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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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240 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Food consumption survey of Shanghai adults in 2012 and its associations with phthalate metabolites in urine

Authors: Dong, R; Zhou, T; Zhao, S; Zhang, H; Zhang, M; Chen, J; Wang, M; Wu, M; Li, S; Chen, B (2017) Environment International 101:80-88. HERO ID: 3841187

[Less] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. In this study, we assessed the associations between food consumption and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among Shanghai adults.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2418 participants was conducted in the fall of 2012. Recent food consumption was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall survey, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) characterized long-term dietary patterns. Urinary metabolites of six phthalates were measured.

RESULTS: Both the 24-h recall survey and FFQ identified wheat, dairy, and fruits as being positively associated with the excretion of phthalate metabolites. The 24-h recall data also showed positive associations with processed meats and alcohol. We evaluated the impact of reported consumption of multiple food categories simultaneously (wheat, fruits, meats, etc.) on metabolite excretion and found that, as more food types were consumed, the number of metabolites excreted, as well as their concentrations, increased with high significance (p values<0.0001). We also evaluated the two survey instruments together. When both surveys reported consumption of fruits and dairy, the numbers of metabolites and their concentrations were significantly higher compared to when both surveys reported non-consumption, (p values<0.000001). Rice consumption was found to be negatively associated with phthalate excretion; frequent and high levels of rice consumption were found to be associated with lower excretion of metabolites.

CONCLUSION: Food consumption was associated with phthalate exposure in Shanghai adults. Both 24-h recall and FFQ identified significant associations between consumption of food types and phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats

Authors: Kim, BJ; Kim, J; Keoboutdy, V; Kwon, HJ; Oh, SH; Jung, JY; Park, IY; Paik, KC (2017) International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 97:61-65. HERO ID: 3859049

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing.

METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group.

CONCLUSION: Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology as a New Tool for Estimating Population Exposure to Phthalate Plasticizers

Authors: González-Mariño, I; Rodil, R; Barrio, I; Cela, R; Quintana, JB (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:3902-3910. HERO ID: 3859087

[Less] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic . . . [More] This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a nonintrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L(-1)). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca. 1.6 μg L(-1) and in treated wastewater up to ca. 1 μg L(-1). Concentrations in raw wastewater were converted into levels of exposure to six phthalate diesters. For two of them, these levels were always below the daily exposure thresholds recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. For the other four, however, estimates of exposure surpassed such a threshold (especially the toddler threshold) in some cases, highlighting the significance of the exposure to phthalates in children. Finally, concentrations in wastewater were also used to estimate metabolite concentrations in urine, providing a reasonable concordance between our results and the data obtained in two previous biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of 15 phthalate esters in air by gas-phase and particle-phase simultaneous sampling

Authors: Chi, C; Xia, M; Zhou, C; Wang, X; Weng, M; Shen, X (2017) Journal of Environmental Sciences 55:137-145. HERO ID: 3859102

[Less] Based on previous research, the sampling and analysis methods for phthalate esters (PAEs) were improved . . . [More] Based on previous research, the sampling and analysis methods for phthalate esters (PAEs) were improved by increasing the sampling flow of indoor air from 1 to 4L/min, shortening the sampling duration from 8 to 2hr. Meanwhile, through the optimization of chromatographic conditions, the concentrations of 9 additional PAE pollutants in indoor air were measured. The optimized chromatographic conditions required a similar amount of time for analysis as before, but gave high responsivity, the capability of simultaneously distinguishing 15 kinds of PAEs, and a high level of discrimination between individual sample peaks, as well as stable peak generation. The recovery rate of all gas-phase and particle-phase samples of the 15 kinds of PAEs ranged from 91.26% to 109.42%, meeting the quantitative analysis requirements for indoor and outdoor air sampling and analysis. For the first time, investigation of the concentration levels as well as characteristics of 15 kinds of PAEs in the indoor air from four different traffic micro-environments (private vehicles, busses, taxis and subways) was carried out, along with validation of the optimized sampling and analytical method. The results show that all the 9 additional PAEs could be detected at relatively high pollution levels in the indoor air from the four traffic micro-environments. As none of the pollution levels of the 15 kinds of PAEs in the indoor air from the 4 traffic micro-environments should be neglected, it is of great significance to increase the types of PAEs able to be detected in indoor air.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings

Author: Patel, S (2017) Medical Hypotheses 102:106-111. HERO ID: 3859158

[Less] In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal . . . [More] In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention. The adverse effects of the fragrance constituents as phthalates, paraben, glutaraldehyde, hydroperoxides, oil of turpentine, metals, nitro musks, and essential oils, among others, are being identified. The endocrine-immune-neural axis perturbation pathways of these chemicals are being proven. Despite the revelations of cause-effect nexus, a majority of the vulnerable populations are unaware and unmotivated to avoid these 'slow poisons'. Hence, the researchers need to further validate the toxicity of fragrance compounds, and raise awareness towards the health risks. In this regard, a number of pathologies triggered by fragrance exposure, yet proven only scantily have been hypothesized. Analysis of the health issues from multiple facets, including the pivotal 'stressors - extracellular acidosis - aromatase upregulation - estrogen hyperproduction - inflammation' link has been proposed. Fragrance compounds share configurational similarity with carcinogenic environmental hydrocarbons and they provoke the expression of cytochrome group monooxygenase enzyme aromatase. This enzyme aromatizes androgens to form estrogen, the powerful signaling hormone, which underlies the majority of morbidities. This holistic review with a repertoire of preliminary evidences and robust hypotheses is expected to usher in deserving extent of research on this pervasive health risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An integrated approach to study the risk from landfill soil of Delhi: Chemical analyses, in vitro assays and human risk assessment

Authors: Swati; Ghosh, P; Thakur, IS (2017) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 143:120-128. HERO ID: 3859159

[Less] In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were . . . [More] In the present study, landfill soil of three municipal solid waste landfill sites of Delhi, India were toxico-chemically analyzed for human risk assessment as inadequate information is available on the possible health effects of the contaminants present in landfill soil. The landfill soil samples were prepared for analyzing heavy metal concentration, organic contaminants and toxicity analysis separately. Composite soil sample collected from three landfill sites were analyzed for heavy metal by ICP-AES. Metal concentration so obtained was below the permissible limit of soil but higher than the set limits for effluent. Some of the persistent organic contaminants like phthalates, benzene derivatives, halogenated aliphatic compounds and PAHs derivatives were detected by scan mode GC-MS. Further, concentration of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in landfill soil of Delhi was evaluated by selective ion monitoring GC-MS in order to ascertain their contamination levels and potential health risk. The concentration of total PAHs in the samples ranged from 192 to 348µg/kg. The maximum concentrations of PAHs were found in Ghazipur landfill site followed by Okhla and Bhalswa landfills. Cancer risk (CR) values of sampling sites were within the acceptable range for adults, adolescents and children (both male and female) suggesting that PAHs present in landfill soil are unlikely to pose any cancer risk for population based on dermal contact, ingestion and inhalation exposure pathways. However, landfill soil organic extract showed significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on HepG2 cell line as revealed by MTT and Comet assays respectively. The observed MTT EC50 values ranged from 7.58 to 12.9g SedEq/Lalong with statistically significant DNA damage. Thus, although the soil organic extract contained low concentrations of PAHs with negligible carcinogenic potential, but the mixture of organic pollutants present in soil were found to be toxic enough to affect human health due to their synergistic or additive actions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organophosphate esters flame retardants in the indoor environment

Authors: Vykoukalová, M; Venier, M; Vojta, Š; Melymuk, L; Bečanová, J; Romanak, K; Prokeš, R; Okeme, JO; Saini, A; Diamond, ML; Klánová, J (2017) Environment International 106:97-104. HERO ID: 3861792

[Less] Concentrations of 13 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in air, dust and window . . . [More] Concentrations of 13 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013 to look for abundances, differences among regions, and partitioning behavior. In general, we observed the highest concentrations for halogenated OPEs, particularly TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, and also non-halogenated TPHP. Differences between regions strongly depended on the matrix. The concentrations of OPEs in dust were significantly higher in the US than in Canada (CAN) and Czech Republic (CZ). CZ had the highest concentrations in window film and CAN in air. ΣOPE concentrations were 2-3 and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than ΣBFRs in air, and dust and window films, respectively. We found a significant relationship between the concentrations in dust and air, and between the concentrations in window film and air for OPEs with log KOA values <12, suggesting that equilibrium was reached for these compounds but not for those with log KOA>12. This hypothesis was confirmed by a large discrepancy between values predicted using a partitioning model and the measured values for OPEs with log KOA values >12.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multi-channel silicone rubber traps as denuders for gas-particle partitioning of aerosols from semi-volatile organic compounds

