Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
2,482 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analytical methods for selected emerging contaminants in human matrices-a review

Authors: Dirtu, AC; Van den Eede, N; Malarvannan, G; Ionas, AC; Covaci, A (In Press) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. [Review] HERO ID: 1249825

[Less] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being . . . [More] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being of concern, but which, because of their potential health effects associated with human exposure, are under increasing scrutiny. To accurately measure their levels in biological matrices, specific and sensitive analytical methods have recently been developed. We have reviewed here the methods used for analysis of selected emerging organic contaminants, for example metabolites of organophosphate triesters, metabolites of new phthalates or phthalate substitutes, perchlorate, organic UV filters, and polycyclic siloxanes, in human matrices. Although the use of new techniques and approaches has been emphasized, we also acknowledge methods previously used for other contaminants and adapted for the emerging contaminants listed above. In all cases, chromatography and mass spectrometry were the techniques of choice, because of their selectivity and sensitivity for measurements at ng g(-1) levels. Critical issues and challenges have been discussed, together with recommendations for further improvement in particular cases (e.g. metabolites of phthalates or their substitutes). In particular, the use of labeled internal standards, the availability of certified reference materials, and the need for interlaboratory comparison exercises are key aspects of further development of this field of research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature

Authors: Deblonde, T; Cossu-Leguille, C; Hartemann, P (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Review] HERO ID: 788151

[Less] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", . . . [More] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", in wastewater and aquatic environments. The US EPA (United States - Environmental Protection Agency) defines emerging pollutants as new chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to identify data on emerging pollutants concentrations in wastewater, in influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the performance of sewage disposal. We collected 44 publications in our database. We sought especially for data on phthalates, Bisphenol A and pharmaceuticals (including drugs for human health and disinfectants). We gathered concentration data and chose 50 pharmaceutical molecules, six phthalates and Bisphenol A. The concentrations measured in the influent ranged from 0.007 to 56.63μg per liter and the removal rates ranges from 0% (contrast media) to 97% (psychostimulant). Caffeine is the molecule whose concentration in influent was highest among the molecules investigated (in means 56.63μg per liter) with a removal rate around 97%, leading to a concentration in the effluent that did not exceed 1.77μg per liter. The concentrations of ofloxacin were the lowest and varied between 0.007 and 2.275μg per liter in the influent treatment plant and 0.007 and 0.816μg per liter in the effluent. Among phthalates, DEHP is the most widely used, and quantified by the authors in wastewater, and the rate of removal of phthalates is greater than 90% for most of the studied compounds. The removal rate for antibiotics is about 50% and 71% for Bisphenol A. Analgesics, anti inflammatories and beta-blockers are the most resistant to treatment (30-40% of removal rate). Some pharmaceutical molecules for which we have not collected many data and which concentrations seem high as Tetracycline, Codeine and contrast products deserve further research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate concentrations and dietary exposure from food purchased in New York State - Supplemental material

Authors: Schecter, A; Lorber, M; Guo, Y; Wu, Q; Yun, SH; Kannan, K; Hommel, M; Imran, N; Hynan, LS; Cheng, D; Colacino, JA; Birnbaum, LS (2013) Environmental Health Perspectives 121:473-94, 494e1-4. HERO ID: 3004694


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicokinetic modeling of folpet fungicide and its ring-biomarkers of exposure in humans

Authors: Heredia-Ortiz, R; Berthet, A; Bouchard, M (2013) Journal of Applied Toxicology 33:607-617. HERO ID: 1597827

