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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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118 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal phthalate exposure promotes allergic airway inflammation over 2 generations through epigenetic modifications

Authors: Jahreis, S; Trump, S; Bauer, M; Bauer, T; Thürmann, L; Feltens, R; Wang, Q; Gu, L; Grützmann, K; Röder, S; Averbeck, M; Weichenhan, D; Plass, C; Sack, U; Borte, M; Dubourg, V; Schüürmann, G; Simon, JC; Martin Von, B; Hackermüller, J; Eils, R; Lehmann, I; Polte, T (2018) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 141:741-753. HERO ID: 5490441

[Less] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible . . . [More] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. Objective We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations. Methods Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways. Results In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4+T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1(Zfpm1)emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma. Conclusion These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats

Authors: Kim, BJ; Kim, J; Keoboutdy, V; Kwon, HJ; Oh, SH; Jung, JY; Park, IY; Paik, KC (2017) International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 97:61-65. HERO ID: 3859049

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing.

METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group.

CONCLUSION: Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Children with atopic dermatitis and frequent emollient use have increased urinary levels of low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites and parabens

Authors: Overgaard, LE; Main, KM; Frederiksen, H; Stender, S; Szecsi, PB; Williams, HC; Thyssen, JP (2017) Allergy 72:1768-1777. HERO ID: 3859050

[Less] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between emollient use, atopic dermatitis and FLG mutations, respectively, with urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in Danish children.

METHODS: Eight hundred and forty-five Danish children 4-9 years of age were studied. Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens were determined, and children were genotyped for common FLG loss-of-function mutations. Information about atopic dermatitis and use of emollients was obtained from questionnaires completed by parents.

RESULTS: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 16.1%. Phthalate metabolite and paraben levels were generally higher in children with frequent use of emollients compared to uncommon users, reaching statistical significance for some LMW phthalates and parabens. While there was no association with common FLG mutations, children with atopic dermatitis had significantly higher urinary levels of one LMW phthalate and two parabens, respectively, when compared to children without atopic dermatitis.

CONCLUSION: Emollient use and atopic dermatitis were associated with modestly increased internal LMW phthalate and paraben exposure in 4-9 year old children. It is unknown whether the difference is explained by increased use of the specific emollients that are used to treat pruritic and inflamed skin, and/or whether the impaired skin barrier allows chemicals to penetrate more easily. Moreover, the putative toxicological burden is unknown.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology as a New Tool for Estimating Population Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizers

Authors: González-Mariño, I; Rodil, R; Barrio, I; Cela, R; Quintana, JB (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:3902-3910. HERO ID: 3859087

[Less] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic . . . [More] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L(-1)). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca. 1.6 μg L(-1) and in treated wastewater up to ca. 1 μg L(-1). Concentrations in raw wastewater were converted into levels of exposure to six phthalate diesters. For two of them, these levels were always below the daily exposure thresholds recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. For the other four, however, estimates of exposure surpassed such a threshold (especially the toddler threshold) in some cases, highlighting the significance of the exposure to phthalates in children. Finally, concentrations in wastewater were also used to estimate metabolite concentrations in urine, providing a reasonable concordance between our results and the data obtained in two previous biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Critique of Risk Disclosure as the Solution for Minimizing Toxic Exposures in Pregnancy

Authors: Ford, AR; Scott, DN (2017) New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 27:51-67. HERO ID: 3859120

[Less] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of . . . [More] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of future children are receiving increased attention in popular media and in the academic press. In response, health profession organizations are developing clinical practice guidelines for warning pregnant women about the risks associated with exposures to certain toxics. We evaluate different sides of a risk-avoidance approach for pregnant women in the context of a hypothetical case study involving phthalates and women who work in nail salons. We consider the ubiquitous nature of low-dose exposures and both the positive aspects and limitations of promoting avoidance measures with respect to phthalate exposures. We conclude that a risk-disclosure approach has both practical limitations and equity dimensions which must be factored in to public health guidelines and messaging and the development of clinical practice guidelines. Upstream solutions including regulatory action on chemicals and heightened attention to environmental justice would result in optimal management of this issue.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diet and contaminants: driving the rise to obesity epidemics?

