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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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4,024 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analytical methods for selected emerging contaminants in human matrices-a review

Authors: Dirtu, AC; Van den Eede, N; Malarvannan, G; Ionas, AC; Covaci, A (In Press) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. [Review] HERO ID: 1249825

[Less] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being . . . [More] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being of concern, but which, because of their potential health effects associated with human exposure, are under increasing scrutiny. To accurately measure their levels in biological matrices, specific and sensitive analytical methods have recently been developed. We have reviewed here the methods used for analysis of selected emerging organic contaminants, for example metabolites of organophosphate triesters, metabolites of new phthalates or phthalate substitutes, perchlorate, organic UV filters, and polycyclic siloxanes, in human matrices. Although the use of new techniques and approaches has been emphasized, we also acknowledge methods previously used for other contaminants and adapted for the emerging contaminants listed above. In all cases, chromatography and mass spectrometry were the techniques of choice, because of their selectivity and sensitivity for measurements at ng g(-1) levels. Critical issues and challenges have been discussed, together with recommendations for further improvement in particular cases (e.g. metabolites of phthalates or their substitutes). In particular, the use of labeled internal standards, the availability of certified reference materials, and the need for interlaboratory comparison exercises are key aspects of further development of this field of research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation and Characterization of Tablet Formulation based on Solid Dispersion of Glimepiride and Poly(ester amide) Hyperbranched Polymer

Authors: Reven, S; Homar, M; Peternel, L; Kristl, J; Zagar, E (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1249959

[Less] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride . . . [More] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride and poly(ester amide) hyperbranched polymer into a tablet using a direct-compression tabletting technique was investigated. Tablet cores were additionally coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in order to protect the extremely hygroscopic solid dispersion from atmospheric moisture. Preliminary stability studies show that glimepiride, which is in amorphous form within solid dispersion, is chemically stable, even if tablets are exposed to elevated temperature and/or moisture. In-vitro dissolution studies show some impact of storage conditions on the tablet cores disintegration time and, consequently, drug release rate. Glimepiride solubility also deteriorates somewhat, most probably due to its partial recrystallization. Storage conditions much less affect the physical stability of coated tablets, which was ascribed to reduced tablet hygroscopicity due to the presence of protecting coating. The hyperbranched polymers are rather new and complex macromolecules. Therefore, we addressed also the biocompatibility of hyperbranched polymer, i.e., its impact on haemolysis of the red blood cells. The concentration required for the haemolytic effect on the red blood cells is around 100-times higher than its expected gastrointestinal luminal concentration, which makes the occurrence of hyperbranched polymer mediated cytotoxicity very unlikely.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature

Authors: Deblonde, T; Cossu-Leguille, C; Hartemann, P (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Review] HERO ID: 788151

[Less] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", . . . [More] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", in wastewater and aquatic environments. The US EPA (United States - Environmental Protection Agency) defines emerging pollutants as new chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to identify data on emerging pollutants concentrations in wastewater, in influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the performance of sewage disposal. We collected 44 publications in our database. We sought especially for data on phthalates, Bisphenol A and pharmaceuticals (including drugs for human health and disinfectants). We gathered concentration data and chose 50 pharmaceutical molecules, six phthalates and Bisphenol A. The concentrations measured in the influent ranged from 0.007 to 56.63μg per liter and the removal rates ranges from 0% (contrast media) to 97% (psychostimulant). Caffeine is the molecule whose concentration in influent was highest among the molecules investigated (in means 56.63μg per liter) with a removal rate around 97%, leading to a concentration in the effluent that did not exceed 1.77μg per liter. The concentrations of ofloxacin were the lowest and varied between 0.007 and 2.275μg per liter in the influent treatment plant and 0.007 and 0.816μg per liter in the effluent. Among phthalates, DEHP is the most widely used, and quantified by the authors in wastewater, and the rate of removal of phthalates is greater than 90% for most of the studied compounds. The removal rate for antibiotics is about 50% and 71% for Bisphenol A. Analgesics, anti inflammatories and beta-blockers are the most resistant to treatment (30-40% of removal rate). Some pharmaceutical molecules for which we have not collected many data and which concentrations seem high as Tetracycline, Codeine and contrast products deserve further research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental Boberg data for HERO ID 806135 from email communication

