Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Uranium


27,536 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Base-Driven Assembly of Large Uranium Oxo/Hydroxo Clusters

Authors: Biswas, B; Mougel, V; Pécaut, J; Mazzanti, M (In Press) HERO ID: 1423239


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Twenty-four-hour urinary trace element excretion: Reference intervals and interpretive issues

Authors: Sieniawska, CE; Jung, LC; Olufadi, R; Walker, V (In Press) Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. HERO ID: 1015724

[Less] BACKGROUND: Introduction of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) into clinical laboratories . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Introduction of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) into clinical laboratories has led to an increasing application of analyses to risk assessment for toxicity from environmental exposure to trace elements, and in occupational monitoring. Interpretation of results from random urine samples may be problematic and measurement of excretion over 24 h is sometimes preferable. Recent reference data are sparse. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 111 healthy adults from the renal stones clinic in Southampton, UK, were analysed for 31 trace elements using ICP-MS and for zinc using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Non-parametric 0.95 coverage intervals were determined for trace element excretion per 24 h and as a ratio to creatinine, for the full study cohort and separately for men (n = 77) and women (n = 34). RESULTS: Beryllium was undetectable in 95% of samples, bismuth in 87% and uranium in 75%. In comparison with published ranges, reference intervals for this cohort were higher for molybdenum, tin and vanadium, and for arsenic due to inclusion of fish arsenicals. Aluminium, chromium, iron, lead and mercury were lower. In our cohort, 24-h excretion of 17 elements was significantly higher in men than in women. However, when expressed as trace element to creatinine ratios, the situation reversed strikingly. Because of their lower creatinine excretion, ratios for 18 elements were significantly higher for women. CONCLUSIONS: New adult reference intervals were obtained for 24-h urine trace element excretion. Trace element:creatinine ratios must be used cautiously, with separate ranges for men and women.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A survey of arsenic, manganese, boron, thorium, and other toxic metals in the groundwater of a West Bengal, India neighbourhood

Authors: Bacquart, T; Bradshaw, K; Frisbie, S; Mitchell, E; Springston, G; Defelice, J; Dustin, H; Sarkar, B (In Press) Metallomics. HERO ID: 1070432

[Less] Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. . . . [More] Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. Multiple metal analysis in Bangladesh has found other toxic elements above the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based drinking water guidelines which significantly increases the number of people at risk due to drinking groundwater. In this study, drinking water samples from the Bongaon area (North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India) were analyzed for multiple metal contamination in order to evaluate groundwater quality on the neighbourhood scale. Each sample was analyzed for arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and uranium (U). Arsenic was found above the WHO health-based drinking water guideline in 50% of these tubewells. Mn and B were found at significant concentrations in 19% and 6% of these tubewells, respectively. The maps of As, Mn, and B concentrations suggest that approximately 75% of this area has no safe tubewells. The concentrations of As, Mn, B, and many other toxic elements are independent of each other. The concentrations of Pb and U were not found above WHO health-based drinking water guidelines but they were statistically related to each other (p-value = 0.001). An analysis of selected isotopes in the Uranium, Actinium, and Thorium Radioactive Decay Series revealed the presence of thorium (Th) in 31% of these tubewells. This discovery of Th, which does not have a WHO health-based drinking water guideline, is a potential public health challenge. In sum, the widespread presence and independent distribution of other metals besides As must be taken into consideration for drinking water remediation strategies involving well switching or home-scale water treatment.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Navajo Nation: Cleaning Up Abandoned Uranium Mines

Author: US EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4182755


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nitrogen species coupled with transpiration enhance Fe plaque assisted aquatic uranium removal via rhizofiltration of Phragmites australis Trin ex Steud

Authors: Wang, W; Dudel, EG (2018) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 181:138-146. HERO ID: 4154395