Authors: Di Ciaula, A; Portincasa, P (2017) Current Medicinal Chemistry. HERO ID: 3859152

[Less] The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented . . . [More] The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity. Widely diffused toxics (mainly BPA, phthalates, pesticides) are able to promote obesity in children and adults, mainly by acting on the differentiation pathway linking multipotent stromal stem cell to mature adipocyte, modulating epigenetic factors and influencing a series of mechanisms finally leading to altered dietary habits, increased adipocyte formation and fat storage. Furthermore, the adipose tissue is an important target for several chemicals (mainly POPs) which represent a threat to metabolic health. In conclusion, besides excessive individual energy intake and inadequate lifestyle, other broadly diffused and modifiable factors (mainly ingestion of toxic chemicals with food) seem to have a critical role in the rapid epidemiological growing of obesity, also considering trans-generational transmission of risk and later development of obesity due to exposure during early life. Further studies are needed, to better assess interactions between cumulative effects of toxic food contaminants and modification of diet and lifestyle, and to verify the efficacy of primary prevention strategies acting on all these factors and potentially able to reverse the continuous rising of the obesity epidemic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An integrated approach to study the risk from landfill soil of Delhi: Chemical analyses, in vitro assays and human risk assessment

Authors: Swati; Ghosh, P; Thakur, IS (2017) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 143:120-128. HERO ID: 3859159

[Less] In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were . . . [More] In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment as inadequate information is available on the possible health effects of the contaminants present in landfill soil. The landfill soil samples were prepared for analyzing heavy metal concentration, organic contaminants and toxicity analysis separately. Composite soil sample collected from three landfill sites were analyzed for heavy metal by ICP-AES. Metal concentration so obtained was below the permissible limit of soil but higher than the set limits for effluent. Some of the persistent organic contaminants like phthalates, benzene derivatives, halogenated aliphatic compounds and PAHs derivatives were detected by scan mode GC-MS. Further, concentration of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in landfill soil of Delhi was evaluated by selective ion monitoring GC-MS in order to ascertain their contamination levels and potential health risk. The concentration of total PAHs in the samples ranged from 192 to 348µg/kg. The maximum concentrations of PAHs were found in Ghazipur landfill site followed by Okhla and Bhalswa landfills. Cancer risk (CR) values of sampling sites were within the acceptable range for adults, adolescents and children (both male and female) suggesting that PAHs present in landfill soil are unlikely to pose any cancer risk for population based on dermal contact, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. However, landfill soil organic extract showed significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on HepG2 cell line as revealed by MTT and Comet assays respectively. The observed MTT EC50 values ranged from 7.58 to 12.9g SedEq/Lalong with statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the soil organic extract contained low concentrations of PAHs with negligible carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of organic pollutants present in soil were found to be toxic enough to affect human health due to their synergistic or additive actions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative toxicity and endocrine disruption potential of urban and rural atmospheric organic PM1 in JEG-3 human placental cells

Authors: van Drooge, BL; Marqueño, A; Grimalt, JO; Fernández, P; Porte, C (2017) Environmental Pollution 230:378-386. HERO ID: 3861413

