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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Extracellular Matrix from Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa (SIS) as Immune Adjuvants

    Authors: Aachoui, Y; Ghosh, SK
    (2011) PLoS ONE 6:e27083.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) of Cook Biotech is licensed and widely used for tissue remodeling . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) of Cook Biotech is licensed and widely used for tissue remodeling in humans. SIS was shown to be highly effective as an adjuvant in model studies with prostate and ovarian cancer vaccines. However, SIS adjuvanticity relative to alum, another important human-licensed adjuvant, has not yet been delineated in terms of activation of innate immunity via inflammasomes and boosting of antibody responses to soluble proteins and hapten-protein conjugates. We used ovalbumin, and a hapten-protein conjugate, phthalate-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The evaluation of SIS was conducted in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using both intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. Inflammatory responses were studied by microarray profiling of chemokines and cytokines and by qPCR of inflammasomes-related genes. Results showed that SIS affected cytokine and chemokines microenvironments such as up-regulation of IL-4 and CD30-ligand and activation of chemotactic factors LIX and KC (neutrophil chemotactic factors), MCP-1 (monocytes chemotactic factors), MIP 1-α (macrophage chemotactic factor) and lymphotactin, as well as, growth factors like M-CSF. SIS also promoted gene expression of Nod-like receptors (NLR) and associated downstream effectors. However, in contrast to alum, SIS had no effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) or NLRP3, but it appeared to promote both Th1 and Th2 responses under different conditions. Lastly, it was as effective as alum in engendering a lasting and specific antibody response, primarily of IgG1 type.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , Pubmed, WOS, Excluded, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), Pubmed, WOS
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Immune enhancement by novel vaccine adjuvants in autoimmune-prone NZB/W F1 mice: relative efficacy and safety

    Authors: Aachoui, Y; Ghosh, SK
    (2011) BMC Immunology 12:61.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Vaccines have profoundly impacted global health although concerns persist . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Vaccines have profoundly impacted global health although concerns persist about their potential role in autoimmune or other adverse reactions. To address these concerns, vaccine components like immunogens and adjuvants require critical evaluation not only in healthy subjects but also in those genetically averse to vaccine constituents. Evaluation in autoimmune-prone animal models of adjuvants is therefore important in vaccine development. The objective here was to assess the effectiveness of experimental adjuvants: two phytol-derived immunostimulants PHIS-01 (phytanol) and PHIS-03 (phytanyl mannose), and a new commercial adjuvant from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS-H), relative to a standard adjuvant alum. Phytol derivatives are hydrophobic, oil-in water diterpenoids, while alum is hydrophilic, and SIS is essentially a biodegradable and collagenous protein cocktail derived from extracellular matrices.

    RESULTS: We studied phthalate -specific and cross-reactive anti-DNA antibody responses, and parameters associated with the onset of autoimmune disorders. We determined antibody isotype and cytokine/chemokine milieu induced by the above experimental adjuvants relative to alum. Our results indicated that the phytol-derived adjuvant PHIS-01 exceeded alum in enhancing anti-phthalate antibody without much cross reactivity with ds-DNA. Relatively, SIS and PHIS-03 proved less robust, but they were also less inflammatory. Interestingly, these adjuvants facilitated isotype switching of anti-hapten, but not of anti-DNA response. The current study reaffirms our earlier reports on adjuvanticity of phytol compounds and SIS-H in non autoimmune-prone BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These adjuvants are as effective as alum also in autoimmune-prone NZB/WF1 mice, and they have little deleterious effects.

    CONCLUSION: Although all adjuvants tested impacted cytokine/chemokine milieu in favor of Th1/Th2 balance, the phytol compounds fared better in reducing the onset of autoimmune syndromes. However, SIS is least inflammatory among the adjuvants evaluated.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , Pubmed, Excluded, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), Pubmed
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Indoor Dust from Egypt: Implications for Human Exposure

