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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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700 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disrupting effects of antibiotic sulfathiazole on developmental process during sensitive life-cycle stage of Chironomus riparius

Authors: Park, K; Kwak, IS (2018) Chemosphere 190:25-34. HERO ID: 4198651

[Less] Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. . . . [More] Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways. STZ exposure induced significant effects on survival, growth and sex ratio of emergent adults and mouthpart deformity in C. riparius. STZ caused concentration and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. STZ exposure leads to significant heat-shock response of protein genes (HSP70, HSP40, HSP90 and HSP27) and to disruption by up-regulating selected genes, including the ecdysone receptor gene, estrogen-related receptors, ultraspiracle and E74 early ecdysone-responsive gene. Furthermore, STZ induced alteration of enzyme activities on antioxidant and detoxification responses (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase) in C. riparius. By inducing oxidative stress, antibiotic STZ disturbs the endocrine system and produces adverse effects in growth processes of invertebrates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in human milk and infant formula by fat extraction, size-exclusion chromatography clean-up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection

Authors: Del Bubba, M; Ancillotti, C; Checchini, L; Fibbi, D; Rossini, D; Ciofi, L; Rivoira, L; Profeti, C; Orlandini, S; Furlanetto, S (2018) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 148:6-16. HERO ID: 4216020

[Less] A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five . . . [More] A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five phthalate diesters and corresponding monoesters in human milk samples and infant formulas. The method involved a liquid-liquid extraction with a CH2Cl2/CH3OH/NaCl 30% 2/1/0.5 (v/v/v) mixture, the clean-up of the extract by size-exclusion chromatography (swelling and elution solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate 9/1v/v), the derivatization of monoesters by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane and instrumental analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Recovery was in the range of 83-115% and precision was found between 9% and 21%. For phthalate diesters, method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from hundreds of ng/kg to 4.2μg/kg on a fresh weight milk (f.w.) basis, depending on blank contribution evaluated in matrix. Lower MDLs (0.03-0.8μg/kg f.w.) were achieved for corresponding monoesters. The proposed method was applied to the determination of target compounds in nine human milk samples and four infant formulas, confirming their presence in all samples. However, a generally higher contamination was assessed in artificial milk than in breast milk samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A national assessment of the effect of intensive agro-land use practices on nonpoint source pollution using emission scenarios and geo-spatial data

Authors: Zhuo, D; Liu, L; Yu, H; Yuan, C (2018) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25:1683-1705. HERO ID: 4452582

[Less] China's intensive agriculture has led to a broad range of adverse impacts upon ecosystems and thereby . . . [More] China's intensive agriculture has led to a broad range of adverse impacts upon ecosystems and thereby caused environmental quality degradation. One of the fundamental problems that face land managers when dealing with agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is to quantitatively assess the NPS pollution loads from different sources at a national scale. In this study, export scenarios and geo-spatial data were used to calculate the agricultural NPS pollution loads of nutrient, pesticide, plastic film residue, and crop straw burning in China. The results provided the comprehensive and baseline knowledge of agricultural NPS pollution from China's arable farming system in 2014. First, the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emission loads to water environment were estimated to be 1.44 Tg N and 0.06 Tg P, respectively. East and south China showed the highest load intensities of nutrient release to aquatic system. Second, the amount of pesticide loss to water of seven pesticides that are widely used in China was estimated to be 30.04 tons (active ingredient (ai)). Acetochlor was the major source of pesticide loss to water, contributing 77.65% to the total loss. The environmental impacts of pesticide usage in east and south China were higher than other parts. Third, 19.75% of the plastic film application resided in arable soils. It contributed a lot to soil phthalate ester (PAE) contamination. Fourth, 14.11% of straw produce were burnt in situ, most occurring in May to July (post-winter wheat harvest) in North China Plain and October to November (post-rice harvest days) in southeast China. All the above agricultural NPS pollution loadings were unevenly distributed across China. The spatial correlations between pollution loads at land unit scale were also estimated. Rising labor cost in rural China might be a possible explanation for the general positive correlations of the NPS pollution loads. It also indicated a co-occurred higher NPS pollution loads and a higher human exposure risk in eastern regions. Results from this research might provide full-scale information on the status and spatial variation of various agricultural NPS pollution loads for policy makers to control the NPS pollution in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reporting to parents on children's exposures to asthma triggers in low-income and public housing, an interview-based case study of ethics, environmental literacy, individual action, and public health benefits

Authors: Perovich, LJ; Ohayon, JL; Cousins, EM; Morello-Frosch, R; Brown, P; Adamkiewicz, G; Brody, JG (2018) HERO ID: 4728367

[Less] BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting. To better understand the ethical and public health implications of returning personal results in low-income communities, we investigated parents' experiences of learning their children's environmental chemical and biomonitoring results in the Green Housing Study of asthma.