[Less] Outdoor ambient air particulate matter and air pollution are related to adverse effects on human health. . . . [More] Outdoor ambient air particulate matter and air pollution are related to adverse effects on human health. The present study assesses the cytotoxicity and ability to disrupt aromatase activity of organic PM1 extracts from rural and urban areas at equivalent air volumes from 2 to 30 m(3), in human placental JEG-3 cells. Samples were chemically analyzed for particle bounded organic compounds with endocrine disrupting potential, i.e. PAH, O-PAH, phthalate esters, but also for organic molecular tracer compounds for the emission source identification. Rural samples collected in winter were cytotoxic at the highest concentration tested and strongly inhibited aromatase activity in JEG-3 cells. No cytotoxicity was detected in summer samples from the rural site and the urban samples, while aromatase activity was moderately inhibited in these samples. In the urban area, the street site samples, collected close to intensive traffic, showed stronger inhibition of aromatase activity than the samples simultaneously collected at a roof site, 50 m above ground level. The cytotoxicity and endocrine disruption potential of the samples were linked to combustion products, i.e. PAH and O-PAH, especially from biomass burning in the rural site in winter.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhibitory effects of fifteen phthalate esters in human cDNA-expressed UDP-glucuronosyltransferase supersomes

Authors: Cao, YF; Du, Z; Zhu, ZT; Sun, HZ; Fu, ZW; Yang, K; Liu, YZ; Hu, CM; Dong, PP; Gonzalez, FJ; Fang, ZZ (2017) Chemosphere 185:983-990. HERO ID: 3972242

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been extensively used in industry as plasticizers and there remains concerns . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been extensively used in industry as plasticizers and there remains concerns about their safety. The present study aimed to determine the inhibition of phthalate esters (PAEs) on the activity of the phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). In vitro recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone was used to investigate the inhibition potentials of PAEs towards various s UGTs. PAEs exhibited no significant inhibition of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17, and limited inhibition of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT2B4. However, UGT1A9 was strongly inhibited by PAEs. In silico docking demonstrated a significant contribution of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributing to the inhibition of UGT by PAEs. The Ki values were 15.5, 52.3, 23.6, 12.2, 5.61, 2.79, 1.07, 22.8, 0.84, 73.7, 4.51, 1.74, 0.58, 6.79, 4.93, 6.73, and 7.23 μM for BBOP-UGT1A6, BBZP-UGT1A6, BBOP-UGT1A7, BBZP-UGT1A7, DiPP-UGT1A9, DiBP-UGT1A9, DCHP-UGT1A9, DBP-UGT1A9, BBZP-UGT1A9, BBOP-UGT1A9, DMEP-UGT1A9, DPP-UGT1A9, DHP-UGT1A9, DiBP-UGT2B4, DBP-UGT2B4, DAP-UGT2B4, and BBZP-UGT2B4, respectively. In conclusion, exposure to PAEs might influence the metabolic elimination of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics through inhibiting UGTs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Low-Level Prenatal Toxin Exposures and Breastfeeding Duration: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Rosen-Carole, CB; Auinger, P; Howard, CR; Brownell, EA; Lanphear, BP (2017) Maternal and Child Health Journal. HERO ID: 3972246

[Less] Introduction Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with shortened breastfeeding duration, . . . [More] Introduction Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with shortened breastfeeding duration, but few studies have examined the effects on breastfeeding outcomes of low level exposures to other toxic chemicals. Moreover, it is unclear if passive smoking is associated with duration of breastfeeding. Our objective was therefore to examine the effect of low-level prenatal exposures to common environmental toxins (tobacco smoke, lead, and phthalates) on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Methods We conducted an analysis of data from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Serum and urine samples were collected at approximately 16 and 26 weeks gestation and at delivery from 373 women; 302 breastfed their infants. Maternal infant feeding interviews were conducted a maximum of eight times through 30 months postpartum. The main predictor variables for this study were gestational exposures to tobacco smoke (measured by serum cotinine), lead, and phthalates. Passive smoke exposure was defined as cotinine levels of 0.015-3.0 μg/mL. Primary outcomes were duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Results Serum cotinine concentrations were negatively associated with the duration of any breastfeeding (29.9 weeks unexposed vs. 24.9 weeks with passive exposure, p = 0.04; and 22.4 weeks with active exposure, p = 0.12; p = 0.03 for linear trend), but not duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Prenatal levels of blood lead and urinary phthalate metabolites were not significantly associated with duration of any or exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Passive exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy was associated with shortened duration of any breastfeeding.