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RDX (121-82-4)

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1,681 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

GABAergic transmission during brain development: Multiple effects at multiple stages

Authors: Kirmse, K; Hübner, CA; Isbrandt, D; Witte, OW; Holthoff, K (2018) Neuroscientist 24:36-53. HERO ID: 4244887

[Less] In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions . . . [More] In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions of GABAergic transmission in the intact developing brain. First, in vivo studies in non-mammalian and mammalian species confirmed the long-held assumption that GABA acts as a mainly depolarizing neurotransmitter at early developmental stages. At the same time, GABAergic transmission was shown to spatiotemporally constrain spontaneous cortical activity, whereas firm evidence for GABAergic excitation in vivo is currently missing. Second, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that depolarizing GABA may contribute to the activity-dependent refinement of neural circuits. Third, alterations in GABA actions have been causally linked to developmental brain disorders and identified as potential targets of timed prophylactic interventions. In this article, we review these major recent findings and argue that both depolarizing and inhibitory GABA actions may be crucial for physiological brain maturation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecotoxicity of the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and its reduced metabolite 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO)

Authors: Madeira, CL; Field, JA; Simonich, MT; Tanguay, RL; Chorover, J; Sierra-Alvarez, R (2018) HERO ID: 4153972

[Less] The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. . . . [More] The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. Army to replace cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) in conventional explosives. As its use becomes widespread, concern about the potential toxicity of NTO increases. NTO can undergo microbial reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO), which is recalcitrant in waterlogged soils. In this study, the acute toxicity of NTO and ATO towards various organisms, including microorganisms (i.e., methanogenic archaea, aerobic heterotrophs, and Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay)), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (ATO only), and zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), was assessed. NTO was notably more inhibitory to methanogens than ATO (IC50=1.2mM,>62.8mM, respectively). NTO and ATO did not cause noteworthy inhibition on aerobic heterotrophs even at the highest concentrations tested (32.0mM). High concentrations of both NTO and ATO were required to inhibit A. fischeri (IC20=19.2, 22.4mM, respectively). D. magna was sensitive to ATO (LC50=0.27mM). Exposure of zebrafish embryos to NTO or ATO (750μM) did not cause lethal or developmental effects (22 endpoints tested). However, both compounds led to swimming behavior abnormalities at low concentrations (7.5μM). The results indicate that the reductive biotransformation of NTO could enhance or lower its toxicity according to the target organism.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Hazardous Chemical Information System (HCIS). Exposure standard documentation: Cyclonite

Author: Safe Work Australia (2018) [Database] HERO ID: 4287214

[Less] Direct Link to RDX Entry: http://hcis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ExposureStandards/Details?exposureSta . . . [More] Direct Link to RDX Entry: http://hcis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ExposureStandards/Details?exposureStandardID=174

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ultrasensitive photoacoustic sensor based on quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

Authors: Kumar, D; Gautam, S; Kumar, S; Gupta, S; Srivastava, HB; Thakur, SN; Sharma, RC (2017) Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 176:47-51. HERO ID: 3873156

[Less] The paper focuses on development of ultra-sonic detection system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopic . . . [More] The paper focuses on development of ultra-sonic detection system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopic technique and processing of signal for detection of very low quantity chemicals, explosive materials, and mixtures of these hazardous molecules. The detection system has been developed for the first time with specially designed one side open photo-acoustic cell having high quality factor. Explosive and Hazardous materials like RDX, DNT, PETN, Gun Powder, TATP (Tri acetone tri-peroxide) and their simulants like Acetone were detected in 7 to 9μm wavelength band. Lock in amplifier electronic instrument was used for the detection of hazardous chemicals and mixture of explosives in very low quantity. Detection limit of the photoacoustic ultrasonic sensor was also carried out of powder, liquid and adsorbed on surfaces.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives

Authors: Verkouteren, JR; Lawrence, JA; Staymates, ME; Sisco, E (2017) Journal of Visualized Experiments. HERO ID: 3870880