[Less] The influences of N species and transpiration on the Fe plaque (IP) formation and related aquatic U . . . [More] The influences of N species and transpiration on the Fe plaque (IP) formation and related aquatic U rhizofiltration had not revealed yet, especially when these factors were co-existed. It was evaluated in a mesocosm experiment in the condition of respective ammonium (NH4+)/nitrate (NO3-) cultivation of Phragmites australis Trin ex Steud. coupled with different transpiration rates (TRs). The results suggested that the enhanced transpiration of P. australis improved the aquatic U rhizofiltration in both NO3- and NH4+ rich milieus. However, the NO3- dependent oxidizing milieu restricted aquatic U uptake by the root of P. australis (up to 47.6 ± 1.8 mg kg-1 under high TR) via IP assisted rhizofiltration. The high aquatic U availability and limited IP formation in NO3- rich milieu benefited the U retention within root tissue. On the contrary, the aquatic U rhizofiltration (up to 62.1 ± 1.0 mg kg-1 under high TR) was enhanced under NH4+ dependent reductive milieu. It was mainly contributed by U retention within IP. The area related U accumulation in different N species cultured roots was enhanced but did not significantly different under higher TR condition. The result suggested that the supplied NH4+ coupled with enhanced transpiration was supposed to be more optimized option for IP assisted aquatic U rhizofiltration via P. australis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake and speciation of uranium in synthetic gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O): Applications to radioactive mine tailings

Authors: Lin, J; Sun, W; Desmarais, J; Chen, N; Feng, R; Zhang, P; Li, D; Lieu, A; Tse, JS; Pan, Y (2018) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 181:8-17. HERO ID: 4166421

[Less] Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation . . . [More] Phosphogypsum formed from the production of phosphoric acid represents by far the biggest accumulation of gypsum-rich wastes in the world and commonly contains elevated radionuclides, including uranium, as well as other heavy metals and metalloids. Therefore, billions-of-tons of phosphogypsum stockpiled worldwide not only possess serious environmental problems but also represent a potential uranium resource. Gypsum is also a major solid constituent in many other types of radioactive mine tailings, which stems from the common usage of sulfuric acid in extraction processes. Therefore, management and remediation of radioactive mine tailings as well as future beneficiation of uranium from phosphogysum all require detailed knowledge about the nature and behavior of uranium in gypsum. However, little is known about the uptake mechanism or speciation of uranium in gypsum. In this study, synthesis experiments suggest an apparent pH control on the uptake of uranium in gypsum at ambient conditions: increase in U from 16 μg/g at pH = 6.5 to 339 μg/g at pH = 9.5. Uranium L3-edge synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of synthetic gypsum show that uranyl (UO2)2+ at the Ca site is the dominant species. The EXAFS fitting results also indicate that uranyl in synthetic gypsum occurs most likely as carbonate complexes and yields an average U-O distance ∼0.25 Å shorter than the average Ca-O distance, signifying a marked local structural distortion. Applications to phosphogypsum from the New Wales phosphoric acid plant (Florida, USA) and uranium mine tailings from the Key Lake mill (Saskatchewan, Canada) show that gypsum is an important carrier of uranium over a wide range of pH and controls the fate of this radionuclide in mine tailings. Also, development of new technologies for recovering U from phosphogypsum in the future must consider lattice-bound uranyl in gypsum.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of uranium redox state in organic-rich Eocene sediments

Authors: Cumberland, SA; Etschmann, B; Brugger, J; Douglas, G; Evans, K; Fisher, L; Kappen, P; Moreau, JW (2018) Chemosphere 194:602-613. HERO ID: 4167198

[Less] The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting . . . [More] The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting or promoting the mobility of U via binding, reduction, or complexation. To understand the interactions between OM and U, we characterised U oxidation state and speciation in nine OM-rich sediment cores (18 samples), plus a lignite sample from the Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit in Western Australia. Uranium was unevenly dispersed within the analysed samples with 84% of the total U occurring in samples containing >21 wt % OM. Analyses of U speciation, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy and bicarbonate extractions, revealed that U existed predominately (∼71%) as U(VI), despite the low pH (4.5) and nominally reducing conditions within the sediments. Furthermore, low extractability by water, but high extractability by a bi-carbonate solution, indicated a strong association of U with particulate OM. The unexpectedly high proportion of U(VI) relative to U(IV) within the OM-rich sediments implies that OM itself does not readily reduce U, and the reduction of U is not a requirement for immobilizing uranium in OM-rich deposits. The fact that OM can play a significant role in limiting the mobility and reduction of U(VI) in sediments is important for both U-mining and remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling uranium(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite under varying carbonate concentrations: A surface complexation model accounting for the spillover effect on surface potential

Authors: Tournassat, C; Tinnacher, RM; Grangeon, S; Davis, JA (2018) HERO ID: 4178070

[Less] The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) . . . [More] The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) the montmorillonite structure in terms of adsorption sites on basal and edge surfaces, and the complex interactions between the electrical double layers at these surfaces, and (2) U(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, anionic and neutral species. Previous U(VI)-montmorillonite adsorption and modeling studies have typically expanded classical surface complexation modeling approaches, initially developed for simple oxides, to include both cation exchange and surface complexation reactions. However, previous models have not taken into account the unique characteristics of electrostatic surface potentials that occur at montmorillonite edge sites, where the electrostatic surface potential of basal plane cation exchange sites influences the surface potential of neighboring edge sites ('spillover' effect).

