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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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246 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Alternative plasticizer, 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester, for blood containers with protective effects on red blood cells and improved cold resistance

Authors: Morishita, Y; Nomura, Y; Fukui, C; Fujisawa, A; Watanabe, K; Fujimaki, H; Kumada, H; Inoue, K; Morikawa, T; Takahashi, M; Kawakami, T; Sakoda, H; Mukai, T; Yuba, T; Ken‐Ichi, I; Tanoue, A; Ken‐Ichi, M; Ung‐Il, C; Ogawa, K; Yoshida, M; Haishima, Y (2018) Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B: Applied Biomaterials 106:1052-1063. HERO ID: 5705573

[Less] Di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted . . . [More] Di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted from PVC‐made blood containers and protects against red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. However, concerns have arisen regarding the reproductive and developmental risks of DEHP in humans, and the use of alternative plasticizers for medical devices has been recommended worldwide. In this study, we propose that the use of a novel plasticizer, 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester (DL9TH), could help produce more useful and safe blood containers. PVC sheet containing DL9TH and di (2‐ethylhexyl) 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylate (DOTH) provides comparable or superior protective effects to RBCs relative to PVC sheet containing DEHP or di‐isononyl‐cyclohexane‐1,2‐dicarboxylate (DINCH®, an alternative plasticizer that has been used in PVC sheets for blood containers). The total amount of plasticizer eluted from DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC sheets is nearly the same as that eluted from DEHP‐PVC sheets. In addition, DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC has better cold resistance than DEHP‐ and DINCH®‐PVC sheets. In vitro and in vivo tests for biological safety based on International Organization for Standardization guidelines (10993 series) suggest that the DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC sheet can be used safely. Subchronic toxicity testing of DL9TH in male rats in accordance with the principles of Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development Test Guideline 408 showed that DL9TH did not induce adverse effects up to the highest dose level tested (717 mg/kg body weight/day). There were no effects on testicular histopathology and sperm counts, and no indications of endocrine effects: testosterone, thyroid‐stimulating hormone, follicle‐stimulating hormone, and 17β‐estradiol were unchanged by the treatment, compared with the control group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1052–1063, 2018.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal phthalate exposure promotes allergic airway inflammation over 2 generations through epigenetic modifications

Authors: Jahreis, S; Trump, S; Bauer, M; Bauer, T; Thürmann, L; Feltens, R; Wang, Q; Gu, L; Grützmann, K; Röder, S; Averbeck, M; Weichenhan, D; Plass, C; Sack, U; Borte, M; Dubourg, V; Schüürmann, G; Simon, JC; Martin Von, B; Hackermüller, J; Eils, R; Lehmann, I; Polte, T (2018) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 141:741-753. HERO ID: 5490441

[Less] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible . . . [More] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. Objective We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations. Methods Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways. Results In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4+T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1(Zfpm1)emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma. Conclusion These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Food consumption survey of Shanghai adults in 2012 and its associations with phthalate metabolites in urine

Authors: Dong, R; Zhou, T; Zhao, S; Zhang, H; Zhang, M; Chen, J; Wang, M; Wu, M; Li, S; Chen, B (2017) Environment International 101:80-88. HERO ID: 3841187

[Less] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. In this study, we assessed the associations between food consumption and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among Shanghai adults.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2418 participants was conducted in the fall of 2012. Recent food consumption was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall survey, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) characterized long-term dietary patterns. Urinary metabolites of six phthalates were measured.

RESULTS: Both the 24-h recall survey and FFQ identified wheat, dairy, and fruits as being positively associated with the excretion of phthalate metabolites. The 24-h recall data also showed positive associations with processed meats and alcohol. We evaluated the impact of reported consumption of multiple food categories simultaneously (wheat, fruits, meats, etc.) on metabolite excretion and found that, as more food types were consumed, the number of metabolites excreted, as well as their concentrations, increased with high significance (p values<0.0001). We also evaluated the two survey instruments together. When both surveys reported consumption of fruits and dairy, the numbers of metabolites and their concentrations were significantly higher compared to when both surveys reported non-consumption, (p values<0.000001). Rice consumption was found to be negatively associated with phthalate excretion; frequent and high levels of rice consumption were found to be associated with lower excretion of metabolites.

CONCLUSION: Food consumption was associated with phthalate exposure in Shanghai adults. Both 24-h recall and FFQ identified significant associations between consumption of food types and phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats

Authors: Kim, BJ; Kim, J; Keoboutdy, V; Kwon, HJ; Oh, SH; Jung, JY; Park, IY; Paik, KC (2017) International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 97:61-65. HERO ID: 3859049

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing.

METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group.

CONCLUSION: Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Children with atopic dermatitis and frequent emollient use have increased urinary levels of low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites and parabens

Authors: Overgaard, LE; Main, KM; Frederiksen, H; Stender, S; Szecsi, PB; Williams, HC; Thyssen, JP (2017) Allergy 72:1768-1777. HERO ID: 3859050

[Less] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between emollient use, atopic dermatitis and FLG mutations, respectively, with urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in Danish children.

METHODS: Eight hundred and forty-five Danish children 4-9 years of age were studied. Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens were determined, and children were genotyped for common FLG loss-of-function mutations. Information about atopic dermatitis and use of emollients was obtained from questionnaires completed by parents.

RESULTS: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 16.1%. Phthalate metabolite and paraben levels were generally higher in children with frequent use of emollients compared to uncommon users, reaching statistical significance for some LMW phthalates and parabens. While there was no association with common FLG mutations, children with atopic dermatitis had significantly higher urinary levels of one LMW phthalate and two parabens, respectively, when compared to children without atopic dermatitis.

