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Chromium VI

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Renoprotective potential of Macrothelypteris torresiana via ameliorating oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines

Authors: Chen, J; Lei, Y; Wu, G; Zhang, Y; Fu, W; Xiong, C; Ruan, J (In Press) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. HERO ID: 834212

[Less] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Macrothelypteris torresiana is traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine . . . [More] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Macrothelypteris torresiana is traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of edema for patients suffering from kidney/bladder problems due to its satisfactory therapeutic effectiveness. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective nature of the total polyphenols fraction from Macrothelypteris torresiana (PMT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biochemical criterions of plasma and kidney tissues were evaluated to study the effects of PMT on puromycin aminonucleoside-induced chronic nephrotic syndrome (NS) in hyperlipidemic mice. RESULTS: In this study, the NS and hyperlipidemia were ameliorated after 9 weeks administration of PMT. Besides, PMT was able to modulate the level of renal oxidative stress and vascular endothelial growth factor-nitric oxide (VEGF-NO) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: It represented a potential resource of PMT for the treatment of NS involved in metabolic syndrome.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic and chromium speciation in an urban contaminated soil

Authors: Landrot, G; Tappero, R; Webb, SM; Sparks, DL (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1070401

[Less] The distribution and speciation of As and Cr in a contaminated soil were studied by synchrotron-based . . . [More] The distribution and speciation of As and Cr in a contaminated soil were studied by synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence (μ-XRF), microfocused X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), and bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The soil was taken from a park in Wilmington, DE, which had been an important center for the leather tanning industry along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, until the early 20th century. Soil concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb measured at certain locations in the park greatly exceeded the background levels of these heavy metals in the State of Delaware. Results show that Cr(III) and As(V) species are mainly present in the soil, with insignificant amounts of Cr(VI) and As(III). Micro-XRF maps show that Cr and Fe are distributed together in regions where their concentrations are diffuse, and at local spots where their concentrations are high. Iron oxides, which can reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), are present at some of these hot spots where Cr and Fe are highly concentrated. Arsenic is mainly associated with Al in the soil, and to a minor extent with Fe. Arsenate may be sorbed to aluminum oxides, which might have transformed after a long period of time into an As-Al precipitate phase, having a structure and chemical composition similar to mansfieldite (AlAsO(4)⋅2H(2)O). The latter hypothesis is supported by the fact that only a small amount of As present in the soil was desorbed using the characteristic toxicity leaching procedure tests. This suggests that As is immobilized in the soil.

Journal Article
Journal Article

High resolution micro arthrography of hard and soft tissues in a murine model

Authors: Gu, XI; Palacio-Mancheno, PE; Leong, DJ; Borisov, YA; Williams, E; Maldonado, N; Laudier, D; Majeska, RJ; Schaffler, MB; Sun, HB; Cardoso, L (In Press) . HERO ID: 1234051

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Recent developments on high resolution micro computed tomography (μCT) allow imaging of soft tissues in small animal joints. Nevertheless, μCT images cannot distinguish soft tissues from synovial fluid due to their similar mass density, limiting the 3D assessment of soft tissues volume and thickness. This study aimed to evaluate a lead chromate contrast agent for μCΤ arthrography of rat knee joints ex vivo. DESIGN: Intact tibiofemoral rat joints were injected with the contrast agent at different concentrations and imaged using a μCT at 2.7 μm isotropic voxel size. Cartilage thickness was measured using an automated procedure, validated against histological measurements, and analyzed as a function of μCT image resolution. Changes in hard and soft tissues were also analyzed in tibiofemoral joints 4 weeks after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). RESULTS: The contrast agent diffused well throughout the whole knee cavity without penetrating the tissues, therefore providing high contrast at the boundaries between soft tissues and synovial fluid space. Thickness analysis of cartilage demonstrated a high similarity between histology and μ-arthrography approaches (R(2) = 0.90). Four weeks after surgical DMM, the development of osteophytes (Oph) and cartilage ulcerations was recognizable with μCT, as well as a slight increase in trabecular bone porosity, and decrease in trabecular thickness. CONCLUSIONS: A lead chromate-based contrast agent allowed discriminating the synovial fluid from soft tissues of intact knee joints, and thus made possible both qualitative and quantitative assessment of hard and soft tissues in both intact and DMM tibiofemoral joints using high resolution μCT.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and patch test results of leather workers at two Indonesian tanneries

