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Chromium VI

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metal tolerance and larvicidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus

Authors: Lozano, LC; Dussán, J (In Press) World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1519059

[Less] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes . . . [More] Lysinibacillus sphaericus is a spore-forming bacterium used in the biological control of mosquitoes and in bioremediation. Mosquito larvae exposed to heavy metals are tolerant to concentrations above the permissible limit for industrial residual waters. In this work, we characterize 51 L. sphaericus strains for metal tolerance and larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.2, OT4b.20, OT4b.25, OT4b.26 and OT4b.58 were as toxic as the spores of the reference strain 2362 against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. 19 Mosquito-pathogenic L. sphaericus strains and 6 non-pathogenic strains were able to grow in arsenate, hexavalent chromium and/or lead. 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analyses clustered 84 % of the metal-tolerant strains in L. sphaericus group 1, which encompasses the mosquitocidal strains. The larvicidal activity of vegetative and sporulated cells and its high tolerance to arsenate, hexavalent chromium and lead indicate that L. sphaericus OT4b.26 is a strong candidate for further studies examining its potential for biological control of mosquitoes in waters contaminated with metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hexavalent chromium reduction by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6: the influence of carbon source, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds

Authors: Field, EK; Gerlach, R; Viamajala, S; Jennings, LK; Peyton, BM; Apel, WA (In Press) Biodegradation. HERO ID: 1577279

[Less] The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect . . . [More] The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in Cr(VI) remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in, or added to, the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. Molasses stimulated Cr(VI) reduction more effectively than pure sucrose, presumably due to presence of more easily utilizable sugars, electron shuttling compounds or compounds with direct Cr(VI) reduction capabilities. Cr(VI) reduction rates increased with increasing concentration of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) regardless of the carbon source. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II), which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems was the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that was Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reply to: Pesch B, Weiss T, Pallapies D, Schlüter G, Brüning T. Letter to the editor. Re: Seidler A, Jähnichen S, Hegewald J, Fishta A, Krug O, Rüter L, Strik C, Hallier E, Straube S. Systematic review and quantification of respiratory cancer risk for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium

Authors: Seidler, A; Jähnichen, S; Hegewald, J; Fishta, A; Krug, O; Rüter, L; Strik, C; Hallier, E; Straube, S (In Press) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. [Letter] HERO ID: 1786253


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption of Cr(VI) using synthetic poly(m-phenylenediamine)

Authors: Yu, W; Zhang, L; Wang, H; Chai, L (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1807699

[Less] Poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PmPD) with different oxidation state was successfully synthesized by the improved . . . [More] Poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PmPD) with different oxidation state was successfully synthesized by the improved chemically oxidative polymerization. The function of oxidation state on Cr(VI) adsorption was systematically examined through adsorption experiments. Results showed that the Cr(VI) adsorptivity of all PmPD increased with decreasing the initial pH. When the oxidation state of PmPD was dropped, the equilibrium time for Cr(VI) adsorption was obviously shortened and its Cr(VI) removal and adsorption selectivity were profoundly obviously increased. Typically, PmPD with the lowest oxidation state in this research possesses the highest Cr(VI) removal of 500mgg(-1). Moreover, PmPD with lower oxidation state displays a potentially superior prospect in Cr(VI) treatment through preliminary experiments on 5 cycles of adsorption, column adsorption and practical wastewater treatment. The possible adsorption mechanism was discussed mainly according to characterizations (FTIR, XPS) and experiments, which together suggests that the Cr(VI) adsorption most possibly involve redox reaction, chelation and doping adsorption.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supercritical water oxidation of tannery sludge: Stabilization of chromium and destruction of organics

Authors: Zou, D; Chi, Y; Dong, J; Fu, C; Wang, F; Ni, M (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1812703

[Less] The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of industrial tannery sludge was investigated to understand . . . [More] The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of industrial tannery sludge was investigated to understand the simultaneous destruction of organic pollutants and recovery of high content chromium. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor at temperatures of 350-500°C, reaction time of 150-300s and different oxygen ratios, to exhibit the effect of operation conditions. Results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased with higher temperature, larger oxidant amount and reaction time; a maximum value of 96% was obtained. Meanwhile, destruction yield was much higher under supercritical conditions than that in subcritical water. In addition, removal efficiency of Cr from sludge reached more than 98% under all conditions; higher temperature played a positive role. Further, leaching toxicity tests of heavy metals in solid products were conducted based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. All heavy metals except nickel showed a greatly reduced leaching toxicity through their stabilization. The chromium oxide recovered in ash was amorphous below 550°C, so that the structure of Cr could not be identified by X-ray diffraction pattern. Special attention should be paid on nickel as its leaching toxicity increased due to the corrosion of reactor surface under severe reaction conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous redox conversion of chromium(VI) and arsenic(III) under acidic conditions

Authors: Wang, Z; Bush, RT; Sullivan, LA; Liu, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1597316

[Less] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful . . . [More] Arsenic and chromium are often abundant constituents of acid mine drainage (AMD) and are most harmful as arsenite (As(III)) and hexavalent (Cr(VI)). To simultaneously change their oxidation state from As(III) to As(V), and Cr(VI) to Cr(III), is a potentially effective and attractive strategy for environmental remediation. The coabundance of As(III) and Cr(VI) in natural environments indicates their negligible direct interaction. The addition of H2O2 enables and greatly accelerates the simultaneous oxidation of As(III) and reduction of Cr(VI). These reactions are further enhanced at acidic pH and higher concentrations of Cr(VI). However, the presence of ligands (i.e., oxalate, citrate, pyrophosphate) greatly retards the oxidation of As(III), even though it enhances the reduction of Cr(VI). To explain these results we propose a reaction mechanism where Cr(VI) is primarily reduced to Cr(III) by H2O2, via the intermediate tetraperoxochromate Cr(V). Cr(V) is then involved in the formation of (•)OH radicals. In the presence of ligands, the capacity of Cr(V) to form (•)OH radicals, which are primarily responsible for As(III) oxidation, is practically inhibited. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility for the coconversion of As(III) and Cr(VI) in AMD and real-world constraints to this strategy for environmental remediation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterizing toxic Cr(VI) contamination in chromite mine overburden dump and its bacterial remediation