    Authors: Abdallah, MAE; Covaci, A
    (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:4782-4789.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have been proposed as alternatives for the phased out PBDE formulations. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have been proposed as alternatives for the phased out PBDE formulations. However, there exists no information on indoor dust contamination with PFRs in Africa. In this study, we report-for the first time-on levels and profiles of PFRs in dust samples from Egyptian houses (n = 20), offices (n = 20), cars (n = 20), and public microenvironments (PMEs; n = 11). Results revealed that PFR levels in Egyptian indoor dust are among the lowest reported worldwide. This may be attributed to less strict fire-safety standards and lack of regulatory actions against PBDEs. Triphenylphosphate was the only PFR detected in all samples with highest average concentration (386 ng g(-1)). While tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate and tris-1,3-dichloropropylphosphate showed higher detection frequency (DF = 69%, 57%, and 56%; average = 233, 229, and 144 ng g(-1) respectively), tri(2-butoxyexthyl)phosphate (37%; 294 ng g(-1)) displayed the second highest average concentration. Statistical analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Sigma PFRs in cars (average = 1011 ng g(-1)) and PMEs (2167 ng g-1) than in houses (310 ng g(-1)) and offices (450 ng g(-1)). Estimated exposures of adults and toddlers to PFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reported reference doses, indicating no immediate health risk to the Egyptian population.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , WOS, Excluded, Source - Jun 2014 Update (Private), WOS, Source – Dec 2014 Update (Private), WOS, Source – Mar 2015 Update (Private), WOS, Excluded, WOS
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Development and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets

    Authors: Abd-Elbary, A; Tadros, MI; Alaa-Eldin, AA
    (2011) AAPS PharmSciTech 12:485-495.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The aim of the current work was the design and evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The aim of the current work was the design and evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablets exhibiting zero-order release kinetics. Variables influencing the design of (1) core tablets viz., (a) osmogent type (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, mannitol, and fructose) and (b) drug/osmogent ratio (1:0.25, 1:0.50, and 1:0.75), and (2) CPOP tablets viz., (a) coating solution composition, (b) weight gain percentage (1-5%, w/w), and (c) pore former concentration (5%, 10%, and 20%, v/v), were investigated. Statistical analysis and kinetic modeling of drug release data were estimated. Fructose-containing core tablets showed significantly (P < 0.05) more retarded drug release rates. An inverse correlation was observed between drug/fructose ratio and drug release rate. Coating of the optimum core tablets (F4) with a mixture of cellulose acetate solution (3%, w/v), diethyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400 (85:10:5, v/v, respectively) till a 4% w/w weight gain enabled zero-order sustained drug delivery over 24 h. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of coating membrane confirmed pore formation upon contact with dissolution medium. When compared to the commercial immediate-release Napilac® capsules, the optimum CPOP tablets (F4-34) provided enhanced bioavailability and extended duration of effective etodolac plasma concentration with minimum expected potential for side effects in healthy volunteers.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , Pubmed, Excluded, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), Pubmed, WOS, WOS
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Voltammetric Ciprofloxacin Sensor Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Mesoporous Carbon with Enhancement Effect Using CTAB

    Authors: Abdel-Galeil, MM; Ghoneim, MM; El-Desoky, HS; Hattori, T; Matsuda, A
    (2015)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The voltammetric behavior of Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in different buffer solutions using . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The voltammetric behavior of Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in different buffer solutions using cyclic voltammetry. It exhibited a single irreversible anodic peak with shift in peak potential with pH value which indicates proton dependent reaction. In a pH 4.0 phthalate buffer, a poorly defined oxidation peak current (i(p)) is observed using carbon paste (CP) electrode for the determination of CIP using linear sweep adsorptive stripping voltammetric method (LS-AdASV). However, in the presence of low concentration of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), i(p) enhancement occurs. Moreover, the usage of mesoporous carbon-modified carbon paste (MC/CP) electrode exhibits a significant enhancement in the i(p). The enhancement of the i(p) of CIP at MC/CP electrode in the presence of CTAB [1.0 x 10(-4) M], was ascribed to two factors: (1) CTAB facilitates electron transfer of CIP; and (2) the high surface area of MC, which accumulates adsorptive CIP on the MC/CP electrode surface. All experimental parameters, were optimized for the determination of CIP. LS-AdASV method is observed to possess the following good qualities: high sensitivity (detection limit is 1.5 x 10(-9) M), wide linearity (5.0 x 10(-9)-2.0 x 10(-5) M), rapid response, low cost and simplicity. In conclusion, this method was employed to successfully detect CIP in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum. (C) 2015 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , WOS, Excluded, Source – Dec 2015 Update (Private), WOS, Source - Jun 2016 Update (Private), WOS
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Prenatal Exposures of Male Rats to the Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Impact the Sexual Differentiation Process

