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RDX (121-82-4)

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1,605 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecotoxicity of the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and its reduced metabolite 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO)

Authors: Madeira, CL; Field, JA; Simonich, MT; Tanguay, RL; Chorover, J; Sierra-Alvarez, R (2018) HERO ID: 4153972

[Less] The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. . . . [More] The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. Army to replace cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) in conventional explosives. As its use becomes widespread, concern about the potential toxicity of NTO increases. NTO can undergo microbial reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO), which is recalcitrant in waterlogged soils. In this study, the acute toxicity of NTO and ATO towards various organisms, including microorganisms (i.e., methanogenic archaea, aerobic heterotrophs, and Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay)), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (ATO only), and zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), was assessed. NTO was notably more inhibitory to methanogens than ATO (IC50=1.2mM,>62.8mM, respectively). NTO and ATO did not cause noteworthy inhibition on aerobic heterotrophs even at the highest concentrations tested (32.0mM). High concentrations of both NTO and ATO were required to inhibit A. fischeri (IC20=19.2, 22.4mM, respectively). D. magna was sensitive to ATO (LC50=0.27mM). Exposure of zebrafish embryos to NTO or ATO (750μM) did not cause lethal or developmental effects (22 endpoints tested). However, both compounds led to swimming behavior abnormalities at low concentrations (7.5μM). The results indicate that the reductive biotransformation of NTO could enhance or lower its toxicity according to the target organism.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Hazardous Chemical Information System (HCIS). Exposure standard documentation: Cyclonite

Author: Safe Work Australia (2018) [Database] HERO ID: 4287214

[Less] Direct Link to RDX Entry: http://hcis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ExposureStandards/Details?exposureSta . . . [More] Direct Link to RDX Entry: http://hcis.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/ExposureStandards/Details?exposureStandardID=174

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

GABAergic transmission during brain development: Multiple effects at multiple stages

Authors: Kirmse, K; Hübner, CA; Isbrandt, D; Witte, OW; Holthoff, K (2018) Neuroscientist 24:36-53. HERO ID: 4244887

[Less] In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions . . . [More] In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in deciphering the cellular and network functions of GABAergic transmission in the intact developing brain. First, in vivo studies in non-mammalian and mammalian species confirmed the long-held assumption that GABA acts as a mainly depolarizing neurotransmitter at early developmental stages. At the same time, GABAergic transmission was shown to spatiotemporally constrain spontaneous cortical activity, whereas firm evidence for GABAergic excitation in vivo is currently missing. Second, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that depolarizing GABA may contribute to the activity-dependent refinement of neural circuits. Third, alterations in GABA actions have been causally linked to developmental brain disorders and identified as potential targets of timed prophylactic interventions. In this article, we review these major recent findings and argue that both depolarizing and inhibitory GABA actions may be crucial for physiological brain maturation.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

ChemIDplus - a TOXNET database

Author: ChemIDplus (2018) National Institutes of Health, U.S. Library of Medicine. HERO ID: 4235826


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Release of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from polymer-bonded explosives (PBXN-109) into water by artificial weathering

Authors: Kumar, M; Ladyman, MK; Mai, N; Temple, T; Coulon, F (2017) Chemosphere 169:604-608. HERO ID: 3604917

[Less] Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental . . . [More] Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental impacts of PBX are unclear, even though it is likely that PBX residues from low-order detonations and unexploded ordnance are deposited on military training ranges. The release of high explosives from the polymer matrix into the environment has not been studied in detail, although as polymers degrade slowly in the environment we anticipate high explosives to be released into the environment. In this study, PBXN-109 (nominally 64% RDX) samples were exposed to variable UK climatic conditions reproduced in the laboratory to determine the effects of temperature, UV irradiation and rainfall on the release of RDX from the polymer binder. The most extreme conditions for spring, summer and winter in the UK were artificially reproduced. We found that up to 0.03% of RDX was consistently released from PBXN-109. The rate of RDX release was highest in samples exposed to the summer simulation, which had the lowest rainfall, but the highest temperatures and longest UV exposure. This was confirmed by additional experiments simulating an extreme summer month with consistently high temperatures and long periods of sunlight. These results probably reflect the combination of polymer swelling and degradation when samples are exposed to higher temperatures and prolonged UV irradiation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates

Authors: Yang, CS; Jin, F; Trivedi, SB; Brown, EE; Hommerich, U; Tripathi, A; Samuels, AC (2017) Applied Spectroscopy 71:728-734. HERO ID: 3842217

[Less] Thin solid films made of high nitro (NO2)/nitrate (NO3) content explosives were deposited on sand-blasted . . . [More] Thin solid films made of high nitro (NO2)/nitrate (NO3) content explosives were deposited on sand-blasted aluminum substrates and then studied using a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared region (LWIR; ∼5.6-10 µm). Despite the similarities of their chemical compositions and structures, thin films of three commonly used explosives (RDX, HMX, and PETN) studied in this work can be rapidly identified in the ambient air by their molecular LIBS emission signatures in the LWIR region. A preliminary assessment of the detection limit for a thin film of RDX on aluminum appears to be much lower than 60 µg/cm(2). This LWIR LIBS setup is capable of rapidly probing and charactering samples without the need for elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous ultraviolet visible and LWIR LIBS measurement.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradation and mineralization of isotopically labeled TNT and RDX in anaerobic marine sediments

Authors: Ariyarathna, T; Vlahos, P; Smith, RW; Fallis, S; Groshens, T; Tobias, C (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:1170-1180. HERO ID: 3845424

[Less] The lack of knowledge on the fate of explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine . . . [More] The lack of knowledge on the fate of explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), particularly in marine ecosystems, constrains the application of bioremediation techniques in explosive-contaminated coastal sites. The authors present a comparative study on anaerobic biodegradation and mineralization of (15) N-nitro group isotopically labeled TNT and RDX in organic carbon-rich, fine-grained marine sediment with native microbial assemblages. Separate sediment slurry experiments were carried out for TNT and RDX at 23°C for 16 d. Dissolved and sediment-sorbed fractions of parent and transformation products, isotopic compositions of sediment, and mineralization products of the dissolved inorganic N pool ((15) NH4(+) ,(15) NO3(-) ,(15) NO2(-) , and (15) N2 ) were measured. The rate of TNT removal from the aqueous phase was faster (0.75 h(-1) ) than that of RDX (0.37 h(-1) ), and (15) N accumulation in sediment was higher in the TNT (13%) than the RDX (2%) microcosms. Mono-amino-dinitrotoluenes were identified as intermediate biodegradation products of TNT. Two percent of the total spiked TNT-N is mineralized to dissolved inorganic N through 2 different pathways: denitration as well as deamination and formation of NH4(+) , facilitated by iron and sulfate reducing bacteria in the sediments. The majority of the spiked TNT-N (85%) is in unidentified pools by day 16. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (10%) biodegrades to nitroso derivatives, whereas 13% of RDX-N in nitro groups is mineralized to dissolved inorganic N anaerobically by the end of the experiment. The primary identified mineralization end product of RDX (40%) is NH4(+) , generated through either deamination or mono-denitration, followed by ring breakdown. A reasonable production of N2 gas (13%) was seen in the RDX system but not in the TNT system. Sixty-eight percent of the total spiked RDX-N is in an unidentified pool by day 16 and may include unquantified mineralization products dissolved in water. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1170-1180. © 2016 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid identification and desorption mechanisms of nitrogen-based explosives by ambient micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization (MFGDP) mass spectrometry

Authors: Tian, C; Yin, J; Zhao, Z; Zhang, Y; Duan, Y (2017) Talanta 167:75-85. HERO ID: 3850169

[Less] A novel technique of micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry . . . [More] A novel technique of micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was investigated for the first time in negative ion mode in this study. Negative ion micro-fabricated glow discharge plasma desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (NI-MFGDP-MS) was successfully applied to identify trace explosives in open air. Six explosives and explosives-related compounds were directly analyzed in seconds with this ion source. The ions of [M-H](-) were predominant for 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (trinitrotoluene, TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and [M+NO3](-) were dominant ions for 1,3,5-trinitro-perhydro-1,3,5-triazine (cyclonite, RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (octogen, HMX), 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane (nitroglycerin, NG), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). The limits of detection (LOD) were from 87.5pgmm(-2) to 0.4 fg mm(-2) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged between 5.8% and 16.8% for the explosives involved in this study. The reliability of NI-MFGDP-MS was characterized by the analysis of a picric acid-RDX-PETN mixture and a mixture of RDX-pond water. NI-MFGDP-MS and ESI-MS were compared with these explosives and along with collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments. The results showed that electron capture, proton abstraction reaction, nucleophilic attack, ion-molecule attachment, decomposition and anion attachment took place during the NI-MFGDP-MS measurement. These findings provide a guideline and a supplement to the chemical libraries for rapid and accurate detection of explosives. The method shows great potential for fast, in situ, on-line and high throughput detection of explosives in the field of antiterrorism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives

Authors: Verkouteren, JR; Lawrence, JA; Staymates, ME; Sisco, E (2017) Journal of Visualized Experiments. HERO ID: 3870880

[Less] One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection . . . [More] One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance

Authors: Gottfried, JL; Bukowski, EJ (2017) Applied Optics 56:B47-B57. HERO ID: 3871233

[Less] A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities . . . [More] A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.