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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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327 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of terephthalate metabolites in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)

Authors: Nayebare, SR; Karthikraj, R; Kannan, K (2018) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1092:473-479. HERO ID: 4728835

[Less] Owing to their toxicity, phthalate plasticizers are currently being replaced with terephthalates in . . . [More] Owing to their toxicity, phthalate plasticizers are currently being replaced with terephthalates in many consumer products. Nevertheless, data on human exposure to and toxicity of terephthalates are still scarce. In this study, we developed a robust analytical method for the measurement of six terephthalate metabolites (TPhMs) in human urine through their successful separation from phthalate metabolites (PhMs). Target analytes were identified, using commercially available standards, and quantified with isotopically labeled internal standards (IS). The limits of quantification (LOQ) of TPhMs were in the range of 0.12 to 0.4 ng/mL, with the exception of 2.8 ng/mL for terephthalic acid (TPA) and 3.75 ng/mL for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (mEHTP), which were found in procedural blanks at notable levels. The method developed in this study showed excellent accuracy (recoveries: 86-117%) and precision (RSD: 0.6-12.2%) for TPhMs. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 human urine samples collected from individuals with no known history of occupational exposure. The detection frequencies (df %) of TPhMs in urine ranged between 26.6 and 100%. This is one of the first studies that report a method for the analysis of emerging class of environmental chemicals in human specimens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal phthalate exposure and placental size and shape at birth: A birth cohort study

Authors: Zhu, YD; Gao, H; Huang, K; Zhang, YW; Cai, XX; Yao, HY; Mao, LJ; Ge, X; Zhou, SS; Xu, YY; Jin, ZX; Sheng, J; Yan, SQ; Pan, WJ; Hao, JH; Zhu, P; Tao, FB (2018) HERO ID: 4728492

[Less] OBJECTIVE: There is concern over the potential placental effects of prenatal phthalate . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: There is concern over the potential placental effects of prenatal phthalate exposure, and the potential adverse effects of prenatal phthalate exposure require further study; however, few data are available in humans. We investigated the associations between phthalate exposure in each trimester and both placental size and shape at birth.

METHODS: We measured the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among 2725 pregnant women in the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort. Before collecting urine samples from each of the three trimesters, the pregnant women were interviewed via questionnaires. Placental information was obtained from hospital records. We estimated the sex-specific associations between urinary phthalate concentrations in each trimester and both placental size and shape at birth using adjusted multiple regression. A linear mixed model was used for the repeated measures analysis with subject-specific random intercepts and slopes for gestational age at sample collection to test the effect of phthalate levels on placental size and shape and to estimate the effect sizes.

RESULTS: Overall, placental breadth increased by 0.148cm (95% CI: 0.078, 0.218) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MBP in the first trimester. The difference between placental length and breadth (length-breadth) decreased by 0.086cm (95% CI: -0.159, -0.012) and 0.149cm (95% CI: -0.221, -0.076) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MMP and MBP, respectively, in the first trimester. In the second trimester, placental thickness increased by 0.017cm (95% CI: 0.006, 0.027), 0.020cm (95% CI: 0.004, 0.036), 0.028cm (95% CI: 0.007, 0.048), and 0.035cm (95% CI: 0.018, 0.053) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MMP, MBP, MEOHP, and MEHHP, respectively. In the third trimester, placental thickness increased by 0.037cm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.056) and 0.019cm (95% CI: 0, 0.037) with each 1 ln-concentration increase in MBP and MEHP, respectively. Multiple linear regression for each offspring sex indicated that prenatal phthalate exposure increased placental thickness in both the first and second trimesters in males, whereas the corresponding relationship was close to null in females. Linear mixed models (LMMs) yielded similar results.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the presence of associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and placental size and shape. Exposure to certain phthalates may cause the placenta to become thicker and more circular. Associations appeared stronger for the subsample representing male offspring than those for the subsample representing female offspring. Given the few studies on this topic, additional research is warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in human placenta may mediate the adverse effects of phthalates exposure in pregnancy

Authors: Huang, Y; Garcia, JM; Shu, W; Rong, H; Zhang, L; Wang, Y; Tan, Y; Lin, H; Zeng, H; Chen, JA (2018) HERO ID: 4728508

[Less] Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG) in placenta play an important role in pregnancy. . . . [More] Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG) in placenta play an important role in pregnancy. Our previous study showed that it mediated the effects of phthalates on placental mRNA expression of estrogen synthetases in rats. To assess the effects of phthalate exposure on PPARG placental expression, and the contribution of PPARG to the effects of phthalates in human. 207 healthy pregnant women were recruited and their cord blood and placenta were collected upon delivery. Three phthalates, estrogens in cord blood and protein expression of PPARG in placenta were measured. Linear regression were used to analyze the relationship between phthalates exposure, PPARG expression and hormones. Phthalate levels in cord blood were positively associated with PPARG protein expression in placenta (p<0.05), whereas estrogens in cord blood were negatively associated with phthalate levels and PPARG expression (p<0.05). This study shows that PPARG in placenta may mediate the adverse effects of phthalates on pregnancy in human.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DNA methylation of imprinted genes in Mexican-American newborn children with prenatal phthalate exposure