CONCLUSION: Emollient use and atopic dermatitis were associated with modestly increased internal LMW phthalate and paraben exposure in 4-9 year old children. It is unknown whether the difference is explained by increased use of the specific emollients that are used to treat pruritic and inflamed skin, and/or whether the impaired skin barrier allows chemicals to penetrate more easily. Moreover, the putative toxicological burden is unknown.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to bisphenol A is directly associated with inflammation in healthy Korean adults

Authors: Choi, YJ; Ha, KH; Kim, DJ (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:284-290. HERO ID: 3859082

[Less] It was recently discovered that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are cardiovascular disruptors. Inflammation . . . [More] It was recently discovered that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are cardiovascular disruptors. Inflammation is central to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated whether BPA and different phthalate metabolites are associated with the inflammation marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in healthy Korean adults. This research is part of an ongoing, population-based study of Korean adults (30-64 years of age) conducted at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC). The study enrolled 200 healthy volunteers (96 men, 104 women). Plasma hs-CRP was measured as an inflammation marker. BPA and five phthalate metabolites in urine were analyzed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. BPA and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) differed significantly between the low-hs-CRP (<2 mg/L) and high-hs-CRP (≥2 mg/L) groups. BPA and MBzP were related to hs-CRP in an inverted L-shaped manner. High BPA levels (≥75th percentile) had significant odd ratios (ORs) for high hs-CRP even after adjusting for confounding factors related to obesity and insulin resistance, such as visceral fat volume, body mass index (BMI), adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (OR = 2.85; 95 % CI, 1.16-6.97). However, there was no significant association for MBzP ≥75th percentile. BPA was significantly related to high hs-CRP, even after adjusting for factors related to obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, BPA could have a direct relationship with systemic inflammation regardless of obesity or insulin resistance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology as a New Tool for Estimating Population Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizers

Authors: González-Mariño, I; Rodil, R; Barrio, I; Cela, R; Quintana, JB (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:3902-3910. HERO ID: 3859087

[Less] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic . . . [More] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L(-1)). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca. 1.6 μg L(-1) and in treated wastewater up to ca. 1 μg L(-1). Concentrations in raw wastewater were converted into levels of exposure to six phthalate diesters. For two of them, these levels were always below the daily exposure thresholds recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. For the other four, however, estimates of exposure surpassed such a threshold (especially the toddler threshold) in some cases, highlighting the significance of the exposure to phthalates in children. Finally, concentrations in wastewater were also used to estimate metabolite concentrations in urine, providing a reasonable concordance between our results and the data obtained in two previous biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Health risk assessment of exposures to a high molecular weight plasticizer present in automobile interiors

Authors: Perez, AL; Liong, M; Plotkin, K; Rickabaugh, KP; Paustenbach, DJ (2017) Chemosphere 167:541-550. HERO ID: 3859104

[Less] This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight . . . [More] This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats. A risk assessment of DUP via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes resulting from contact with automobile seats was conducted. The mean, standard deviation, and maximum DUP concentrations on the seats with visible surface residue were 6983 ± 7823 μg/100 cm(2) and 38300 μg/100 cm(2), respectively. The mean and 95th percentile of the mean for daily cumulative dose of DUP for all exposure routes for the seats with no visible surface residue ranged from 7 × 10(-4) to 4 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day and from 8 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day, respectively. For seats with visible surface residue, cumulative doses ranged from 2 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day and from 4 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day, respectively. The estimated daily intake (contact or absorbed dose) of DUP from automobile seats were far lower than the NOAELs reported in and derived from animal studies, and are well below the reported Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for the general population. Based on this analysis, using virtually any benchmark for evaluating safety, exposure to DUP via automobile seat covers did not pose a measureable increased health-risk in any population under any reasonably plausible exposure scenario.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Critique of Risk Disclosure as the Solution for Minimizing Toxic Exposures in Pregnancy

Authors: Ford, AR; Scott, DN (2017) New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 27:51-67. HERO ID: 3859120

[Less] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of . . . [More] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of future children are receiving increased attention in popular media and in the academic press. In response, health profession organizations are developing clinical practice guidelines for warning pregnant women about the risks associated with exposures to certain toxics. We evaluate different sides of a risk-avoidance approach for pregnant women in the context of a hypothetical case study involving phthalates and women who work in nail salons. We consider the ubiquitous nature of low-dose exposures and both the positive aspects and limitations of promoting avoidance measures with respect to phthalate exposures. We conclude that a risk-disclosure approach has both practical limitations and equity dimensions which must be factored in to public health guidelines and messaging and the development of clinical practice guidelines. Upstream solutions including regulatory action on chemicals and heightened attention to environmental justice would result in optimal management of this issue.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Application of mesoscale simulation to explore the aggregate morphology of pH-sensitive nanoparticles used as the oral drug delivery carriers under different conditions

Authors: Wang, Y; Chen, BZ; Liu, YJ; Wu, ZM; Guo, XD (2017) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 151:280-286. HERO ID: 3859135

[Less] The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug . . . [More] The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug carriers due to their excellent performance. With the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (PLGA/HP55) nanoparticle as a model nanoparticle, the structure-property relationship of nanoparticles with different conditions is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations in our work. In the oral drug delivery system, the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is hydrophobic polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) is pH-sensitive enteric polymer which used to protect the nanoparticles through the stomach and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is hydrophilic polymer as the stabilizer. It can be seen from DPD simulations that all polymer molecules form spherical core-shell nanoparticles with stabilizer PVA molecules adsorbed on the outer surface of the PLGA/HP55 matrix at certain compositions. The DPD simulation study can provide microscopic insight into the formation and morphological changes of pH-sensitive nanoparticles which is useful for the design of new materials for high-efficacy oral drug delivery.