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Chromium VI

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[The "new carcinogens' directive" from the European Union: new tasks waiting for us, new opportunities in front of us (and that we need not to waste) in Italy]

Author: Calisti, R (2019) HERO ID: 5880785

[Less] SUMMARY: The new EU directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to . . . [More] SUMMARY: The new EU directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens and mutagens at work, issued on December 2017, will be integrated inside the Member States' national laws not later than 17th January 2020. The new directive brings in force new binding occupational exposure limit values (BOELVs) for several agents, some of great importance such as hard wood dusts, a set of hexavalent chromium compounds and crystalline silica dust; for some cases, the entry into force of the new limits is delayed in time. The new directive clarifies that the limit values are established considering factors distinct from health necessities too. The Member States are bound to adopt national limit values not avexceeding the corresponding EU ones, but are empowered to lower them. It is essential that the control of the actual respect of the limit values results not only from the application of theoretic previsional models, but is entrusted mainly to high quality exposure measurements and to estimates directly derived from measurements, on the base of publicly available JEMs. The specific health surveillance to be provided to any person both exposed and previously exposed to carcinogens at work should not be limited to proper oncological screening actions, but should include programs for biological monitoring of both exposures and related pre-neoplastic effects, every time any of these is possible and useful. A fair mapping of the exposures to carcinogens and mutagens at work and a systematical registration of cases of cancers attributable to occupational exposures will be placed side to side.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening and prioritization of chemical hazards for deriving human health ambient water quality criteria in China

Authors: Yu, Y; Yu, Z; Xiang, M; Zhou, Z; Hu, G; Zhang, Y; Ma, R; Li, H (2019) Journal of Environmental Management 245:223-229. HERO ID: 5339379

[Less] A two-step screening and prioritization approach of the chemical hazard to derive water quality criteria . . . [More] A two-step screening and prioritization approach of the chemical hazard to derive water quality criteria for the protection of human health in China was developed. Seventy-five potential candidate chemicals were identified in Step 1, and then were screened and scored in Step 2, based on three characteristics: detection frequency, toxicity, and human exposure. Substances with a score above 900 were considered the proposed candidates. Using this approach, 18 chemicals were successfully identified, and ranked in the following order: zinc, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, trichloromethane, arsenic, cadmium, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), copper, benzo[a]pyrene, lead, benzene, fluoranthene, mercury, beta-HCH, anthracene, p,p'-DDT, and alpha-HCH. Additional chemical contaminants, including thallium, antimony, chromium (VI), and nitrobenzene, suggested by the Ministry of Environmental Protection for consideration during the development of the water quality criteria, brought the final number of proposed candidates to 22. These candidates belong to different groups: nine metals, four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four pesticides, two phthalic acid esters, one halogenated hydrocarbon, and two monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This list of pollutants will provide guidance when selecting the substances to be considered during the development of water quality criteria for the protection of human health in China.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Hexavalent Chromium

Author: Balmer, J (2018) HERO ID: 5882387

[Less] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a chemical used in many industries and has the potential to cause negative . . . [More] Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a chemical used in many industries and has the potential to cause negative health effects. Occupational health nurses can intervene to protect workers from the health hazards associated with Cr(VI).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Yari, S; Fallah Asadi, A; Varmazyar, S (2016) Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 17 Spec No.:205-211. HERO ID: 3429640

[Less] Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for . . . [More] Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Consideration of non-linear, non-threshold and threshold approaches for assessing the carcinogenicity of oral exposure to hexavalent chromium

Author: Haney, J (2015) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 73:834-852. HERO ID: 3223705

[Less] A non-linear approach, consistent with available mode of action (MOA) data, is most scientifically defensible . . . [More] A non-linear approach, consistent with available mode of action (MOA) data, is most scientifically defensible for assessing the carcinogenicity of oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Accordingly, the current paper builds upon previous studies (Haney, 2015a, 2015b) to first develop a non-linear, non-threshold approach as well as a non-linear threshold approach for assessing the oral carcinogenicity of CrVI, and then utilizes available MOA analyses and information for selection of the most scientifically-supported approach. More specifically, a non-linear, non-threshold dose-response function was developed that adequately describes the non-linearity predicted for potential human excess risk versus oral dose due to the sub-linear relationship between oral dose and internal dose (added mg Cr/kg target tissue) across environmentally-relevant doses of regulatory interest. Additionally, benchmark dose modeling was used to derive a reference dose (RfD of 0.003 mg/kg-day) with cytotoxicity-induced regenerative hyperplasia as a key precursor event to carcinogenesis in the mouse small intestine. This RfD value shows remarkable agreement with that published previously (0.006 mg/kg-day) based on a more scientifically-sophisticated, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach (Thompson et al., 2013b). The RfD approach is the most scientifically-defensible approach based on the weight-of-evidence of available MOA information and analyses conducted for the most scientifically-supported MOA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Implications of dose-dependent target tissue absorption for linear and non-linear/threshold approaches in development of a cancer-based oral toxicity factor for hexavalent chromium