Authors: Tindula, G; Murphy, SK; Grenier, C; Huang, Z; Huen, K; Escudero-Fung, M; Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Hoyo, C; Holland, N (2018) HERO ID: 4728610

[Less] AIM: Imprinted genes exhibit expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and . . . [More] AIM: Imprinted genes exhibit expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and are critical for child development. Recent limited evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to phthalates, ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, can affect their epigenetic dysregulation.

MATERIALS & METHODS: We quantified DNA methylation of nine imprinted gene differentially methylated regions by pyrosequencing in 296 cord blood DNA samples in a Mexican-American cohort. Fetal exposure was estimated by phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal urine samples during pregnancy.

RESULTS: Several differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes were associated with high molecular weight phthalates. The most consistent, positive, and false discovery rate significant associations were observed for MEG3.

CONCLUSION: Phthalate exposure in utero may affect methylation status of imprinted genes in newborn children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Health risk assessment of reclaimed wastewater: A case study of a conventional water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China

Authors: Deng, Y; Bonilla, M; Ren, H; Zhang, Y (2018) HERO ID: 4728647

[Less] Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater . . . [More] Contaminated reclaimed wastewater has the potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wastewater workers and residents. However, few studies have focused on these health risks. In this study, we assessed the health risk of samples collected from different treatment processing units used in a typical water reclamation plant in Nanjing, China. Chemical analysis revealed that 40 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 6 N-nitrosamines (NAs) persisted after wastewater treatment. A health risk assessment revealed that the SVOCs in effluents pose negligible non-carcinogenic risk to wastewater workers and local residents as both the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were all below 1.00. However, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and NAs may present a carcinogenic risk, since their risk index via dermal exposure exceeded the safety limit (1.00×106), indicating that conventional treatment processes cannot effectively reduce the health risk in reclaimed wastewater. These results strongly suggest the need for the introduction of advanced treatment technologies capable of effectively removing SVOCs and NAs in water reclamation plants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immune System: An Emerging Player in Mediating Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Metabolic Health

Authors: Bansal, A; Henao-Mejia, J; Simmons, RA (2018) HERO ID: 4728690

[Less] The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continues to increase. In addition . . . [More] The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continues to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors to these disorders, such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides evidence that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (e.g., food, drink, skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action. It is becoming increasingly clear that EDCs not only affect endocrine function but also adversely affect immune system function. In this review, we focus on human, animal, and in vitro studies that demonstrate EDC exposure induces dysfunction of the immune system, which, in turn, has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These findings highlight how the immune system is emerging as a novel player by which EDCs may mediate their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss studies highlighting mechanisms by which EDCs affect the immune system. Finally, we consider that a better understanding of the immunomodulatory roles of EDCs will provide clues to enhance metabolic function and contribute toward the long-term goal of reducing the burden of environmentally induced diabetes and obesity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Regulation of chemicals in children's products: How U.S. and EU regulation impacts small markets

Authors: Negev, M; Berman, T; Reicher, S; Balan, S; Soehl, A; Goulden, S; Ardi, R; Shammai, Y; Hadar, L; Blum, A; Diamond, ML (2018) HERO ID: 4728399

[Less] Toys and children's products may contain trace metals and organic compounds that are potentially harmful . . . [More] Toys and children's products may contain trace metals and organic compounds that are potentially harmful to the health and development of infants and young children. Intergovernmental organizations and individual countries regulate chemicals in consumer products, but a coordinated international approach is lacking. This paper examines the implications of chemical regulation in children's products in large markets for a smaller market, namely Israel. We compared chemical regulations in children's products in the U.S., EU and Israel, and conducted in-depth interviews with diverse stakeholders in the Israeli product standardization process. Israel adopted EU chemical standards for certain chemicals (e.g., trace metals, phthalates) but not others (e.g., bisphenol A, flame retardants, trace metals in children's jewelry). Israeli regulation of chemicals in consumer products relies on regulations in large markets such as the U.S. and EU, which therefore have impacts beyond their territories. However, Israel adopts only product-specific standards and has regulatory gaps due to the lack of an overarching regulatory approach that exists in the U.S. and the EU. Furthermore, Israeli policy is to adopt parallel standards from large markets in order to remove trade barriers, despite their different approaches to chemical regulation, an approach which prioritizes trade considerations over health considerations. We conclude with policy recommendations for Israel, which have relevance for other small markets.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bisphenol A and Phthalates Modulate Peritoneal Macrophage Function in Female Mice Involving SYMD2-H3K36 Dimethylation

