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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of biochemical responses of Bacopa monnieri L. upon exposure to arsenate

Authors: Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, RD (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017520

[Less] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation . . . [More] Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation by edible and medicinal plants and associated health risks for the humans. In this study, phytotoxicity imposed upon exposure to arsenate [As(V); 0-250 μM for 1-7 days] and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri L. vis-à-vis As accumulation. Plants accumulated substantial amount of As (total 768 μg g(-1) dw at 250 μM As(V) after 7 days) with the maximum As retention being in roots (60%) followed by stem (23%) and leaves (17%). The level of cysteine and total nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) increased significantly at all exposure concentrations and durations. Besides, the level of metalloid binding ligands viz., glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased significantly at the studied concentrations [50 and 250 μM As(V)] in both roots and leaves. The activities of various enzymes viz., arsenate reductase (AR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) showed differential but coordinated stimulation in leaves and roots to help plants combat As toxicity up to moderate exposure concentrations (50 μM). However, beyond 50 μM, biomass production was found to decrease along with photosynthetic pigments and total soluble proteins, whereas lipid peroxidation increased. In conclusion, As accumulation potential of Bacopa may warrant its use as a phytoremediator but if Bacopa growing in contaminated areas is consumed by humans, it may prove to be toxic for health. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability

Authors: Bolan, N; Mahimairaja, S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1579241

[Less] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components . . . [More] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: A case study

Authors: Ouyang, Y; Zhang, JE; Parajuli, P (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1644868

[Less] Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides . . . [More] Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land uses using field measurements and two-dimensional kriging analysis. Comparison of the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents against the US EPA's water quality criteria showed that the maximum nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) and arsenic (As) concentrations exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limits, while the maximum Cl, SO 4 (2 -) , and Mn concentrations exceeded the EPA's national secondary drinking water regulations. In general, high kriging estimated groundwater NH 4 (+) concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, while high kriging estimated groundwater NO x concentrations were observed in the residential areas with a high density of septic tank distribution. Our study further revealed that more areas were found with high estimated NO x concentrations in summer than in spring. This occurred partially because of more NO x leaching into the shallow groundwater due to the wetter summer and partially because of faster nitrification rate due to the higher temperature in summer. Large extent and high kriging estimated total phosphorus concentrations were found in the residential areas. Overall, the groundwater Na and Mg concentration distributions were relatively more even in summer than in spring. Higher kriging estimated groundwater As concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, which exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limit. Very small variations in groundwater dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed between spring and summer. This study demonstrated that the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents varied from location to location, and impacts of land uses on groundwater quality variation were profound.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biogeochemical patterns in a river network along a land use gradient

Authors: Kamjunke, N; Büttner, O; Jäger, CG; Marcus, H; von Tümpling, W; Halbedel, S; Norf, H; Brauns, M; Baborowski, M; Wild, R; Borchardt, D; Weitere, M (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1677559

[Less] The Bode catchment (Germany) shows strong land use gradients from forested parts of the National Park . . . [More] The Bode catchment (Germany) shows strong land use gradients from forested parts of the National Park (23 % of total land cover) to agricultural (70 %) and urbanised areas (7 %). It is part of the Terrestrial Environmental Observatories of the German Helmholtz association. We performed a biogeochemical analysis of the entire river network. Surface water was sampled at 21 headwaters and at ten downstream sites, before (in early spring) and during the growing season (in late summer). Many parameters showed lower concentrations in headwaters than in downstream reaches, among them nutrients (ammonium, nitrate and phosphorus), dissolved copper and seston dry mass. Nitrate and phosphorus concentrations were positively related to the proportion of agricultural area within the catchment. Punctual anthropogenic loads affected some parameters such as chloride and arsenic. Chlorophyll a concentration and total phosphorus in surface waters were positively related. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was higher in summer than in spring, whereas the molecular size of DOC was lower in summer. The specific UV absorption at 254 nm, indicating the content of humic substances, was higher in headwaters than in downstream reaches and was positively related to the proportion of forest within the catchment. CO2 oversaturation of the water was higher downstream compared with headwaters and was higher in summer than in spring. It was correlated negatively with oxygen saturation and positively with DOC concentration but negatively with DOC quality (molecular size and humic content). A principle component analysis clearly separated the effects of site (44 %) and season (15 %), demonstrating the strong effect of land use on biogeochemical parameters.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stabilization of tetrahedral P4 and As4 molecules as guests in polymeric and spherical environments

Authors: Schwarzmaier, C; Schindler, A; Heindl, C; Scheuermayer, S; Peresypkina, EV; Virovets, AV; Neumeier, M; Gschwind, R; Scheer, M (In Press) Angewandte Chemie (International Edition). HERO ID: 2064217

[Less] As you like it: [Ag(η(2) -As4 )2 ](+) [pftb](-) can be used to store yellow arsenic (As4 ). From it, . . . [More] As you like it: [Ag(η(2) -As4 )2 ](+) [pftb](-) can be used to store yellow arsenic (As4 ). From it, As4 can be easily released to give concentrated, light-stable solutions. These As4 solutions, and those of white phosphorus (P4 ), allowed molecular As4 and P4 to be encapsulated inside giant, spherical aggregates and polymeric matrices, enabling the first determination of their EE (E=P, As) bond lengths by diffraction methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture

Authors: Seco-Reigosa, N; Peña-Rodríguez, S; Nóvoa-Muñoz, JC; Arias-Estévez, M; Fernández-Sanjurjo, MJ; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E; Núñez-Delgado, A (In Press) Environmental Science and Pollution Research. HERO ID: 1338680