A series of U(VI) -Na-montmorillonite batch adsorption experiments was conducted as a function of pH, with variable U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentrations. Based on the experimental data, a new type of surface complexation model (SCM) was developed for montmorillonite, that specifically accounts for the spillover effect using the edge surface speciation model by Tournassat et al. (2016a). The SCM allows for a prediction of U(VI) adsorption under varying chemical conditions with a minimum number of fitting parameters, not only for our own experimental results, but also for a number of published data sets. The model agreed well with many of these datasets without introducing a second site type or including the formation of ternary U(VI)-carbonato surface complexes. The model predictions were greatly impacted by utilizing analytical measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in individual sample solutions rather than assuming solution equilibration with a specific partial pressure of CO2, even when the gas phase was laboratory air. Because of strong aqueous U(VI)-carbonate solution complexes, the measurement of DIC concentrations was even important for systems set up in the 'absence' of CO2, due to low levels of CO2 contamination during the experiment. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Highly efficient extraction and selective separation of uranium (VI) from transition metals using new class of undiluted ionic liquids based on H-phosphonate anions

Authors: Zarrougui, R; Mdimagh, R; Raouafi, N (2018) Journal of Hazardous Materials 342:464-476. HERO ID: 4238537

[Less] In this paper, we report the development of an environmental friendly process to decontaminate uranium-containing . . . [More] In this paper, we report the development of an environmental friendly process to decontaminate uranium-containing ores and nuclear wastes by using non-fluorinated ionic liquids (ILs). The main advantages of this extraction process are the absence of any organic diluent and extra extraction agents added to the organic phase. Moreover, the process is cost-effective and maybe applied as a sustainable hydrometallurgical method to recover uranium. The distribution ratio (DU) and the extraction efficiency (%E) of uranium(VI) (UO22+) were found to be dependent on the acidity of the aqueous phase, the extraction time, the alkyl chain length in the ILs, the concentration of the aqueous feed and molar quantity of ILs. The DUvalue is higher than 600 and the %E is equal to 98.6% when [HNO3]=7M. The extraction reactions follows a neutral partition or ionic exchange mechanism depending on nitric acid concentration. The nature of bonding in the extracted complexes was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. The potential use of Mor1-8-OP for the separation of UO22+from a mixture containing transition metal ions Mn+was also examined. The UO22+ions were separated and extracted efficiently. These ILs are promising candidates for the recovery and separation of uranium.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transcriptional Activity of Arsenic-Reducing Bacteria and Genes Regulated by Lactate and Biochar during Arsenic Transformation in Flooded Paddy Soil

Authors: Qiao, JT; Li, XM; Hu, M; Li, FB; Young, LY; Sun, WM; Huang, W; Cui, JH (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:61-70. HERO ID: 4242147

[Less] Organic substrates and biochar are important in controlling arsenic release from sediments and soils; . . . [More] Organic substrates and biochar are important in controlling arsenic release from sediments and soils; however, little is known about their impact on arsenic-reducing bacteria and genes during arsenic transformation in flooded paddy soils. In this study, microcosm experiments were established to profile transcriptional activity of As(V)-respiring gene (arrA) and arsenic resistance gene (arsC) as well as the associated bacteria regulated by lactate and/or biochar in anaerobic arsenic-contaminated paddy soils. Chemical analyses revealed that lactate as the organic substrate stimulated microbial reduction of As(V) and Fe(III), which was simultaneously promoted by lactate+biochar, due to biochar's electron shuttle function that facilitates electron transfer from bacteria to As(V)/Fe(III). Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that both arrA closely associated with Geobacter (>60%, number of identical sequences/number of the total sequences) and arsC related to Enterobacteriaceae (>99%) were selected by lactate and lactate+biochar. Compared with the lactate microcosms, transcriptions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, Geobacter spp., and Geobacter arrA and arsC genes were increased in the lactate+biochar microcosms, where transcript abundances of Geobacter and Geobacter arrA closely tracked with dissolved As(V) concentrations. Our findings indicated that lactate and biochar in flooded paddy soils can stimulate the active As(V)-respiring bacteria Geobacter species for arsenic reduction and release, which probably increases arsenic bioavailability to rice plants.