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Arsenic Hazard ID

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia

Authors: Phan, K; Phan, S; Heng, S; Huoy, L; Kim, K-W (2014) Environmental Pollution 185:84-89. HERO ID: 2149150

[Less] We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin . . . [More] We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic concentration variability, health risk assessment, and source identification using multivariate analysis in selected villages of public water system, Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sultana, J; Farooqi, A; Ali, U (2014) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186:1241-1251. HERO ID: 2278458

[Less] This paper reports high levels and variability in arsenic (As) levels at locations identified as one . . . [More] This paper reports high levels and variability in arsenic (As) levels at locations identified as one of the highest As-contaminated locations in Pakistan. Groundwater pollution related to arsenic has been reported since many years in the areas lying in outskirts of District Lahore, Pakistan. A comparative study is done to determine temporal variations of As from three villages, i.e., Kalalanwala (KLW), Manga Mandi (MM), and Shamki Bhattian (SKB). Seventy-three percent of the 30 investigated samples ranging in depth from 20 to 200 m, show an increasing trend in variations of As concentration over a time span of 4 years and 87% of samples exceeded the WHO standard of 10 μg/L for As while 77% of samples have As concentration >50 μg/L (national standard). Further results indicate that high levels of As is accompanied with increase pH (r = 0.8) favoring desorption of As from minerals at higher pH under oxidizing conditions. For health risk assessment of arsenic, the average daily dose, hazard quotient (HQ), and cancer risk were calculated. The residents of the studied areas had toxic risk index in the order of SKB>KLW>MM, with 87% of samples exceeding the typical toxic risk index 1.00 (ranging from 2.3-48.6) which was 83% (ranging from 0.3-41) 4 years before. The results of the present study therefore indicate that arsenic concentrations are increasing in the area, which needs an immediate attention to provide alternate sources of water to save people at risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Groundwater arsenic contamination and associated health risks in Bihar, India

Authors: Singh, SK; Ghosh, AK; Kumar, A; Kislay, K; Kumar, C; Tiwari, RR; Parwez, R; Kumar, N; Imam, MD (2014) International Journal of Environmental Research 8:49-60. HERO ID: 2278662

[Less] The extent of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and associated health-risks were studied in the . . . [More] The extent of groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and associated health-risks were studied in the four villages: Chaukia and Terahrasiya (Vaishali); Mamalkha and Masharu (Bhagalpur) in Bihar, India. Groundwater samples were tested using the standard Silverdiethyledithiocarbamate method at 520nm by Thermo UV-1 spectrophotometer. The As levels in both the districts exceeded the WHO standard of 10μg/L for drinking water with a maximum value of 20μg/L in Vaishali and 143μg/L in Bhagalpur. However, the FAO standard of 100μg/L of As for irrigation water was only exceeded in Bhagalpur. The calculated range of the hazard index (HI) for Vaishali was 0.9 to 10, and for Bhagalpur was 10.40 to 40.47. Both ranges exceed the accepted normal toxic HI of 1.00. The cancer risk was derived as 1-5/1000 people to 5-16/10,000 people in Vaishali, and 7-21/1000 and 5-16/1000 people in Bhagalpur. Prevalence of skin pigmentation was double in Vaishali in comparison to Bhagalpur. The analysis of principal components showed that only two components had a fundamental role in defining variance for cancer risk assessment. A more extensive screening of As contamination of groundwater and a follow-up clinical study are necessary to accurately assess the likelihood of As-related cancers in these districts.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences

Author: Chen, C-J (2014) Reviews on Environmental Health 29:13-19. HERO ID: 2279429

[Less] There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents . . . [More] There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary arsenic exposure with low level of arsenic in drinking water and biomarker: A study in West Bengal

Authors: Guha Mazumder, DN; Deb, D; Biswas, A; Saha, C; Nandy, A; Das, A; Ghose, A; Bhattacharya, K; Mazumdar, KK (2014) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 49:555-564. HERO ID: 2278911