Author: Haney, J, Jr (2015) HERO ID: 3228388

[Less] Dose-dependent changes in target tissue absorption have important implications for determining the most . . . [More] Dose-dependent changes in target tissue absorption have important implications for determining the most defensible approach for developing a cancer-based oral toxicity factor for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). For example, mouse target tissue absorption per unit dose is an estimated 10-fold lower at the CrVI dose corresponding to the federal maximum contaminant level (MCL) than at the USEPA draft oral slope factor (SFo) point of departure dose. This decreasing target tissue absorption as doses decrease to lower, more environmentally-relevant doses is inconsistent with linear low-dose extrapolation. The shape of the dose-response curve accounting for this toxicokinetic phenomenon would clearly be nonlinear. Furthermore, these dose-dependent differences in absorption indicate that the magnitude of risk overestimation by a linear low-dose extrapolation approach (e.g., SFo) increases and is likely to span one or perhaps more orders of magnitude as it is used to predict risk at progressively lower, more environmentally-relevant doses. An additional apparent implication is that no single SFo can reliably predict risk across potential environmental doses (e.g., doses corresponding to water concentrations <= the federal MCL). A non-linear approach, consistent with available mode of action data, is most scientifically defensible for derivation of an oral toxicity factor for CrVI-induced carcinogenesis. (C) 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of an inhalation unit risk factor for hexavalent chromium

Authors: Haney, JT; Erraguntla, N; Sielken, RL; Valdez-Flores, C (2014) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 68:201-211. HERO ID: 2225059

[Less] A unit risk factor (URF) was developed for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). The URF is based on excess lung . . . [More] A unit risk factor (URF) was developed for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). The URF is based on excess lung cancer mortality in two key epidemiological studies of chromate production workers. The Crump et al. (2003) study concerns the Painesville, OH worker cohort, while Gibb et al. (2000) regards the Baltimore, MD cohort. A supporting assessment was also performed for a cohort from four low-dose chromate plants (Leverkusen and Uerdingen, Germany, Corpus Christi, TX, Castle Hayne, NC). For the Crump et al. (2003) study, grouped observed and expected number of lung cancer mortalities along with cumulative CrVI exposures were used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate and asymptotic variance of the slope (β) for the linear multiplicative relative risk model using Poisson regression modeling. For the Gibb et al. (2000) study, Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed with optimal exposure lag and adjusting for the effect of covariates (e.g., smoking) to estimate β values. Life-table analyses were used to develop URFs for each of the two key studies, as well as for supporting and related studies. The two key study URFs were combined using weighting factors relevant to confidence to derive the final URF for CrVI of 2.3E-03 per μgCrVI/m(3).

Technical Report
Technical Report

Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium

Author: NIOSH (2013) (DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2013-128). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HERO ID: 1786329

[Less] In this criteria document, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reviews . . . [More] In this criteria document, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reviews the critical health effects studies of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds in order to update its assessment of the potential health effects of occupational exposure to Cr(VI) compounds and its recommendations to prevent and control these workplace exposures. NIOSH reviews the following aspects of workplace exposure to Cr(VI) compounds: the potential for exposures (Chapter 2), analytical methods and considerations (Chapter 3), human health effects (Chapter 4), experimental studies (Chapter 5), and quantitative risk assessments (Chapter 6). Based on evaluation of this information, NIOSH provides recommendations for a revised recommended exposure limit (REL) for Cr(VI) compounds (Chapter 7) and other recommendations for risk management (Chapter 8).

Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicological profile for chromium. Draft for public comment

Author: ATSDR (2008) HERO ID: 1515076


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: Port of Djibouti

Authors: Chou, S; Colman, J; Tylenda, C; De Rosa, C (2007) Toxicology and Industrial Health 23:183-208. HERO ID: 734950

[Less] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide . . . [More] The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared this health consultation to provide support for assessing the public health implications of hazardous chemical exposure, primarily through drinking water, related to releases of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the port of Djibouti. CCA from a shipment, apparently intended for treating electric poles, is leaking into the soil in the port area. CCA is a pesticide used to protect wood against decay-causing organisms. This mixture commonly contains chromium(VI) (hexavalent chromium) as chromic acid, arsenic(V) (pentavalent arsenic) as arsenic pentoxide and copper (II) (divalent copper) as cupric oxide, often in an aqueous solution or concentrate. Experimental studies of the fate of CCA in soil and monitoring studies of wood-preserving sites where CCA was spilled on the soil indicate that the chromium(VI), arsenic and copper components of CCA can leach from soil into groundwater and surface water. In addition, at CCA wood-preserving sites, substantial concentrations of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper remained in the soil and were leachable into water four years after the use of CCA was discontinued, suggesting prolonged persistence in soil, with continued potential for leaching. The degree of leaching depended on soil composition and the extent of soil contamination with CCA. In general, leaching was highest for chromium(VI), intermediate for arsenic and lowest for copper. Thus, the potential for contamination of sources of drinking water exists. Although arsenic that is leached from CCA-contaminated soil into surface water may accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish, most of the arsenic in these animals will be in a form (often called fish arsenic) that is less harmful. Copper, which leaches less readily than the other components, can accumulate in tissues of mussels and oysters. Chromium is not likely to accumulate in the tissues of fish and shellfish. Limited studies of air concentrations during cleanup of CCA-contaminated soil at wood- preserving sites showed that air levels of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper were below the occupational standards. Workers directly involved in the repackaging, containment or cleanup of leaking containers of CCA or of soil saturated with CCA, however, may be exposed to high levels of CCA through direct dermal contact, inhalation of aerosols or particulates and inadvertent ingestion. Few studies have been conducted on the health effects of CCA. CCA as a concentrated solution is corrosive to the skin eyes and digestive tract. Studies of workers exposed to CCA in wood-preserving plants have not found adverse health effects in these workers, but the studies involved small numbers of workers and therefore are not definitive. People exposed to very high levels of CCA, from sawing wood that still had liquid CCA in it or from living in a home contaminated with ash containing high levels of chromium(VI), arsenic and copper, experienced serious health effects including nosebleeds, digestive system pain and bleeding, itching skin, darkened urine, nervous system effects such as tingling or numbness of the hands and feet and confusion, and rashes or thickening and peeling of the skin. These health effects of the mixture are at least qualitatively reflective of the health effects of the individual components of CCA (arsenic, chromium(VI) and copper). For a given mixture, the critical effects of the individual components are of particular concern, as are any effects in common that may become significant due to additivity or interactions among the components. Effects of concern for CCA, based on the known effects of the individual components, include cancer (arsenic by the oral route, arsenic and chromium(VI) by the inhalation route), irritant or corrosive effects (all three mixture components), the unique dermal effects of arsenic, neurologic effects (arsenic and chromium(VI), and hematologic, hepatic and renal effects (all three components). Because arsenic, chromium(VI), and copper components affect some of the same target organs, they may have additive toxicity toward those organs. Few studies have investigated the potential toxic interactions among the components (arsenic, chromium(VI) and copper) of CCA. The available interaction studies and also possible mechanisms of interaction were evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach. The conclusion is that there is no strong evidence that interactions among the components of CCA will result in a marked increase in toxicity. This conclusion reflects a lack of well designed interaction studies as well as uncertainties regarding potential mechanisms of interaction. Confidence in the conclusion is low. Workers exposed to high levels of CCA during cleanup of leaking containers of CCA or soil heavily contaminated with CCA should wear protective clothing and respirators if air concentrations of arsenic are above 10 microg/m3. In addition, they should not eat, drink or use tobacco products during exposure to CCA, and should thoroughly wash after skin contact with CCA and before eating, drinking, using tobacco products or using restrooms. When protective clothing becomes contaminated with CCA, it should be changed, and the contaminated clothing should be disposed off in a manner approved for pesticide disposal. Workers should leave all protective clothing, including work shoes and boots, at the workplace, so that CCA will not be carried into their cars and homes, which would endanger other people. People not involved in the cleanup of the CCA and who are not wearing protective clothing should be prevented from entering contaminated areas. Leaking containers of CCA must be repackaged and contained to prevent direct exposure of on-site personnel; and contaminated soil needs to be removed to prevent the CCA from leaching into surface water and groundwater, thereby contaminating sources of drinking water.