Authors: Li, Q; Lawrence, CR; Nowak, RA; Flaws, JA; Bagchi, MK; Bagchi, IC (2018) HERO ID: 4728418

[Less] Ample evidence suggests that environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate, . . . [More] Ample evidence suggests that environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate, two chemicals widely used in the plastics industry, disturbs homeostasis of innate immunity and causes inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these toxicants in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we addressed the effect of chronic exposure to BPA or phthalate at levels relevant to human exposure, either in vitro or in vivo, on the inflammatory reprograming of peritoneal macrophages. Our studies revealed that BPA and phthalates adversely affected expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and mediators in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Exposure to these toxicants also affected gene expression of scavenger receptors and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Our studies revealed that the epigenetic inhibitors differentially modulated target gene expression in these cells. Further analysis revealed that certain histone modification enzymes were aberrantly expressed in response to BPA or phthalate exposure, leading to alteration in the levels of H3K36 acetylation and dimethylation, two chromatin modifications that are critical for transcriptional efficacy and accuracy. Our results further revealed that silencing of H3K36-specific methyltransferase Smyd2 expression or inhibition of SMYD2 enzymatic activity attenuated H3K36 dimethylation and enhanced interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression but dampened the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages. In summary, our results indicate that peritoneal macrophages are vulnerable to BPA or phthalate at levels relevant to human exposure. These environmental toxicants affect phenotypic programming of macrophages via epigenetic mechanisms involving SMYD2-mediated H3K36 modification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous determination of 11 phthalate esters in bottled beverages by graphene oxide coated hollow fiber membrane extraction coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography

Authors: Lou, C; Guo, D; Zhang, K; Wu, C; Zhang, P; Zhu, Y (2018) HERO ID: 4728433

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of serious environmental pollutants, which lead to carcinogenicity . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of serious environmental pollutants, which lead to carcinogenicity or tumorigenicity in human body. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and green method by graphene oxide coated hollow fiber membrane extraction (GO-HFME) coupled with supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was proposed for the determination of 11 phthalate esters in bottled beverages. Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared and coated onto a porous hollow fiber membrane (HFM) to reinforce the efficiency of membrane extraction. The modified hollow fiber membrane was employed for the extraction of phthalate esters from bottled beverages prior to the determination by the supercritical fluid chromatography with UV detection. To achieve the maximum extraction efficiency, several parameters were investigated including GO concentration, extraction time, desorption solution and desorption time. SFC variables including stationary phase, modifier composition and percentage, column temperature, flow rate and backpressure were studied to improve the separation conditions. Under these optimized conditions, all the studied 11 phthalate esters were well separated and simultaneously determined in 7 min by SFC. The performance of the developed method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed (R ≥ 0.999) in the range of 0.02-10.0 μg/mL with limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 ng/mL. Recoveries of all the PAEs for the spiked samples were between 92.1% and 99.3% with satisfactory relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 5.9%. The proposed method is time-saving, green, simple and robust, which will be an alternative way to the analysis of PAEs in real samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between maternal exposure to phthalates and lower language ability in offspring derived from hair metabolome analysis

Authors: Jones, B; Han, TL; Delplancke, T; Mckenzie, EJ; de Seymour, JV; Chua, MC; Tan, KH; Baker, PN (2018) Scientific Reports 8:6745. HERO ID: 4728458

[Less] The fetus undergoes a crucial period of neurodevelopment in utero. The maternal hair metabolome provides . . . [More] The fetus undergoes a crucial period of neurodevelopment in utero. The maternal hair metabolome provides an integrated record of the metabolic state of the mother prior to, and during pregnancy. We investigated whether variation in the maternal hair metabolome was associated with neurodevelopmental differences across infants. Maternal hair samples and infant neurocognitive assessments (using the Bayley III Scales of Infant Development at 24 months) were obtained for 373 infant-mother dyads between 26-28 weeks' gestation from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. The hair metabolome was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Intensity measurements were obtained for 276 compounds. After controlling for maternal education, ethnicity, and infant sex, associations between metabolites and expressive language skills were detected, but not for receptive language, cognitive or motor skills. The results confirm previous research associating higher levels of phthalates with lower language ability. In addition, scores were positively associated with a cluster of compounds, including adipic acid and medium-chain fatty acids. The data support associations between the maternal hair metabolome and neurodevelopmental processes of the fetus. The association between phthalates and lower language ability highlights a modifiable risk factor that warrants further investigation.