[Less] The authors investigated association of arsenic intake through water and diet and arsenic level in urine . . . [More] The authors investigated association of arsenic intake through water and diet and arsenic level in urine in people living in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal supplied with arsenic-safe water (<50 μg L(-1)). Out of 94 (Group-1A) study participants using water with arsenic level <50 μg L(-1), 72 participants (Group-1B) were taking water with arsenic level <10 μg L(-1). Multiple regressions analysis conducted on the Group-1A participants showed that daily arsenic dose from water and diet were found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level. However, daily arsenic dose from diet was found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level in Group-1B participants only, but no significant association was found with arsenic dose from water in this group. In a separate analysis, out of 68 participants with arsenic exposure through diet only, urinary arsenic concentration was found to correlate positively (r = 0.573) with dietary arsenic in 45 participants with skin lesion while this correlation was insignificant (r = 0.007) in 23 participants without skin lesion. Our study suggested that dietary arsenic intake was a potential pathway of arsenic exposure even where arsenic intake through water was reduced significantly in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal. Observation of variation in urinary arsenic excretion in arsenic-exposed subjects with and without skin lesion needed further study.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

Authors: Sharma, AK; Tjell, JChr; Sloth, JJ; Holm, PE (2014) Applied Geochemistry 41:11-33. HERO ID: 2342635

[Less] Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and water is causing arsenicosis, which is disfiguring, disabling, and leading to potentially fatal diseases like skin- and internal cancers. It is estimated that more than 100 million people mainly in developing countries are at risk. The arsenicosis situation in affected countries has been named the largest chemical threat to public health ever experienced and arsenicosis is spreading to regions where near-sterile well water loaded with As has replaced microbial suspect surface water containing lower As concentrations. This review provides an overview of the state of the art knowledge on the water and food As intake and exposure, and how the As chemistry in water and food may influence chosen mitigation strategies. Although reports on severe health effects from exposure to As in water are abundant there are several weak points in our knowledge on causes and prevalence of arsenicosis in order to devise effective mitigation. The main mitigation strategies focus on drinking water based on exploration of As-free water and As removal from extracted water, whereas mitigation strategies on cooking water and reducing exposure through food are quite often overlooked. The experiences of adopted low cost methods for lowering the human intake of As in rural areas are critically evaluated in terms of public acceptance, sustainability and impact on arsenicosis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary arsenic consumption and urine arsenic in an endemic population: response to improvement of drinking water quality in a 2-year consecutive study

Authors: Biswas, A; Deb, D; Ghose, A; Du Laing, G; De Neve, J; Santra, SC; Guha Mazumder, DN (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:609-619. HERO ID: 1797850

[Less] We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first . . . [More] We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first morning-void urine under variable conditions of water contamination. This was done in a 2-year consecutive study in an endemic population. Exposure of arsenic through water and diet was assessed for participants using arsenic-contaminated water (≥50 μg L(-1)) in a first year (group I) and for participants using water lower in arsenic (<50 μg L(-1)) in the next year (group II). Participants with and without arsenical skin lesions were considered in the statistical analysis. Median dose of arsenic intake through drinking water in groups I and II males was 7.44 and 0.85 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001). In females, it was 5.3 and 0.63 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001) for groups I and II, respectively. Arsenic dose through diet was 3.3 and 2.6 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.088) in males and 2.6 and 1.9 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.0081) in females. Median arsenic levels in urine of groups I and II males were 124 and 61 μg L(-1) (p = 0.052) and in females 130 and 52 μg L(-1) (p = 0.0001), respectively. When arsenic levels in the water were reduced to below 50 μg L(-1) (Indian permissible limit), total arsenic intake and arsenic intake through the water significantly decreased, but arsenic uptake through the diet was found to be not significantly affected. Moreover, it was found that drinking water mainly contributed to variations in urine arsenic concentrations. However, differences between male and female participants also indicate that not only arsenic uptake, but also many physiological factors affect arsenic behavior in the body and its excretion. As total median arsenic exposure still often exceeded 3.0 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (the permissible lower limit established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives) after installation of the drinking water filters, it can be concluded that supplying the filtered water only may not be sufficient to minimize arsenic availability for an already endemic population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations among a cohort of Nova Scotians