Authors: Dhal, B; Das, NN; Thatoi, HN; Pandey, BD (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1786195

[Less] Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) . . . [More] Cr(VI) generated due to natural oxidation of chromite mineral present in chromite mine overburden (COB) dumps of Sukinda, India, has been characterized by different physico-chemical methods. The Cr(VI) was found to be associated with goethite matrix at a contamination level of 500mgCr(VI)kg(-1) of COB. Bacillus sp. isolated from the overburden sample exhibiting high tolerance to the hexavalent chromium, was used for the remediation of Cr(VI) in the overburden. The process was optimized while varying the parameters such as pH (2-9), pulp density (10-60%) and temperature (25-40°C). Optimal reduction of more than 98% of Cr(VI) in the COB sample was achieved in 16h at pH~7.0 and 60% pulp density with the Bacillus sp. (4.05×10(7)cellsmL(-1)) in absence of media. The exponential rate equation yielded rate constant value of 2.14×10(-1)h(-1) at 60% pulp density. The mode of bio-reduction of Cr(VI) in the overburden sample was established by FT-IR, XRD, EPMA and SEM-EDS studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

On the simultaneous adsorption of a reactive dye and hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions onto grafted chitosan

Authors: Kyzas, GZ; Lazaridis, NK; Kostoglou, M (In Press) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. HERO ID: 1786221

[Less] In the present work, the simultaneous adsorption of Remazol Red 3BS (reactive dye) and Cr(VI) onto chitosan . . . [More] In the present work, the simultaneous adsorption of Remazol Red 3BS (reactive dye) and Cr(VI) onto chitosan powder grafted with poly(ethylene imine) and cross-linked with epichlorohydrin is experimentally studied. Such a combination of a dye molecule and a heavy metal can be found in real/practical conditions of environmental pollutants' removal, so their mutual interaction on the adsorption efficiencies is very important. The experimental data revealed a competitive type of interaction between the dye molecule and heavy metal ion. An attempt is made to quantitatively describe the data through appropriate isotherms and kinetic equations. The data demonstrated that the common thermodynamic equilibrium is not obtained for the present problem and the final composition of the adsorbed phase depends also on the kinetics. A new scenario of irreversible kinetic-based equilibrium was introduced and examined in detail. None of the scenarios considered here is fully able to cover the whole data, so semi-empirical equations are introduced for their description. It is shown that further development of phenomenological models requires more complicated experimental protocols than simple simultaneous adsorption of the species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicity testing with luminescent bacteria - Characterization of an automated method for the combined assessment of acute and chronic effects

Authors: Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1786231

[Less] The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing . . . [More] The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing and is applicable for a huge variety of environmental and industrial samples. A big disadvantage of this method is the very short exposure time, which is expressed in a low sensitivity in regard to substances with a delayed effect. Chronic effects, i.e. interference with cell growth, cannot be assessed with this conventional standard method. The goal of this research was to develop an automated testing system for long term toxicity towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri by implementing microtitration-based instrumentation. The optimized method, hereinafter referred to as "kinetic luminescent bacteria test", can be described as a miniaturized combination of the conventional short-term luminescence inhibition test according to EN ISO 11348 and the Photobacterium phosphoreum growth inhibition test (DIN 38412-37). The validation procedure included the evaluation of six reference compounds (3,4-Dichloroaniline, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin sulfate, Potassium dichromate, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate) and three different endpoints that are acute luminescence inhibition (acute LI) after 30min, chronic luminescence inhibition (chronic LI) after 24h and growth inhibition (GI) after 14h. The optimized method allows the assessment of acute and chronic effects within one test, by what a misinterpretation of the toxicity of substances with delayed bacterial toxicity can be prevented, without abandoning most of the advantages of the conventional short-term test. Therefore, the kinetic luminescent bacteria test is exceptional as an initial screening test for environmental samples or substances with unknown (eco) toxicological characteristics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioadsorption and bioaccumulation of chromium trivalent in Cr(III)-tolerant microalgae: A mechanisms for chromium resistance

Authors: Pereira, M; Bartolomé, MC; Sánchez-Fortún, S (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1786243

[Less] Anthropogenic activity constantly releases heavy metals into the environment. The heavy metal chromium . . . [More] Anthropogenic activity constantly releases heavy metals into the environment. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. While hexavalent chromium uptake in plant cells has been reported that an active process by carrying essential anions, the cation Cr(III) appears to be taken up inactively. Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides (Dc1M), an unicellular green alga is a well-studied cell biological model organism. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effect of chromium exposures on wild-type Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and Cr(III)-tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) strains of these green algae, and to determine the potential mechanism of chromium resistance. Using cell growth as endpoint to determine Cr(III)-sensitivity, the IC50(72) values obtained show significant differences of sensitivity between wild type and Cr(III)-tolerant cells. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant morphological differences between both strains, such as decrease in cell size or reducing the coefficient of form; and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization and cell wall thickening in the Cr(III)-tolerant strain with respect to the wild-type strain. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/XEDS) revealed that Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium distributed in cell wall (bioadsorption) as well as in cytoplasm, vacuoles, and chloroplast (bio-accumulation). Morphological changes of Cr(III)-tolerant D. chlorelloides cells and the presence of these electron-dense bodies in their cell structures can be understood as a Cr(III) detoxification mechanism.