Author: Boberg, J (2016) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3102218

[Less] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via . . . [More] This material represents the individual male reproductive data from the journal article (obtained via email communication with Dr. Julie Boberg):

Boberg, J; Christiansen, S; Axelstad, M; et al. (2010) Reproductive and behavioral effects of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in perinatally exposed rats. Reproductive Toxicology. 2011 Feb; 31(2):200-9. [HERO ID 806135]

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accumulation of Organic Pollutants in Aquatic Organisms from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India

Author: Natesan, U (2013) Asian Journal of Chemistry 25:2392-2394. HERO ID: 1598293

[Less] The coastal waters of the maritime states are under the constant threat of pollution from a number of . . . [More] The coastal waters of the maritime states are under the constant threat of pollution from a number of sources. Many economically important marine fishes and invertebrates are depending upon these regions for-habitat and food: The present Study focused on assessing the levels of organic pollutants in aquatic organisms, viz., fishes,prawn, crab and clams-in the polluted stretch of Ennore estuary, southeast coast of India and to find out the relation between the organic pollutants and lipid profiles. After a field survey, six edible species were selected-and caught from the polluted stretch of the estuary. Following USEPA 8280 procedure, the samples were processed and analyzed for organic pollutants by HRGC/LRMS. Presence of pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and polymers, shows the degraded environmental quality in the Ennore estuary. Mud crab is found to contain maximum pollutant accumulation followed by blood clams:The organic contamination-in the selected aquatic animals indicates the possibility of high health risks for their consumers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Anogenital Distances in Newborns and Children from Spain and Greece: Predictors, Tracking and Reliability

Authors: Papadopoulou, E; Vafeiadi, M; Agramunt, S; Basagana, X; Mathianaki, K; Karakosta, P; Spanaki, A; Koutis, A; Chatzi, L; Vrijheid, M; Kogevinas, M (2013) Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 27:89-99. HERO ID: 1598340

[Less] Background Anogenital distance has been associated with prenatal exposure to chemicals with anti-androgenic . . . [More] Background Anogenital distance has been associated with prenatal exposure to chemicals with anti-androgenic effects. There are limited data in humans concerning descriptive patterns, predictors, and the reliability of measurement of anogenital distances. We examined anogenital distance measurements and their predictors in males and females and further estimated the reliability of these measurements. Methods Anogenital distances were measured in repeated time periods among 352 newborns and 732 young children in two cohorts, one in Crete, Greece and one in Barcelona, Spain. Mixed effect models were used to estimate the between-children, between- and within-examiners variance, as well as the reliability coefficients. Results Genitalia distances were longer in males than in females. Anogenital distances in both sexes increased rapidly from birth to 12 months, while the additional increase during the second year was small. Birthweight was associated with an increase of 1.9?mm/kg [95% CI 0.1, 3.8] (CI, confidence interval) in the anogenital distance measured from the anus to anterior base of the penis in newborn males, 2.9?mm/kg [95% CI 1.8, 3.9] in anoclitoral distance and 1.0?mm/kg [95% CI 0.0, 2.0] in anofourchettal distance in newborn females, after adjustment for gestational age. In children, body weight was the main predictor of all genitalia measurements. Moreover, anogenital distances at birth were associated with the corresponding distances at early childhood. High reliability coefficients (>90%) were found for all anogenital distances measurements in males and females. Conclusions Anogenital distances are strongly related to gestational age and birthweight and later, to growth. They track through early life and are highly reliable measures in both sexes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

GLP-compliant evaluation and standardization of the peripubertal castrate male rat Hershberger assay for oral exposure of test agents

Authors: Sloan, CS; Vick, KD; Kuney, NM; Fail, PA; Becker, RA; Tyl, RW (2013) Reproductive Toxicology 35:108-116. HERO ID: 1598470

[Less] Since oral exposure is more relevant than the sc route for human exposure to environmental substances, . . . [More] Since oral exposure is more relevant than the sc route for human exposure to environmental substances, studies to evaluate and standardize this route in the Hershberger assay were conducted in 2001-2003. Interest in environmental androgen agonists is increasing, so the oral route of the Hershberger assay may be useful to quantify agonist activity of these substances. Castrated Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed (PND 60-69) with androgen receptor agonists and/or antagonists, terminated on PND 70, and body, liver, and accessory sex organs (ASOs) weighed. Methyltestosterone (MT) po, at 0.1-50 mg/kg/day, resulted in dose-dependent increases in ASO weights at 5-50 mg/kg; 0.1 mg/kg/day was without statistically significant effect. Testosterone propionate (TP) (sc) at 0.1-1.6 mg/kg/day also resulted in dose-dependent increases in ASO weights, at all doses. Detection of putative androgen antagonists by the oral route was confirmed with dose-response curves of antagonism from flutamide (FLU) po at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day, with MT at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day (po, 4 h later). These results extend the OECD Hershberger assay evaluation and standardization to the oral route and identify and discuss challenges of the assay to detect (anti)androgen-active compounds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate concentrations and dietary exposure from food purchased in New York State - Supplemental material

Authors: Schecter, A; Lorber, M; Guo, Y; Wu, Q; Yun, SH; Kannan, K; Hommel, M; Imran, N; Hynan, LS; Cheng, D; Colacino, JA; Birnbaum, LS (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:473-94, 494e1-4. HERO ID: 3004694


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicokinetic modeling of folpet fungicide and its ring-biomarkers of exposure in humans

Authors: Heredia-Ortiz, R; Berthet, A; Bouchard, M (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:607-617. HERO ID: 1597827

[Less] A human in vivo toxicokinetic model was built to allow a better understanding of the toxicokinetics . . . [More] A human in vivo toxicokinetic model was built to allow a better understanding of the toxicokinetics of folpet fungicide and its key ring biomarkers of exposure: phthalimide (PI), phthalamic acid (PAA) and phthalic acid (PA). Both PI and the sum of ring metabolites, expressed as PA equivalents (PAeq ), may be used as biomarkers of exposure. The conceptual representation of the model was based on the analysis of the time course of these biomarkers in volunteers orally and dermally exposed to folpet. In the model, compartments were also used to represent the body burden of folpet and experimentally relevant PI, PAA and PA ring metabolites in blood and in key tissues as well as in excreta, hence urinary and feces. The time evolution of these biomarkers in each compartment of the model was then mathematically described by a system of coupled differential equations. The mathematical parameters of the model were then determined from best fits to the time courses of PI and PAeq in blood and urine of five volunteers administered orally 1 mg kg(-1) and dermally 10 mg kg(-1) of folpet. In the case of oral administration, the mean elimination half-life of PI from blood (through feces, urine or metabolism) was found to be 39.9 h as compared with 28.0 h for PAeq . In the case of a dermal application, mean elimination half-life of PI and PAeq was estimated to be 34.3 and 29.3 h, respectively. The average final fractions of administered dose recovered in urine as PI over the 0-96 h period were 0.030 and 0.002%, for oral and dermal exposure, respectively. Corresponding values for PAeq were 24.5 and 1.83%, respectively. Finally, the average clearance rate of PI from blood calculated from the oral and dermal data was 0.09 ± 0.03 and 0.13 ± 0.05 ml h(-1) while the volume of distribution was 4.30 ± 1.12 and 6.05 ± 2.22 l, respectively. It was not possible to obtain the corresponding values from PAeq data owing to the lack of blood time course data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.