METHODS: The Green Housing Study measured indoor chemical exposures, allergens, and children's asthma symptoms in "green"-renovated public housing and control sites in metro-Boston and Cincinnati in 2011-2013. We developed reports for parents of children in the study, including results for their child and community. We observed community meetings where results were reported, and metro-Boston residents participated in semi-structured interviews in 2015 about their report-back experience. Interviews were systematically coded and analyzed.

RESULTS: Report-back was positively received, contributed to greater understanding, built trust between researchers and participants, and facilitated action to improve health. Sampling visits and community meetings also contributed to creating a positive study experience for participants. Participants were able to make changes in their homes, such as altering product use and habits that may reduce asthma symptoms, though some faced roadblocks from family members. Participants also gained access to medical resources, though some felt that clinicians were not responsive. Participants wanted larger scale change from government or industry and wanted researchers to leverage study results to achieve change.

CONCLUSIONS: Report-back on environmental chemical exposures in low-income communities can enhance research benefits by engaging residents with personally relevant information that informs and motivates actions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers. Ethical practices in research should support deliberative report-back in vulnerable communities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

Authors: Reyes, JM; Price, PS (2018) HERO ID: 4728381

[Less] The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative . . . [More] The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans. This work used the MCR to evaluate coexposures to six phthalates as measured in biomonitoring data from the most recent cycle (2013-2014) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The values of MCR, Hazard Index (HI), and phthalate-specific Hazard Quotients (HQs) were determined for 2663 NHANES participants aged six years and older by using reverse dosimetry techniques to calculate steady-state doses consistent with concentrations of metabolites of six phthalates in urine and using Tolerable Daily Intake values. There were 21 participants (0.8% of the NHANES sample) with HI>1. Of those, 43% (9/21) would have been missed by chemical-by-chemical assessments (i.e. all HQs were less than one). The mean MCR value in the 21 participants was 2.1. HI and MCR values were negatively correlated (p<0.001) indicating that most participants, especially those with elevated HI values, had their cumulative risks driven by relatively large doses of a single phthalate rather than doses of multiple phthalates. The dominate phthalate varied across participants. Children (aged 6-17years) had a higher HI values (p<0.01) than adults (18+ years). However, the probability of having HI>1 was not driven by age, gender, or ethnicity. The cumulative exposures of concern largely originated from a subset of three of the fifteen possible pairs of the six phthalates. These findings suggest that cumulative exposures were a potential concern for a small portion of the surveyed participants involving a subset of the phthalates explored. The largest risks tended to occur in individuals whose exposures were dominated by a single phthalate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A critical perspective on early communications concerning human health aspects of microplastics

Authors: Rist, S; Carney Almroth, B; Hartmann, NB; Karlsson, TM (2018) HERO ID: 4728382

[Less] Microplastic research in recent years has shown that small plastic particles are found almost everywhere . . . [More] Microplastic research in recent years has shown that small plastic particles are found almost everywhere we look. Besides aquatic and terrestrial environments, this also includes aquatic species intended for human consumption and several studies have reported their prevalence in other food products and beverages. The scientific as well as public debate has therefore increasingly focused on human health implications of microplastic exposure. However, there is a big discrepancy between the magnitude of this debate and actual scientific findings, which have merely shown the presence of microplastics in certain products. While plastics can undoubtedly be hazardous to human health due to toxicity of associated chemicals or as a consequence of particle toxicity, the extent to which microplastics in individual food products and beverages contribute to this is debatable. Considering the enormous use of plastic materials in our everyday lives, microplastics from food products and beverages likely only constitute a minor exposure pathway for plastic particles and associated chemicals to humans. But as this is rarely put into perspective, the recent debate has created a skewed picture of human plastic exposure. We risk pulling the focus away from the root of the problem: the way in which we consume, use and dispose of plastics leading to their widespread presence in our everyday life and in the environment. Therefore we urge for a more careful and balanced discussion which includes these aspects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Levels, variability and determinants of environmental phenols in pairs of Norwegian mothers and children

Authors: Sakhi, AK; Sabaredzovic, A; Papadopoulou, E; Cequier, E; Thomsen, C (2018) HERO ID: 4728394

[Less] BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental phenols including parabens, bisphenols (BPs), . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental phenols including parabens, bisphenols (BPs), oxybenzone/benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and triclosan (TCS) is ubiquitous. Due to evidence of their estrogenic activity, they have been considered as chemicals of concern. The exposure of the Norwegian population to these compounds is presently unknown.

AIMS: To measure urinary levels of twelve different environmental phenols including four emerging bisphenols: S, F, B and AF (abbreviated as BPS, BPF, BPB and BPAF, respectively) in a healthy Norwegian population. We have calculated short-term variability, estimated daily intakes and investigated important determinants of exposure.

METHODS: Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 48) and their children (n = 56) during spring/summer 2012 in two counties in Norway.

