sexual activity after male circumcision for HIV prevention: A randomized controlled trial

Authors: Odeny, TA; Bailey, RC; Bukusi, EA; Simoni, JM; Tapia, KA; Yuhas, K; Holmes, KK; McClelland, RS (In Press) . HERO ID: 1797836

[Less] Background: Resumption of sex before complete wound healing after male circumcision may increase risk . . . [More] Background: Resumption of sex before complete wound healing after male circumcision may increase risk of postoperative surgical complications, and HIV acquisition and transmission. We aimed to determine the effect of text messaging to deter resumption of sex before 42 days postcircumcision. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial where men older than18 years who owned mobile phones and had just undergone circumcision were randomized to receive a series of text messages (n = 600) or usual care (n = 600). The primary outcome was self-reported resumption of sex before 42 days. Results: Sex before 42 days was reported by 139 of 491 (28.3%) men in the intervention group and 124 of 493 (25.2%) men in the control group [relative risk = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91 to 1.38, P = 0.3]. Men were more likely to resume early if they were married or had a live-in sexual partner [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.08, P < 0.01]; in the month before circumcision had 1 (aRR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.12, P = 0.02) or more than 1 (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.66, P < 0.01) sexual partner(s); had primary school or lower education (aRR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.97, P< 0.001); were employed (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.72, P = 0.02); or were 21–30 years old (aRR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.47, P = 0.05), 31–40 years old (aRR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.09, P < 0.01), or older than 40 years (aRR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.97, P = 0.03) compared with younger than 21 years. Conclusions: Text messaging as used in this trial did not reduce early resumption of sex after circumcision. We identified key risk factors for early resumption that need to be considered in circumcision programs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether steroids reduce the incidence and severity of nephropathy in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

Authors: Dudley, J; Smith, G; Llewelyn-Edwards, A; Bayliss, K; Pike, K; Tizard, J (In Press) Archives of Disease in Childhood. HERO ID: 1797837

[Less] BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is predominantly determined by . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is predominantly determined by the extent of renal involvement. There is no consensus as to whether treatment with prednisolone at presentation can prevent or ameliorate the progression of nephropathy in HSP.

METHODS: Children under 18 years of age with new-onset HSP were randomly assigned to receive prednisolone or placebo for 14 days. The primary outcomes were (a) the presence of proteinuria at 12 months (defined as urine protein : creatinine ratio (UP : UC) >20 mg/mmol) and (b) the need for additional treatment (defined as the presence of hypertension requiring treatment or renal biopsy anomalies or the need for treatment of renal disease) during the 12 month study period.

RESULTS: 352 children were randomised. Of those patients with laboratory UP : UC results available at 12 months, 18/123 (15%) patients on prednisolone and 13/124 (10%) patients on placebo had UP : UC >20 mg/mmol. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with UP : UC >20 mg/mmol at 12 months between the treatment groups (OR (prednisolone/placebo)=1.46, 95% CI 0.68 to 3.14, n=247), even after adjusting for baseline proteinuria and medications known to affect proteinuria (adjusted OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.82, n=247). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the time needed for additional treatment between the two groups (hazard ratio (HR) (prednisolone/placebo)=0.53, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.59, n=323).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest trial of the role of steroids in children with HSP. We found no evidence to suggest that early treatment with prednisolone reduces the prevalence of proteinuria 12 months after disease onset in children with HSP.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN71445600.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Correction: Arsenic exposure and cancer mortality in a US-based prospective cohort: The strong heart study

(In Press) Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. HERO ID: 1797849


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Natural decrease of dissolved arsenic in a small stream receiving drainages of abandoned silver mines in Guanajuato, Mexico

Authors: Ramos Arroyo, YR; Serafín Muñoz, AH; Yanez Barrientos, E; Rodriguez Huerta, I; Wrobel, K; Wrobel, K (In Press) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1936024

[Less] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical . . . [More] Arsenic release from the abandoned mines and its fate in a local stream were studied. Physicochemical parameters, metals/metalloids and arsenic species were determined. One of the mine drainages was found as a point source of contamination with 309 μg L(-1) of dissolved arsenic; this concentration declined rapidly to 10.5 μg L(-1) about 2 km downstream. Data analysis confirmed that oxidation of As(III) released from the primary sulfide minerals was favored by the increase of pH and oxidation reduction potential; the results obtained in multivariate approach indicated that self-purification of water was due to association of As(V) with secondary solid phase containing Fe, Mn, Ca.