Authors: Febriana, SA; Jungbauer, F; Soebono, H; Coenraads, PJ (In Press) Contact Dermatitis. HERO ID: 1234053

[Less] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. . . . [More] Background. Tannery workers are at considerable risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis. Occupational skin diseases in tannery workers in newly industrialized countries have been reported, but neither the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis nor the skin-sensitizing agents were specifically examined in those studies. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesian tanneries, identify the causative allergens, and propose a tannery work series of patch test allergens. Patients/methods A cross-sectional study in all workers at two Indonesian tanneries was performed to assess the prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis via a questionnaire-based interview and skin examination. Workers with occupational contact dermatitis were patch tested to identify the causative allergens. Results. Occupational contact dermatitis was suspected in 77 (16%) of the 472 workers. Thirteen (3%) of these 472 workers were confirmed to have occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Potassium dichromate (9.2%), N,N-diphenylguanidine (5.3%), benzidine (3.9%) and sodium metabisulfite (2.6%) were found to be the occupationally relevant sensitizers. Conclusions. The sensitization pattern showed some differences from the data in studies reported from other newly industrial countries. We compiled a 'tannery work series' of allergens for patch testing. A number of these allergens may also be considered for patch testing in patients with (leather) shoe dermatitis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Zinc PVA versus potassium dichromate for preservation of microsporidian spores of human origin

Authors: El-Taweel, HA; Tolba, MM; Sadaka, HA; El-Zawawy, LA; Osman, MM (In Press) Parasitology Research. HERO ID: 1234059

[Less] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian . . . [More] Microsporidia are emerging opportunistic parasites. Preservation of the biological properties of microsporidian spores is often required in research work. The present study compared two preservatives; zinc polyvinyl alcohol (zinc PVA) and potassium dichromate solutions for preservation of microsporidian spores separated from human faecal samples. After 0, 1, 2 and 4 months of storage, morphological features and staining characters of the spores were assessed by light microscopy in modified trichrome-stained smears and their viability percentages were calculated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide mixture. Also, spore infectivity was evaluated by faecal spore shedding and intestinal spore load in mice orally inoculated with the preserved spores. Results revealed that morphological features, staining characters and viability of the spores were maintained in both solutions throughout the study period. Spore infectivity was completely preserved in zinc PVA solution but showed significant reduction in potassium dichromate solution at the fourth month of the preservation duration.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds

Authors: Cristiano, BF; Delgado, JU; da Silva, JW; de Barros, PD; de Araújo, RM; Dias, FC; Lopes, RT (In Press) . HERO ID: 1234063

[Less] The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied . . . [More] The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Caffeic Acid Inhibits Chromium(VI)-Induced Oxidative Stress and Changes in Brush Border Membrane Enzymes in Rat Intestine

Authors: Arivarasu, NA; Priyamvada, S; Mahmood, R (In Press) Biological Trace Element Research. HERO ID: 1234067

[Less] We have previously shown that a single oral dose of potassium dichromate results in a decrease in the . . . [More] We have previously shown that a single oral dose of potassium dichromate results in a decrease in the activities of several brush border membrane enzymes, produces oxidative stress, and alters the activities of several antioxidant enzymes in the small intestine of rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of treatment with the dietary antioxidant caffeic acid on potassium dichromate-induced biochemical changes in the rat intestine. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, potassium dichromate alone, caffeic acid alone, and potassium dichromate + caffeic acid. Administration of a single oral dose of potassium dichromate alone (100 mg/kg body mass) led to a decrease in the activities of brush border membrane enzymes, increase in lipid peroxidation, decrease in sulfhydryl groups, and changes in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Two oral doses of caffeic acid (each of 250 mg/kg body mass) greatly attenuated the potassium dichromate-induced changes in all these parameters, but the administration of caffeic acid alone had no effect. Thus, caffeic acid is an effective agent in reducing the effects of potassium dichromate on the intestine and could prove to be useful in alleviating the toxicity of chromium(VI) compounds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of Carum copticum seeds in modulating chromium-induced toxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes

Authors: Deb, DD; Parimala, G; Devi, SS; Chakrabarti, T (In Press) Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. HERO ID: 1234094

[Less] Carum copticum seeds are well known for ailment of various diseases since ancient times. The present . . . [More] Carum copticum seeds are well known for ailment of various diseases since ancient times. The present study pertains to investigate modulatory effects of methanolic extract of C. copticum seeds (MCE) against hexavalent chromium induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, apoptosis and oxidative stress on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and isolated human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) in vitro. Treatment of BEAS-2B and PBL with MCE prior to potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) treatment exhibited an increase in cell viability and decrease of DNA damage as compared to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treatment alone, as evaluated by WST-8 and Comet assay respectively. Further, MCE administration 1h prior to graded doses of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced apoptosis and caspase 3 activity. MCE also ameliorated K(2)Cr(2)O(7) induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant enzyme levels in BEAS-2B and PBL cells accompanied by reduction in lipid peroxides with maximum effect at 50μg/ml. Thus, this study provides strong evidence to support the beneficial effect of MCE in preventing Cr(VI) induced toxicity in BEAS-2B and PBL cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of heavy metals in water samples and tissues of edible fish species from Awassa and Koka Rift Valley Lakes, Ethiopia

Authors: Dsikowitzky, L; Mengesha, M; Dadebo, E; de Carvalho, CEV; Sindern, S (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1255505

[Less] The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes host populations of edible fish species including Oreochromis niloticus, . . . [More] The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes host populations of edible fish species including Oreochromis niloticus, Labeobarbus intermedius and Clarias gariepinus, which are harvested also in other tropical countries. We investigated the occurrence of six heavy metals in tissues of these fish species as well as in the waters of Lake Koka and Lake Awassa. Both lakes are affected by industrial effluents in their catchments, making them ideal study sites. Mercury concentrations were very low in the water samples, but concentrations in the fish samples were relatively high, suggesting a particularly high bioaccumulation tendency as compared with the other investigated metals. Mercury was preferentially accumulated in the fish liver or muscle. It was the only metal with species-specific accumulation with highest levels found in the predatory species L. intermedius. Lower mercury concentrations in O. niloticus could be attributed to the lower trophic level, whereas mercury values in the predatory C. gariepinus were unexpectedly low. This probably relates to the high growth rate of this species resulting in biodilution of mercury. Accumulation of lead, selenium, chromium, arsenic and cadmium did not differ between species, indicating that these elements are not biomagnified in the food chain. Values of cadmium, selenium and arsenic were highest in fish livers, while lead and chromium levels were highest in the gills, which could be related to the uptake pathway. A significant impact of the industrial discharges on the occurrence of metals in the lakes could not be detected, and the respective concentrations in fish do not pose a public health hazard.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Protective Effects of Pine Bark Extract on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Dermatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Lee, IC; Kim, SH; Shin, IS; Moon, C; Park, SH; Kim, SH; Park, SC; Kim, HC; Kim, JC (In Press) . HERO ID: 1258233

[Less] The present study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (PBE) against hexavalent . . . [More] The present study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (PBE) against hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]-induced dermatotoxicity in rats. Skin reactions were evaluated by visual inspection, histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters. Topical application of Cr(VI) produced a significant increase in the incidence and severity of erythema and edema upon visual inspection. Histopathological examination showed moderate to severe necrosis and desquamation in the epidermis and inflammation and hemorrhage in the dermis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and decreased glutathione (GSH), catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase of the skin were observed in the Cr(VI) group. On the contrary, concomitant administration with PBE significantly improved Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity, evidenced by a decrease in the incidence and severity of skin irritation and histopathological lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PBE treatment reduced MDA concentrations and increased catalase and GST activities in skin tissues, indicating that concomitant administration with PBE effectively prevents Cr(VI)-induced oxidative damage in rats. The results indicate that PBE has a protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced dermatotoxicity and is useful as a protective agent against various dermal lesions induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.