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Chromium VI

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

WITHDRAWN: Hexavalent chromium induces premature senescence through reactive oxygen species-mediated p53 pathway in L-02 hepatocytes

Authors: Xiao, F; Hu, Q; Zeng, M; Guan, L; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Zhong, C (In Press) HERO ID: 1509895

[Less] This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes . . . [More] This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hexavalent chromium reduction by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6: the influence of carbon source, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds

Authors: Field, EK; Gerlach, R; Viamajala, S; Jennings, LK; Peyton, BM; Apel, WA (In Press) Biodegradation. HERO ID: 1577279

[Less] The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect . . . [More] The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in Cr(VI) remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in, or added to, the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. Molasses stimulated Cr(VI) reduction more effectively than pure sucrose, presumably due to presence of more easily utilizable sugars, electron shuttling compounds or compounds with direct Cr(VI) reduction capabilities. Cr(VI) reduction rates increased with increasing concentration of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) regardless of the carbon source. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II), which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems was the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that was Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Origin of hexavalent chromium in drinking water wells from the piedmont aquifers of North Carolina

Authors: Vengosh, A; Coyte, R; Karr, J; Harkness, JS; Kondash, AJ; Ruhl, LS; Merola, RB; Dywer, GS (In Press) Environmental Science & Technology Letters. HERO ID: 3444886

[Less] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known pulmonary carcinogen. Recent detection of Cr(VI) in drinking . . . [More] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known pulmonary carcinogen. Recent detection of Cr(VI) in drinking water wells in North Carolina has raised public concern about contamination of drinking water wells by nearby coal ash ponds. Here we report, for the first time, the prevalence of Cr and Cr(VI) in drinking water wells from the Piedmont region of central North Carolina, combined with a geochemical analysis to determine the source of the elevated Cr(VI) levels. We show that Cr(VI) is the predominant species of dissolved Cr in groundwater and elevated levels of Cr and Cr(VI) are found in wells located both near and far (>30 km) from coal ash ponds. The geochemical characteristics, including the overall chemistry, boron to chromium ratios, and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) variations in groundwater with elevated Cr(IV) levels, are different from those of coal ash leachates. Alternatively, the groundwater chemistry and Sr isotope variations are consistent with water–rock interactions as the major source for Cr(VI) in groundwater. Our results indicate that Cr(VI) is most likely naturally occurring and ubiquitous in groundwater from the Piedmont region in the eastern United States, which could pose health risks to residents in the region who consume well water as a major drinking water source.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Protective Effects of Pine Bark Extract on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Dermatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Lee, IC; Kim, SH; Shin, IS; Moon, C; Park, SH; Kim, SH; Park, SC; Kim, HC; Kim, JC (In Press) . HERO ID: 1258233

[Less] The present study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (PBE) against hexavalent . . . [More] The present study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (PBE) against hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]-induced dermatotoxicity in rats. Skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection, histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters. Topical application of Cr(VI) produced a significant increase in the incidence and severity of erythema and edema upon visual inspection. Histopathological examination showed moderate to severe necrosis and desquamation in the epidermis and inflammation and hemorrhage in the dermis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and decreased glutathione (GSH), catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase of the skin were observed in the Cr(VI) group. On the contrary, concomitant administration with PBE significantly improved Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity, evidenced by a decrease in the incidence and severity of skin irritation and histopathological lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PBE treatment reduced MDA concentrations and increased catalase and GST activities in skin tissues, indicating that concomitant administration with PBE effectively prevents Cr(VI)-induced oxidative damage in rats. The results indicate that PBE has a protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity and is useful as a protective agent against various dermal lesions induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Allergic contact dermatitis to metal allergens in Iran

Authors: Khatami, A; Nassiri-Kashani, M; Gorouhi, F; Babakoohi, S; Kazerouni-Timsar, A; Davari, P; Sarraf-Yazdy, M; Dowlati, Y; Firooz, A (In Press) International Journal of Dermatology. HERO ID: 1786213

[Less] Background  Metallic allergens such as nickel are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis . . . [More] Background  Metallic allergens such as nickel are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different areas. Objectives  This study aimed to determine the frequencies of ACD caused by three common metallic allergens: nickel sulfate; potassium dichromate; and cobalt chloride. Methods  Data for 1137 patients with clinical diagnoses of contact dermatitis and/or atopic dermatitis evaluated by patch testing in Iran during a 5-year period were retrospectively studied to establish the frequencies of hypersensitivity to these metallic allergens. Results  A total of 313 patients (27.5%) gave positive patch test results for at least one metallic allergen. Allergy to nickel (229 cases, 20.0%) was the most commonly observed, followed by allergy to cobalt (90 cases, 8.0%) and allergy to chromium (70 cases, 6.2%). Nickel allergy was significantly more frequent in females and in subjects aged <40 years, whereas chromium hypersensitivity was more common in males and in subjects aged >40 years. Sensitivity to nickel or chromium was a risk factor for cobalt allergy. Conclusions  Nickel was most commonly identified as a metallic allergen in Iran and tended to affect women aged <40 years. Regulations pertaining to nickel release may decrease the frequency of nickel hypersensitivity in Iran.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Re: Seidler A, Jänichen S, Hegewald J et al. Systematic review and quantification of respiratory cancer risk for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium

Authors: Pesch, B; Weiss, T; Pallapies, D; Schlüter, G; Brüning, T (In Press) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. [Letter] HERO ID: 1786244


Journal Article
Journal Article

High resolution micro arthrography of hard and soft tissues in a murine model

Authors: Gu, XI; Palacio-Mancheno, PE; Leong, DJ; Borisov, YA; Williams, E; Maldonado, N; Laudier, D; Majeska, RJ; Schaffler, MB; Sun, HB; Cardoso, L (In Press) . HERO ID: 1234051

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft tissues in small animal joints. Nevertheless, μCT images cannot distinguish soft tissues from synovial fluid due to their similar mass density, limiting the 3D assessment of soft tissues volume and thickness. This study aimed to evaluate a lead chromate contrast agent for μCΤ arthrography of rat knee joints ex vivo. DESIGN: Intact tibiofemoral rat joints were injected with the contrast agent at different concentrations and imaged using a μCT at 2.7 μm isotropic voxel size. Cartilage thickness was measured using an automated procedure, validated against histological measurements, and analyzed as a function of μCT image resolution. Changes in hard and soft tissues were also analyzed in tibiofemoral joints 4 weeks after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). RESULTS: The contrast agent diffused well throughout the whole knee cavity without penetrating the tissues, therefore providing high contrast at the boundaries between soft tissues and synovial fluid space. Thickness analysis of cartilage demonstrated a high similarity between histology and μ-arthrography approaches (R(2) = 0.90). Four weeks after surgical DMM, the development of osteophytes (Oph) and cartilage ulcerations was recognizable with μCT, as well as a slight increase in trabecular bone porosity, and decrease in trabecular thickness. CONCLUSIONS: A lead chromate-based contrast agent allowed discriminating the synovial fluid from soft tissues of intact knee joints, and thus made possible both qualitative and quantitative assessment of hard and soft tissues in both intact and DMM tibiofemoral joints using high resolution μCT.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and patch test results of leather workers at two Indonesian tanneries

Authors: Febriana, SA; Jungbauer, F; Soebono, H; Coenraads, PJ (In Press) Contact Dermatitis. HERO ID: 1234053

[Less] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. . . . [More] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Occupational skin diseases in tannery workers in newly industrialized countries have been reported, but neither the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis nor the skin-sensitizing agents were specifically examined in those studies. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesian tanneries, identify the causative allergens, and propose a tannery work series of patch test allergens. Patients/methods A cross-sectional study in all workers at two Indonesian tanneries was performed to assess the prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis via a questionnaire-based interview and skin examination. Workers with occupational contact dermatitis were patch tested to identify the causative allergens. Results. Occupational contact dermatitis was suspected in 77 (16%) of the 472 workers. Thirteen (3%) of these 472 workers were confirmed to have occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Potassium dichromate (9.2%), N,N-diphenylguanidine (5.3%), benzidine (3.9%) and sodium metabisulfite (2.6%) were found to be the occupationally relevant sensitizers. Conclusions. The sensitization pattern showed some differences from the data in studies reported from other newly industrial countries. We compiled a 'tannery work series' of allergens for patch testing. A number of these allergens may also be considered for patch testing in patients with (leather) shoe dermatitis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Zinc PVA versus potassium dichromate for preservation of microsporidian spores of human origin

Authors: El-Taweel, HA; Tolba, MM; Sadaka, HA; El-Zawawy, LA; Osman, MM (In Press) Parasitology Research. HERO ID: 1234059

[Less] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian . . . [More] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian spores is often required in research work. The present study compared two preservatives; zinc polyvinyl alcohol (zinc PVA) and potassium dichromate solutions for preservation of microsporidian spores separated from human faecal samples. After 0, 1, 2 and 4 months of storage, morphological features and staining characters of the spores were assessed by light microscopy in modified trichrome-stained smears and their viability percentages were calculated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide mixture. Also, spore infectivity was evaluated by faecal spore shedding and intestinal spore load in mice orally inoculated with the preserved spores. Results revealed that morphological features, staining characters and viability of the spores were maintained in both solutions throughout the study period. Spore infectivity was completely preserved in zinc PVA solution but showed significant reduction in potassium dichromate solution at the fourth month of the preservation duration.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds

Authors: Cristiano, BF; Delgado, JU; da Silva, JW; de Barros, PD; de Araújo, RM; Dias, FC; Lopes, RT (In Press) . HERO ID: 1234063

[Less] The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied . . . [More] The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques.