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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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697 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adjuvant effect of short chain triacylglycerol tributyrin on a mouse contact hypersensitivity model

Authors: Sekiguchi, K; Ogawa, E; Kurohane, K; Konishi, H; Mochizuki, N; Manabe, K; Imai, Y (2018) HERO ID: 4728526

[Less] Little attention has been paid to chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals. . . . [More] Little attention has been paid to chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals. We have demonstrated that phthalate esters with short chain alcohols enhance fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a mouse model. Furthermore, phthalate esters with such an enhancing effect were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels, which are expressed on a part of sensory neurons, using a TRPA1-expressing cell line. In this study, we examined these activities of esters comprising glycerol and a short chain fatty acid, i.e. dibutyrin and tributyrin. We carried out chemical synthesis of dibutyrin isomers. Each dibutyrin isomer weakly activated TRPA1 and slightly enhanced skin sensitization to FITC. Unexpectedly, TRPA1 activation and enhancement of FITC-CHS were much more evident in the presence of tributyrin. Mechanistically, tributyrin induced increased dendritic cell trafficking from the skin to draining lymph nodes. Tributyrin enhanced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by draining lymph nodes, while its effect on interleukin-4 (IL-4) production was relatively less prominent. These results suggested that tributyrin concomitantly caused TRPA1 activation and an adjuvant effect on FITC-CHS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters compared with uncoated catheters in Canada: a public payer perspective

Authors: Welk, B; Isaranuwatchai, W; Krassioukov, A; Husted Torp, L; Elterman, D (2018) HERO ID: 4728798

[Less] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime . . . [More] STUDY DESIGN: A Markov model was used to analyze cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic-coated intermittent catheters (HCICs) compared with uncoated catheters (UCs) among individuals with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NB) due to spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: A Canadian public payer perspective based on data from Ontario; including a scenario analysis from the societal perspective.

METHODS: A previously published Markov decision model was modified to compare the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the two interventions. Three renal function and three urinary tract infection (UTI) health states as well as other catheter-related events were included. Scenario analyses, including utility gain from compact catheter and phthalate free catheter use, were performed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model.

RESULTS: The model predicted that a 50-year-old patient with SCI would gain an additional 0.72 QALYs if HCICs were used instead of UCs at an incremental cost of $48,016, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $66,634/QALY. Moreover, using HCICs could reduce the lifetime number of UTI events by 11%. From the societal perspective, HCICs cost less than UCs, while providing superior outcomes in terms of QALYs, life years gained (LYG), and UTIs. The cost per QALY further decreased when health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) gains associated with compact HCICs or catheters not containing phthalates were included.

CONCLUSION: In general, ICERs in the range of CAD$50-100,000 could be considered cost-effective. The ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses suggest that HCICs could be cost-effective. From the societal perspective, HCICs were associated with potential cost savings in our model. The results suggest that reimbursement of HCICs should be considered in these settings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mucoadhesive nanostructured polyelectrolytes complexes modulate the intestinal permeability of methotrexate

Authors: Boni, FI; Almeida, A; Lechanteur, A; Sarmento, B; Cury, BSF; Gremião, MPD (2018) HERO ID: 4729006

[Less] Nanostructured polyelectrolytes complexes (nano PECs) loaded with methotrexate (MTX) were obtained by . . . [More] Nanostructured polyelectrolytes complexes (nano PECs) loaded with methotrexate (MTX) were obtained by the polyelectrolyte complexation of chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), further incorporating hypromellose phthalate (HP). The mean diameter of nano PECs ranged from 325 to 458nm, with a narrow size distribution. Zeta potential was close to +30mV, decreasing to +21mV after the incorporation of HP, a range of values that favour the physical stability of system as the interaction with cationic biological membranes. The electrostatic interactions between the different components were indicated by the FTIR data. The mucoadhesiveness of nano PECs was demonstrated and MTX and HP influenced this property. The cell viability assays showed the biosafety of the isolated polymers and nano PECs in intestinal HT29-MTX and Caco-2 cell lines at 4h of test. The permeability values of MTX loaded in CS/HA nano PECs were 7.6 and 4-fold higher than those of CS/HA/HP nano PECS and free drug, respectively, in the Caco-2 monoculture. In mucus secreting co-culture cell model these values were 3 and 6.5 fold, respectively. Such features indicate that nano PECs developed in this work can be promising carriers for MTX in the treatment of local or systemic diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of terephthalate metabolites in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)

Authors: Nayebare, SR; Karthikraj, R; Kannan, K (2018) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1092:473-479. HERO ID: 4728835

[Less] Owing to their toxicity, phthalate plasticizers are currently being replaced with terephthalates in . . . [More] Owing to their toxicity, phthalate plasticizers are currently being replaced with terephthalates in many consumer products. Nevertheless, data on human exposure to and toxicity of terephthalates are still scarce. In this study, we developed a robust analytical method for the measurement of six terephthalate metabolites (TPhMs) in human urine through their successful separation from phthalate metabolites (PhMs). Target analytes were identified, using commercially available standards, and quantified with isotopically labeled internal standards (IS). The limits of quantification (LOQ) of TPhMs were in the range of 0.12 to 0.4 ng/mL, with the exception of 2.8 ng/mL for terephthalic acid (TPA) and 3.75 ng/mL for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (mEHTP), which were found in procedural blanks at notable levels. The method developed in this study showed excellent accuracy (recoveries: 86-117%) and precision (RSD: 0.6-12.2%) for TPhMs. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 human urine samples collected from individuals with no known history of occupational exposure. The detection frequencies (df %) of TPhMs in urine ranged between 26.6 and 100%. This is one of the first studies that report a method for the analysis of emerging class of environmental chemicals in human specimens.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disrupting effects of antibiotic sulfathiazole on developmental process during sensitive life-cycle stage of Chironomus riparius

Authors: Park, K; Kwak, IS (2018) Chemosphere 190:25-34. HERO ID: 4198651

[Less] Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. . . . [More] Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways. STZ exposure induced significant effects on survival, growth and sex ratio of emergent adults and mouthpart deformity in C. riparius. STZ caused concentration and time-dependent toxicity in most of the selected biomarkers. STZ exposure leads to significant heat-shock response of protein genes (HSP70, HSP40, HSP90 and HSP27) and to disruption by up-regulating selected genes, including the ecdysone receptor gene, estrogen-related receptors, ultraspiracle and E74 early ecdysone-responsive gene. Furthermore, STZ induced alteration of enzyme activities on antioxidant and detoxification responses (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxidase) in C. riparius. By inducing oxidative stress, antibiotic STZ disturbs the endocrine system and produces adverse effects in growth processes of invertebrates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in human milk and infant formula by fat extraction, size-exclusion chromatography clean-up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection

Authors: Del Bubba, M; Ancillotti, C; Checchini, L; Fibbi, D; Rossini, D; Ciofi, L; Rivoira, L; Profeti, C; Orlandini, S; Furlanetto, S (2018) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 148:6-16. HERO ID: 4216020

[Less] A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five . . . [More] A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five phthalate diesters and corresponding monoesters in human milk samples and infant formulas. The method involved a liquid-liquid extraction with a CH2Cl2/CH3OH/NaCl 30% 2/1/0.5 (v/v/v) mixture, the clean-up of the extract by size-exclusion chromatography (swelling and elution solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate 9/1v/v), the derivatization of monoesters by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane and instrumental analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Recovery was in the range of 83-115% and precision was found between 9% and 21%. For phthalate diesters, method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from hundreds of ng/kg to 4.2μg/kg on a fresh weight milk (f.w.) basis, depending on blank contribution evaluated in matrix. Lower MDLs (0.03-0.8μg/kg f.w.) were achieved for corresponding monoesters. The proposed method was applied to the determination of target compounds in nine human milk samples and four infant formulas, confirming their presence in all samples. However, a generally higher contamination was assessed in artificial milk than in breast milk samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A national assessment of the effect of intensive agro-land use practices on nonpoint source pollution using emission scenarios and geo-spatial data

Authors: Zhuo, D; Liu, L; Yu, H; Yuan, C (2018) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25:1683-1705. HERO ID: 4452582

[Less] China's intensive agriculture has led to a broad range of adverse impacts upon ecosystems and thereby . . . [More] China's intensive agriculture has led to a broad range of adverse impacts upon ecosystems and thereby caused environmental quality degradation. One of the fundamental problems that face land managers when dealing with agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is to quantitatively assess the NPS pollution loads from different sources at a national scale. In this study, export scenarios and geo-spatial data were used to calculate the agricultural NPS pollution loads of nutrient, pesticide, plastic film residue, and crop straw burning in China. The results provided the comprehensive and baseline knowledge of agricultural NPS pollution from China's arable farming system in 2014. First, the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emission loads to water environment were estimated to be 1.44 Tg N and 0.06 Tg P, respectively. East and south China showed the highest load intensities of nutrient release to aquatic system. Second, the amount of pesticide loss to water of seven pesticides that are widely used in China was estimated to be 30.04 tons (active ingredient (ai)). Acetochlor was the major source of pesticide loss to water, contributing 77.65% to the total loss. The environmental impacts of pesticide usage in east and south China were higher than other parts. Third, 19.75% of the plastic film application resided in arable soils. It contributed a lot to soil phthalate ester (PAE) contamination. Fourth, 14.11% of straw produce were burnt in situ, most occurring in May to July (post-winter wheat harvest) in North China Plain and October to November (post-rice harvest days) in southeast China. All the above agricultural NPS pollution loadings were unevenly distributed across China. The spatial correlations between pollution loads at land unit scale were also estimated. Rising labor cost in rural China might be a possible explanation for the general positive correlations of the NPS pollution loads. It also indicated a co-occurred higher NPS pollution loads and a higher human exposure risk in eastern regions. Results from this research might provide full-scale information on the status and spatial variation of various agricultural NPS pollution loads for policy makers to control the NPS pollution in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption – gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for determining phosphorus flame retardants in air samples