[Less] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has . . . [More] Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6 %), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94 %, As(V) >96 % and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30 % for shell ash; Hg(II) >98 %, As(V) >88 % and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88 % for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was <5 % for both shell ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45 % for shell ash, and between 19 and 0 % for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metal tolerance and larvicidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Authors: Lozano, LC; Dussán, J (In Press) World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1519059

[Less] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes . . . [More] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes and in bioremediation. Mosquito larvae exposed to heavy metals are tolerant to concentrations above the permissible limit for industrial residual waters. In this work, we characterize 51 L. sphaericus strains for metal tolerance and larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.2, OT4b.20, OT4b.25, OT4b.26 and OT4b.58 were as toxic as the spores of the reference strain 2362 against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. 19 Mosquito-pathogenic L. sphaericus strains and 6 non-pathogenic strains were able to grow in arsenate, hexavalent chromium and/or lead. 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analyses clustered 84 % of the metal-tolerant strains in L. sphaericus group 1, which encompasses the mosquitocidal strains. The larvicidal activity of vegetative and sporulated cells and its high tolerance to arsenate, hexavalent chromium and lead indicate that L. sphaericus OT4b.26 is a strong candidate for further studies examining its potential for biological control of mosquitoes in waters contaminated with metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous redox conversion of chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) under acidic conditions

Authors: Wang, Z; Bush, RT; Sullivan, LA; Liu, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1597316

[Less] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful . . . [More] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful as arsenite (As(III)) and hexavalent (Cr(VI)). To simultaneously change their oxidation state from As(III) to As(V), and Cr(VI) to Cr(III), is a potentially effective and attractive strategy for environmental remediation. The coabundance of As(III) and Cr(VI) in natural environments indicates their negligible direct interaction. The addition of H2O2 enables and greatly accelerates the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) and reduction of Cr(VI). These reactions are further enhanced at acidic pH and higher concentrations of Cr(VI). However, the presence of ligands (i.e., oxalate, citrate, pyrophosphate) greatly retards the oxidation of As(III), even though it enhances the reduction of Cr(VI). To explain these results we propose a reaction mechanism where Cr(VI) is primarily reduced to Cr(III) by H2O2, via the intermediate tetraperoxochromate Cr(V). Cr(V) is then involved in the formation of (•)OH radicals. In the presence of ligands, the capacity of Cr(V) to form (•)OH radicals, which are primarily responsible for As(III) oxidation, is practically inhibited. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility for the coconversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) in AMD and real-world constraints to this strategy for environmental remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sparingly-soluble phosphate rock induced significant plant growth and arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata from three contaminated soils

Authors: Lessl, JT; Ma, LQ (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1579280

[Less] We evaluated the potential of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) to remove As from As-contaminated . . . [More] We evaluated the potential of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) to remove As from As-contaminated soils over five harvests in 2.5 years in a field experiment. We tested the hypothesis that a P-limiting environment would enhance PV growth and As uptake owing its unique ability to take up P under As-rich environment. In Dec. 2009, PV was transplanted to three As-contaminated soils (pH of 5.5-7.2) containing 25 - 129 mg kg-1 As, which was amended with sparingly-soluble phosphate rock (PR-soil) or soluble P fertilizer (P-soil). During the 2.5-year, PV obtained sufficient P (1,882 vs. 2,225 mg kg-1) from PR-soils, attributing to its increase in root biomass (33%) and root exudation (53%) compared to P-soils. In addition, its frond biomass increased by 20% consecutively with each harvest (six month interval) from 18 to 36 g plant-1 and its frond biomass in PR-soils (52.2 g plant-1 year-1 or ~12 mt ha-1 year-1) averaged 39% more than that in P-soils. To our knowledge, this represented the largest PV frond biomass reported, demonstrating the effectiveness of PR in enhancing PV growth. In addition to biomass increase, PV in PR-soils took up ~1.5 times more As in fronds (2,540, 780, and 920 mg kg-1) than those from P-soils (1,740, 570, and 400 mg kg-1). The low available P in PR-soils induced substantial plant growth and As uptake by PV. This translated into significantly more As removal from soil, averaging 48% reduction in PR-soils and 36% in P-soils in 2.5 years. With multiple harvests and PR amendments, our results showed As removal by PV from contaminated soils was ~7 times faster than published studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic incorporation in synthetic struvite (NH4MgPO4•6H2O): A synchrotron XAS and single-crystal EPR study

Authors: Lin, J; Chen, N; Pan, Y (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 2088500

[Less] Struvite, a common biomineral and increasingly important fertilizer recovered from wastewater treatment . . . [More] Struvite, a common biomineral and increasingly important fertilizer recovered from wastewater treatment plants, is capable of sequestering a wide range of heavy metals and metalloids, including arsenic. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) analyses and microbeam synchrotron X-ray flurorescence (μ-SXRF) mapping show that struvite formed under ambient conditions contains up to 547±15 ppm As and that the uptake of As is controlled by pH. Synchrotron As K-edge XANES spectra measured at 20 K show that As5+ is the predominant oxidation state in struvite, irrespective of Na2HAsO4•7H2O or NaAsO2 as the source for As. Modeling of As K-edge EXAFS data suggest that local structural distortion associated with the substitution of As5+ for P5+ in struvite reaches up to 3.75 Å. Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of gamma-ray-irradiated struvite disclose five [AsO3]2- radicals and one [AsO4]2- radical. These arsenic-centered oxyradicals are all readily attributed to form from diamagnetic [AsO4]3- precursors during irradiation, providing further support for exclusive incorporation and local structural expansion beyond the first shell of As5+ at the P site in struvite.