Authors: Kohlmeier, V; Dragan, GC; Karg, EW; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Breuer, D; Forbes, PBC; Rohwer, ER; Zimmermann, R (2017) Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 19:676-686. HERO ID: 3864334

[Less] During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution . . . [More] During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution of aerosols containing semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). If denuders are combined with currently used personal air samplers, a simultaneous differential sampling of the gas and particle phase is possible. Here we analysed the transmission efficiency of denuders based on multi-channel silicone rubber traps (setup: 9 cm long glass liner (ID 4 mm), containing 22 parallel silicone rubber tubes (55 mm long, ID 0.3 mm, OD 0.5 mm)) with polystyrene latex (PSL) particles for different scenarios. n-Hexadecane, dimethyl phthalate and diethylene glycol gases were used to measure the time-dependent gas phase collection efficiency of a denuder. Additionally, the evaporation of n-hexadecane aerosol particles passing through the denuders was investigated. Our results showed high transmission efficiencies from 91 to 100% (variation coefficients 3.69-9.65%) for the denuders operated vertically at a flow rate of 0.5 l min(-1). With regard to the gas phase collection efficiency, nonpolar n-hexadecane gas was trapped with higher efficiency (87% after 22 h) than dimethyl phthalate gas (27% after 22 h), while for highly polar diethylene glycol the gas phase collection efficiency was 50% after 2 h. Regarding the evaporation of aerosol particles, smaller particles and lower flow rates led to higher particle volume reduction inside the denuders. In conclusion, the tested denuders are suitable for determining the gas-particle partitioning of SVOC aerosols of nonpolar substances and show above 90% transmission for all tested particle sizes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New sampling device for on-site measurement of SVOC gas-phase concentration at the emitting material surface

Authors: Ghislain, M; Beigbeder, J; Plaisance, H; Desauziers, V (2017) HERO ID: 3866779

[Less] The gas-phase concentration at the material surface (y 0 ) is pointed out in the literature as a key . . . [More] The gas-phase concentration at the material surface (y 0 ) is pointed out in the literature as a key parameter to describe semivolatile organic compound (SVOC) emissions from materials. This is an important input data in predictive models of SVOC behavior indoors and risk exposure assessment. However, most of the existing measurement methods consist of determining emission rates and not y 0 and none allow on-site sampling. Hence, a new passive sampler was developed. It consists of a glass cell that is simply placed on the material surface until reaching equilibrium between material and air; y 0 is then determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and GC-MS analysis. The limits of detection are at the μg/m(3) level and relative standard deviations (RSD) below 10%. A variation of 11% between two sets of experiments involving different cell volumes confirmed the y 0 measurement. In addition, due to the ability of SVOCs to be sorbed on surfaces, the cell wall/air partition was assessed by determining the inner cell surface concentration of SVOCs, which is the concentration of SVOCs adsorbed on the glass, and the cell surface/air partition coefficient (K glass ). The recovery yields of the SVOCs sorbed on the cell walls are strongly compound-dependent and comprise between 2 and 93%. The K glass coefficients are found to be lower than the stainless steel/air partition coefficient (K ss ), showing that glass is suitable for the SVOC sampling. This innovative tool opens up promising perspectives in terms of identification of SVOC sources and quantification of their emissions indoors, and would significantly contribute to human exposure assessment. Graphical Abstract Passive sampling for the determination of SVOCs concentration at the material/air interface.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Time-Variant Genetic Effects as a Cause for Preterm Birth: Insights from a Population of Maternal Cousins in Sweden

Authors: Juodakis, J; Bacelis, J; Zhang, G; Muglia, LJ; Jacobsson, B (2017) HERO ID: 3874508

[Less] Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide, yet its etiology remains . . . [More] Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide, yet its etiology remains largely unexplained. We propose that the genetic factors controlling this trait could act in a nonuniform manner during pregnancy, with each factor having a unique "window of sensitivity." We test this hypothesis by modeling the distribution of gestational ages (GAs) observed in maternal cousins from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n = 35,541 pairs). The models were built using a time-to-event framework, with simulated genetic factors that increase the hazard of birth either uniformly across the pregnancy (constant effect) or only in particular windows (varying effect). By including various combinations of these factors, we obtained four models that were then optimized and compared. Best fit to the clinical data was observed when most of the factors had time-variant effects, independently of the number of loci simulated. Finally, power simulations were performed to assess the ability to discover varying-effect loci by usual methods for genome-wide association testing. We believe that the tools and concepts presented here should prove useful for the design of future studies of PTD and provide new insights into the genetic architecture determining human GA.