Authors: Matsiko, J; Li, H; Wang, Pu; Sun, H; Zheng, S; Wang, Dou; Zhang, W; Hao, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, Q; Jiang, G (2018) HERO ID: 4452698

[Less] Stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry . . . [More] Stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GC/MS) was utilized to determine phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in air samples. The one variable at a time (OVAT) approach was used to select the optimal conditions of the parameters that affect the SBSE procedure during thermal desorption. Desorption was carried out at 300 °C at a desorption flow rate of 76 mL min−1 for 10 minutes with the transfer line set at 320 °C. The analytes were cryofocused at −40 °C and then cryo-desorbed at 320 °C for 2 minutes. The optimal desorption conditions were then used to validate the method. The method validation showed good linearity (r2 > 0.9960), good precision (CVs ≤ 20%), low limits of detection (8.7–14.0 pg), good recoveries (>70%) and high reliability. Passive air sampling based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars together with high volume-active air sampling (HV-AAS) (for comparison and calibration) was used to ascertain the appropriateness of the proposed method to determine the concentrations of PFRs in real air samples. The concentration results obtained by the two sampling techniques were comparable for compounds, whose passive samplers' accumulated masses were above the limits of quantitation and showed good uptake linearity over a specific period of time during the deployment. This work therefore affirms that the proposed method performs well and thus can be a suitable and cheaper alternative to active air sampling for gas phase PFRs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reporting to parents on children's exposures to asthma triggers in low-income and public housing, an interview-based case study of ethics, environmental literacy, individual action, and public health benefits

Authors: Perovich, LJ; Ohayon, JL; Cousins, EM; Morello-Frosch, R; Brown, P; Adamkiewicz, G; Brody, JG (2018) HERO ID: 4728367

[Less] BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting. To better understand the ethical and public health implications of returning personal results in low-income communities, we investigated parents' experiences of learning their children's environmental chemical and biomonitoring results in the Green Housing Study of asthma.

METHODS: The Green Housing Study measured indoor chemical exposures, allergens, and children's asthma symptoms in "green"-renovated public housing and control sites in metro-Boston and Cincinnati in 2011-2013. We developed reports for parents of children in the study, including results for their child and community. We observed community meetings where results were reported, and metro-Boston residents participated in semi-structured interviews in 2015 about their report-back experience. Interviews were systematically coded and analyzed.

RESULTS: Report-back was positively received, contributed to greater understanding, built trust between researchers and participants, and facilitated action to improve health. Sampling visits and community meetings also contributed to creating a positive study experience for participants. Participants were able to make changes in their homes, such as altering product use and habits that may reduce asthma symptoms, though some faced roadblocks from family members. Participants also gained access to medical resources, though some felt that clinicians were not responsive. Participants wanted larger scale change from government or industry and wanted researchers to leverage study results to achieve change.

CONCLUSIONS: Report-back on environmental chemical exposures in low-income communities can enhance research benefits by engaging residents with personally relevant information that informs and motivates actions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers. Ethical practices in research should support deliberative report-back in vulnerable communities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

Authors: Reyes, JM; Price, PS (2018) HERO ID: 4728381

[Less] The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative . . . [More] The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans. This work used the MCR to evaluate coexposures to six phthalates as measured in biomonitoring data from the most recent cycle (2013-2014) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The values of MCR, Hazard Index (HI), and phthalate-specific Hazard Quotients (HQs) were determined for 2663 NHANES participants aged six years and older by using reverse dosimetry techniques to calculate steady-state doses consistent with concentrations of metabolites of six phthalates in urine and using Tolerable Daily Intake values. There were 21 participants (0.8% of the NHANES sample) with HI>1. Of those, 43% (9/21) would have been missed by chemical-by-chemical assessments (i.e. all HQs were less than one). The mean MCR value in the 21 participants was 2.1. HI and MCR values were negatively correlated (p<0.001) indicating that most participants, especially those with elevated HI values, had their cumulative risks driven by relatively large doses of a single phthalate rather than doses of multiple phthalates. The dominate phthalate varied across participants. Children (aged 6-17years) had a higher HI values (p<0.01) than adults (18+ years). However, the probability of having HI>1 was not driven by age, gender, or ethnicity. The cumulative exposures of concern largely originated from a subset of three of the fifteen possible pairs of the six phthalates. These findings suggest that cumulative exposures were a potential concern for a small portion of the surveyed participants involving a subset of the phthalates explored. The largest risks tended to occur in individuals whose exposures were dominated by a single phthalate.