Authors: Yu, ZM; Dummer, TJB; Adams, A; Murimboh, JD; Parker, L (2014) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 24:135-144. HERO ID: 2215694

[Less] Consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water is associated with increased cancer risk. The relationship . . . [More] Consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water is associated with increased cancer risk. The relationship between arsenic body burden, such as concentrations in human toenails, and arsenic in drinking water is not fully understood. We evaluated the relationship between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenail clippings among a cohort of Nova Scotians. A total of 960 men and women aged 35 to 69 years provided home drinking water and toenail clipping samples. Information on water source and treatment use and covariables was collected through questionnaires. Arsenic concentrations in drinking water and toenail clippings and anthropometric indices were measured. Private drilled water wells had higher arsenic concentrations compared with other dug wells and municipal drinking water sources (P<0.001). Among participants with drinking water arsenic levels ≥1 μg/l, there was a significant relationship between drinking water and toenail arsenic concentrations (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Given similar levels of arsenic exposure from drinking water, obese individuals had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic in toenails compared with those with a normal weight. Private drilled water wells were an important source of arsenic exposure in the study population. Body weight modifies the relationship between drinking water arsenic exposure and toenail arsenic concentrations.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.88.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Correlation of arsenic exposure through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmed, M; Fatmi, Z; Ali, A (2014) Journal of Environmental Health 76:48-54. HERO ID: 2278026

[Less] Long-term exposure to arsenic has been associated with manifestation of skin lesions (melanosis/keratosis) . . . [More] Long-term exposure to arsenic has been associated with manifestation of skin lesions (melanosis/keratosis) and increased risk of internal cancers (lung/bladder). The objective of the study described here was to determine the relationship between exposure of arsenic through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults > or =15 years of age living in Khairpur district, Pakistan. Total arsenic was determined in drinking groundwater and in spot urine samples of 465 randomly selected individuals through hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between arsenic in drinking groundwater and arsenic excreted in urine. The median arsenic concentration in drinking water was 2.1 microg/L (range: 0.1-350), and in urine was 28.5 microg/L (range: 0.1-848). Positive correlation was found between total arsenic in drinking water and in urine (r = .52, p < .01). Urinary arsenic may be used as a biomarker of arsenic exposure through drinking water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review on sources, toxicity and remediation technologies for removing arsenic from drinking water

Authors: Basu, A; Saha, D; Saha, R; Ghosh, T; Saha, B (2014) Research on Chemical Intermediates 40:447-485. HERO ID: 2278589

[Less] Arsenic is a natural element found in the environment in organic and inorganic forms. The inorganic . . . [More] Arsenic is a natural element found in the environment in organic and inorganic forms. The inorganic form is much more toxic and is found in ground water, surface water and many foods. This form is responsible for many adverse health effects like cancer (skin, lung, liver, kidney and bladder mainly), and cardiovascular and neurological effects. The estimated number of people in Bangladesh in 1998 exposed to arsenic concentrations above 0.05 mg/l is 28–35 million, and the number of those exposed to more than 0.01 mg/l is 46–57 million. The estimated number of people in West Bengal, India (the border province to Bangladesh), in 1997 actually using arsenic-rich water is more than 1 million for concentrations above 0.05 mg/l and is 1.3 million for concentrations above 0.01 mg/l. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has estimated that 13 million of the US population are exposed to arsenic in drinking water at 0.01 mg/l. The situation has prevailed for more than 10 years and is more severe now. The USEPA lowered the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water arsenic from 50 to 10 μg/l in 2001 based on international data analysis and research. This recommendation is now on hold. The level of 10 ppb become standard in the European Union (EU) in 2001. Arsenic may be found in water flowing through arsenic-rich rocks. The source is diverse. These include the earth's crust, introduced into water through the dissociation of minerals and ores, industrial effluents to water, combustion of fossil fuels and seafoods. Arsenic-removal methods are coagulation (ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate, copper sulfate, and calcium hydroxide as coagulants), adsorption (activated carbon, activated alumina, activated bauxite) ion exchange, bio-sorption, etc.