[Less] One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection . . . [More] One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance

Authors: Gottfried, JL; Bukowski, EJ (2017) Applied Optics 56:B47-B57. HERO ID: 3871233

[Less] A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities . . . [More] A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

Technical Report
Technical Report

External peer review of study report on 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine (RDX) (CAS no. 121-82-4)

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (Task Order 107 - Contract EP-C-12-029). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4180328

[Less] The report by Cholakis et al. (1980) presents methods and results of a total of nine toxicology studies . . . [More] The report by Cholakis et al. (1980) presents methods and results of a total of nine toxicology studies with RDX. As per instructions, the acute toxicity studies and the two genotoxicity studies (Ames test and Dominant lethal mutation test) were not considered in this review. Overall, the tests, which were carried out during the period 1978-1980, can be considered acceptable even at the light of specific guidelines (from EPA and OECD) which were published about a decade later. Minor omissions in experimental design, testing or reporting are indicated below in the answers to the posed questions. In a few instances reporting and/or interpretation of findings is unclear.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Release of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from polymer-bonded explosives (PBXN-109) into water by artificial weathering

Authors: Kumar, M; Ladyman, MK; Mai, N; Temple, T; Coulon, F (2017) Chemosphere 169:604-608. HERO ID: 3604917

[Less] Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental . . . [More] Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental impacts of PBX are unclear, even though it is likely that PBX residues from low-order detonations and unexploded ordnance are deposited on military training ranges. The release of high explosives from the polymer matrix into the environment has not been studied in detail, although as polymers degrade slowly in the environment we anticipate high explosives to be released into the environment. In this study, PBXN-109 (nominally 64% RDX) samples were exposed to variable UK climatic conditions reproduced in the laboratory to determine the effects of temperature, UV irradiation and rainfall on the release of RDX from the polymer binder. The most extreme conditions for spring, summer and winter in the UK were artificially reproduced. We found that up to 0.03% of RDX was consistently released from PBXN-109. The rate of RDX release was highest in samples exposed to the summer simulation, which had the lowest rainfall, but the highest temperatures and longest UV exposure. This was confirmed by additional experiments simulating an extreme summer month with consistently high temperatures and long periods of sunlight. These results probably reflect the combination of polymer swelling and degradation when samples are exposed to higher temperatures and prolonged UV irradiation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of Mass Spectrometric Vapor Analysis To Improve Canine Explosive Detection Efficiency

Authors: Ong, TH; Mendum, T; Geurtsen, G; Kelley, J; Ostrinskaya, A; Kunz, R (2017) Analytical Chemistry 89:6482-6490. HERO ID: 3982796

[Less] Canines remain the gold standard for explosives detection in many situations, and there is an ongoing . . . [More] Canines remain the gold standard for explosives detection in many situations, and there is an ongoing desire for them to perform at the highest level. This goal requires canine training to be approached similarly to scientific sensor design. Developing a canine training regimen is made challenging by a lack of understanding of the canine's odor environment, which is dynamic and typically contains multiple odorants. Existing methodology assumes that the handler's intention is an adequate surrogate for actual knowledge of the odors cuing the canine, but canines are easily exposed to unintentional explosive odors through training material cross-contamination. A sensitive, real-time (∼1 s) vapor analysis mass spectrometer was developed to provide tools, techniques, and knowledge to better understand, train, and utilize canines. The instrument has a detection library of nine explosives and explosive-related materials consisting of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycerin (NG), 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and cyclohexanone, with detection limits in the parts-per-trillion to parts-per-quadrillion range by volume. The instrument can illustrate aspects of vapor plume dynamics, such as detecting plume filaments at a distance. The instrument was deployed to support canine training in the field, detecting cross-contamination among training materials, and developing an evaluation method based on the odor environment. Support for training material production and handling was provided by studying the dynamic headspace of a nonexplosive HMTD training aid that is in development. These results supported existing canine training and identified certain areas that may be improved.