    Authors: Abdel-Maksoud, FM; Leasor, KR; Butzen, K; Braden, TD; Akingbemi, BT
    (2015) Endocrinology 156:4672-4683.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The increasing incidence of reproductive anomalies, described as testicular dysgenesis syndrome, is . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The increasing incidence of reproductive anomalies, described as testicular dysgenesis syndrome, is thought to be related to the exposure of the population to chemicals in the environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which have hormonal and antihormonal activity, have attracted public attention due to their presence in consumer products. The present study investigated the effects of BPA and DEHP on reproductive development. Timed-pregnant female rats were exposed to BPA and DEHP by gavage from gestational days 12 to 21. Results showed that prenatal exposures to test chemicals exerted variable effects on steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA binding protein 4 protein expression and increased (P < .05) sex-determining region Y-box 9 and antimüllerian hormone protein in the infantile rat testis compared with levels in the control unexposed animals. Pituitary LHβ and FSHβ subunit protein expression was increased (P < .05) in BPA- and DEHP-exposed prepubertal male rats but were decreased (P < .05) in adult animals relative to control. Exposure to both BPA and DEHP in utero inhibited (P < .05) global DNA hydroxymethylation in the adult testis in association with altered DNA methyltransferase protein expression. Together the present data suggest that altered developmental programming in the testes associated with chemical exposures are related to the disruption of sexual differentiation events and DNA methylation patterns. The chemical-induced effects impact the development of steroidogenic capacity in the adult testis.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , Pubmed, Excluded, Source - Jun 2016 Update (Private), Pubmed, Pubmed
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Antibacterial and anticancer activity of marine Streptomyces parvus: optimization and application

    Authors: Abd-Elnaby, H; Abo-Elala, G; Abdel-Raouf, U; Abd-Elwahab, A; Hamed, M
    (2016) Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment 30:180-191.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. A total of 17 actinomycetes were isolated and screened against five bacterial pathogens. Forty-one per . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. A total of 17 actinomycetes were isolated and screened against five bacterial pathogens. Forty-one per cent of the isolates were active against the tested pathogens. The most potent isolate was identified as Streptomyces parvus by using a 16S rRNA sequence analysis. S. parvus produced active compound(s) against a number of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The obtained inhibition zones were 14, 19, 20 and 20mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila, respectively. Moreover, the anticancer activity of S. parvus was tested against four different cell lines: human liver cancer cell line, mouse lymphoma cell line, breast cancer cell line and human colon cancer cell line. The inhibition activities were 53%, 56%, 57% and 42%, respectively. To achieve a maximum production of the bioactive compound, Plackett-Burman design was applied. The productivity increased up to 1.3-fold, when S. parvus was grown in optimized medium composed of: 10g L-1 starch, 1.5g L-1 KNO3, 0.75g L-1 K2HPO4, 0.75g L-1 MgSO4.7H(2)O, 0.015g L-1 FeSO4, 2mL (10(3) colony-forming units mL(-1)) inoculum size with pH 8 for 7 d of incubation. The main constitutes of S. parvus crude extract were determined by gas-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. They were found to be ethane, 1,1-diethoxy; di-n-octyl phthalate; ethanol, 2,2-diethoxy; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid; methyl ester (E,E) and benzoic acid.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , WOS, Excluded, Source - Jun 2016 Update (Private), WOS, Source - Dec 2016 Update (Private), WOS
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    The sensitivity of the NTP bioassay for carcinogen hazard evaluation can be modulated by dietary restriction

    Authors: Abdo, KM; Kari, FW
    (1996) Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 48:129-137.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Studies were undertaken to compare outcomes when four chemicals were evaluated under typical NTP bioassay . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Studies were undertaken to compare outcomes when four chemicals were evaluated under typical NTP bioassay conditions as well as by protocols employing dietary restriction. Four chemicals, using three different routes of exposure (in utero [accomplished by feeding the dam dosed feed], dosed feed, and gavage) were used to 1) evaluate the effect of diet restriction on the sensitivity of the bioassay toward chemically-induced chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity; and 2) evaluate the effect of weight-matched control groups on the sensitivity of the bioassays. Control and chemical exposed F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50-60/group) were fed NIH-07 diet either ad libitum or at restricted levels such that body weights were approximately 80% of ad libitum control weights. The dietary restricted groups were either sacrificed at the end of two or 3-years. Results consistently show that feed restriction decreased the incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions at a variety of anatomic sites in both control and chemical exposed animals. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the bioassay to detect chemical carcinogenic response were altered by dietary restriction: three of the four chemicals were found to increase the incidence of neoplastic lesions at four sites when evaluated under standard ad libitum conditions for 104 weeks. When unexposed and exposed groups were both subjected to dietary restriction, none of these 4 sites were detected as a target for carcinogenesis after two or three years. Rather, two different sites of carcinogenesis were detected. When the top dosed ad libitum fed animals were compared against their weight-matched control groups, a total of 10 sites were identified as targets for carcinogenesis. These included all four sites identified under the ad libitum protocol, both sites identified under the feed restricted protocol, and an additional four sites that were not identified under the other two protocols. These studies show that dietary restriction of all animals can be expected of decrease the sensitivity of carcinogenesis bioassays. However, restricting only unexposed groups (weight matching) of control for non-specific weight loss in chemical exposed groups yielded the most sensitivity among our comparisons.
    Tagged With: BBP, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), ToxNet, Excluded, Source – all searches , Toxnet
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    The teratogenicity and behavioral teratogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-butyl Phthalate (DBP) in a chick model