RESULTS: Six environmental phenols namely methyl, ethyl and propyl paraben, BPA, BP-3 and TCS were detected in almost 100% of the urine samples. Among the emerging bisphenols, BPS was detected most frequently in the urine samples (42-48%) followed by BPF (4-15%). Parabens were positively and significantly correlated to each other in both mothers and children. Levels of parabens and BP-3 were higher in mothers compared to children. All mothers and children had lower estimated daily intakes (back calculated from the urinary concentrations) of parabens and BPA than the respective acceptable and tolerable daily intakes (ADIs and TDIs) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Observed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated moderate to high reliability of spot urine measurements for all the environmental phenols (ICCs: 0.70-0.97). Use of hair products, deodorants, face and hand creams were significantly associated with higher urinary levels of parabens.

CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of environmental phenols in healthy Norwegian women and children is abundant. Among emerging bisphenols, there is widespread exposure to BPS. A single spot urine sample can be used for estimating short-term exposures of environmental phenols. Urinary levels of parabens were associated with use of PCPs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anogenital distance as a phenotypic signature through infancy

Authors: Priskorn, L; Petersen, JH; Jørgensen, N; Kyhl, HB; Andersen, MS; Main, KM; Andersson, AM; Skakkebaek, NE; Jensen, TK (2018) HERO ID: 4728406

[Less] BackgroundAnogenital distance (AGD) has been suggested to represent a phenotypic signature reflecting . . . [More] BackgroundAnogenital distance (AGD) has been suggested to represent a phenotypic signature reflecting in utero androgen action. However, it is not known whether an individual's AGD at birth correlates to the AGD later in life. We investigate correlations of AGD between 3 and 18 months of age and assess reproducibility of measurements.MethodsWe measured AGD from anus to scrotum (AGDas) and to penis (AGDap) in 407 boys, and to posterior fourchette (AGDaf) and clitoris (AGDac) in 282 girls. Each measure was repeated three times at 3 and 18 months of age, and some children were, furthermore, examined by two different examiners. We assessed age-related changes and reproducibility of measurements.ResultsAGD increased between the two examinations and correlated within the child. A large proportion of the observed variation in AGD was due to true differences between the children (AGDas: 62%, AGDap: 40%, AGDaf: 30%, AGDac: 21%), and measurement error due to between- and within-examiner variation was low.ConclusionsOur study showed that measures of AGD within a child correlated during infancy, especially in boys and particularly for AGD measured as the distance between anus and scrotum. A planned cohort follow-up through childhood and puberty will reveal whether AGD represents a phenotypic signature throughout life.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ordered mesoporous silicon doped with HPMo-SiO2 solid phase extraction of trace Pb prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

Authors: Liu, J; Sun, H; Zheng, Y; Wang, Q; Guo, J; Wu, Y (2018) HERO ID: 4728426

[Less] A new selective and sensitivity method for lead (Pb) determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry . . . [More] A new selective and sensitivity method for lead (Pb) determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been established using an ordered mesoporous silicon doped with phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo-SiO2) material as an adsorbent. The possible adsorptive mechanism was speculated, and factors affecting its adsorptive behaviours of Pb were investigated in detail. At potassium hydrogen phthalate media, Pb can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 3.0-6.0, and HPMo-SiO2 exhibited good selectivity toward it. With an enrichment factor of 50, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of Pb are 0.78 ng ml(-1) and 0.76 % (n = 9 and C = 2.0 ng ml(-1)), respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Pb in human serum, waste water, pond water, soil and whitening cosmetics with recoveries of 93.9-108.5%. To validate the accuracy verification, a GSB-07-1183-2000 certified reference was analysed, and the result is in good agreement with the certified value.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of total phthalate in cosmetics using a simple three-phase sample preparation method

Authors: Liu, L; Wang, Z; Zhao, S; Duan, J; Tao, H; Wang, W; Liu, S (2018) HERO ID: 4728431

[Less] A simple sample preparation method requiring minimal organic solvents is proposed for the determination . . . [More] A simple sample preparation method requiring minimal organic solvents is proposed for the determination of the total phthalate content in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The hydrolysis of phthalates and purification of interfering substances were performed in a three-phase system that included an upper n-hexane phase, a middle ethanol phase, and a lower aqueous alkali solution. This three-phase system utilized an incremental purification strategy. The apolar ingredients were extracted with n-hexane, the polar pigments accumulated in the ethanol phase, and the hydrolysis product, phthalic acid, remained in the hydrolysate. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) for the calibration curves were 0.998-0.999 in the range 0.60-12 mol L-1. The limit of detection was 5.1 μmol kg-1, and the limit of quantification was 9.2 μmol kg-1. The recoveries varied from 84 to 97% with RSDs equal to or lower than 11%. The intra-day and inter-day repeatability values, expressed as the relative standard deviation, were less than 8.7 and 9.8, respectively. No obvious matrix effect existed in the different cosmetics matrices. The validated method was applied for the analysis of 57 commercial cosmetic samples. Graphical abstract Analysis of phthalates in cosmetics using a three-phase preparation method.