    Authors: Abdul-Ghani, S; Yanai, J; Abdul-Ghani, R; Pinkas, A; Abdeen, Z
    (2012) Neurotoxicology and Teratology 34:56-62.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in consumer products, plastics and children toys, and . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in consumer products, plastics and children toys, and the risk of exposure to phthalates, especially prenatal exposure, is a growing concern justifying the development of an animal model to better understand their effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the suitability of a chick model for phthalate DEHP teratogenicity and neurobehavioral teratogenicity, a model which is simple and devoid of potential confounding factors such as maternal toxicity, maternal-fetal unit and maternal-neonatal interactions; major findings were confirmed in the DBP study. Prehatch exposure to DEHP in doses ranging from 20 to 100 mg/kg, reduced the percent hatching from 80% in control eggs to 65%, and increased late hatchings from 12.5% in control eggs to 29.4%. In addition it induced developmental defects characterized by an opening or weakening of abdominal muscles allowing internal organs to protrude externally with or without a sac, omphalocele or gastroschisis, respectively. The effect was dose dependent ranging from 8% with DEHP (20 mg/kg) to 22% (100 mg/kg). Similar treatment with DBP 100mg/kg has reduced percentage hatching to 57% and increased late hatching to 37.5%, with a 14% increase in gastroschisis. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, which reflects non-specific toxicity of DEHP at such a high dose. Behavioral evaluation using an imprinting test and locomotor activity on chicks pretreated with DEHP (100 mg/kg) has shown an abolishment of imprinting performance from the control (0.65) preference ratio. DNA damage measurements of the metabolite 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in blood samples showed an increase of 39.7% after prehatch exposure to phthalates. This was statistically significant for DEHP and indicates genetic toxicity, since part of the teratogenic activity is associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage.
    Tagged With: Pubmed, WOS, Source – all searches , Excluded, Pubmed, Pubmed, WOS, WOS, Toxnet, Excluded, Pubmed, WOS, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), Pubmed, WOS, ToxNet, WOS
  • 10.
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    Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mebeverine HCl colon-targeted drug delivery system

    Authors: Abdullah, GZ; Abdulkarim, MF; Chitneni, M; Mutee, AF; Ameer, OZ; Salman, IM; Noor, AM
    (2011)
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Mebeverine HCl is a water soluble drug commonly used to treat irritable bowel syndrome by acting directly . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Mebeverine HCl is a water soluble drug commonly used to treat irritable bowel syndrome by acting directly on the smooth muscles of the colon. This work was aimed at the formulation and in vitro evaluation of a colon-targeted drug delivery system containing mebeverine HCl. Matrix tablets were prepared using ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit RL 100 either solely or in combination by wet granulation technique. Dissolution was carried out in 0.1 N HCl for 2?h followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for eight hours. Uncoated forms released more than 5% drug in 0.1 N HCl therefore, Eudragit L100 was used as a coat. The results indicated very slow release profile. As a result, single retardant was used to prepare the matrix and coated by Eudragit L 100. The matrix containing 7% Eudragit RL 100 and 6% of binder was subjected to further studies to assess the effect of different coats (Eudragit L 100-55 and cellulose acetate phthalate) and different binders (pectin and sodium alginate) on the release profile. Eudragit L 100 and pectin were the best coating agent and binder, respectively. The final formula was stable and it can be concluded that the prepared system has the potential to deliver mebeverine HCl in vivo to the colon.
    Tagged With: Source – all searches , Pubmed, Excluded, Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private), Pubmed
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