[Less] A human in vivo toxicokinetic model was built to allow a better understanding of the toxicokinetics . . . [More] A human in vivo toxicokinetic model was built to allow a better understanding of the toxicokinetics of folpet fungicide and its key ring biomarkers of exposure: phthalimide (PI), phthalamic acid (PAA) and phthalic acid (PA). Both PI and the sum of ring metabolites, expressed as PA equivalents (PAeq ), may be used as biomarkers of exposure. The conceptual representation of the model was based on the analysis of the time course of these biomarkers in volunteers orally and dermally exposed to folpet. In the model, compartments were also used to represent the body burden of folpet and experimentally relevant PI, PAA and PA ring metabolites in blood and in key tissues as well as in excreta, hence urinary and feces. The time evolution of these biomarkers in each compartment of the model was then mathematically described by a system of coupled differential equations. The mathematical parameters of the model were then determined from best fits to the time courses of PI and PAeq in blood and urine of five volunteers administered orally 1 mg kg(-1) and dermally 10 mg kg(-1) of folpet. In the case of oral administration, the mean elimination half-life of PI from blood (through feces, urine or metabolism) was found to be 39.9 h as compared with 28.0 h for PAeq . In the case of a dermal application, mean elimination half-life of PI and PAeq was estimated to be 34.3 and 29.3 h, respectively. The average final fractions of administered dose recovered in urine as PI over the 0-96 h period were 0.030 and 0.002%, for oral and dermal exposure, respectively. Corresponding values for PAeq were 24.5 and 1.83%, respectively. Finally, the average clearance rate of PI from blood calculated from the oral and dermal data was 0.09 ± 0.03 and 0.13 ± 0.05 ml h(-1) while the volume of distribution was 4.30 ± 1.12 and 6.05 ± 2.22 l, respectively. It was not possible to obtain the corresponding values from PAeq data owing to the lack of blood time course data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estrogen effects in allergy and asthma

Authors: Bonds, RS; Midoro-Horiuti, T (2013) Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 13:92-99. [Review] HERO ID: 1527367

[Less] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma prevalence and severity are greater in women than in men, . . . [More] PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma prevalence and severity are greater in women than in men, and mounting evidence suggests this is in part related to female steroid sex hormones. Of these, estrogen has been the subject of much study. This review highlights recent research exploring the effects of estrogen in allergic disease.

RECENT FINDINGS: Estrogen receptors are found on numerous immunoregulatory cells and estrogen's actions skew immune responses toward allergy. It may act directly to create deleterious effects in asthma, or indirectly via modulation of various pathways including secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel and nitric oxide production to exert effects on lung mechanics and inflammation. Not only do endogenous estrogens appear to play a role, but environmental estrogens have also been implicated. Environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) including bisphenol A and phthalates enhance allergic sensitization in animal models and may enhance development of atopic disorders like asthma in humans.

SUMMARY: Estrogen's role in allergic disease remains complex. As allergic diseases continue to increase in prevalence and affect women disproportionately, gaining a fuller understanding of its effects in these disorders will be essential. Of particular importance may be effects of xenoestrogens on allergic disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

Authors: Wang, HX; Wang, B; Zhou, Y; Jiang, QW (2013) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405:4313-4319. HERO ID: 1597641

[Less] Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates . . . [More] Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A in an urban minority birth cohort in New York City, prenatal through age 7 years

Authors: Hoepner, LA; Whyatt, RM; Just, AC; Calafat, AM; Perera, FP; Rundle, AG (2013) Environmental Research 122:38-44. HERO ID: 1597680

[Less] BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern over potential health effects associated with exposures . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern over potential health effects associated with exposures to the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA), insufficient information is available on determinants of BPA concentrations among minority populations in the US.

OBJECTIVES: To describe concentrations and predictors of BPA in an inner-city longitudinal birth cohort.

METHODS: We analyzed spot urines for total BPA collected during pregnancy and child ages 3, 5, and 7 years from African Americans and Dominicans (n=568) enrolled in the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health birth cohort and residing in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Adjusting for specific gravity, generalized estimating equations were used to compare BPA concentrations across paired samples and linear regression analyses were used to determine relationships between BPA, season of sample collection, socio-demographic variables and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites.

RESULTS: BPA was detected in ≥ 94% of samples. Prenatal concentrations were significantly lower than postnatal concentrations. Geometric means were higher among African Americans compared to Dominicans in prenatal (p=0.008), 5 year (p<0.001) and 7 year (p=0.017) samples. Geometric means at 5 and 7 years were higher (p=0.021, p=0.041 respectively) for children of mothers never married compared to mothers ever married at enrollment. BPA concentrations were correlated with phthalate metabolite concentrations at prenatal, 3, 5 and 7 years (p-values <0.05). Postnatal BPA concentrations were higher in samples collected during the summer.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows widespread BPA exposure in an inner-city minority population. BPA concentration variations were associated with socio-demographic characteristics and other xenobiotics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative analysis of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, pyrethroid transformation products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bisphenol A in residential surface wipe samples

Authors: Clifton, MS; Wargo, JP; Weathers, WS; Colón, M; Bennett, DH; Tulve, NS (2013) Journal of Chromatography A 1273:1-11. HERO ID: 1597683

[Less] Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential . . . [More] Surface wipe sampling is a frequently used technique for measuring persistent pollutants in residential environments. One characteristic of this form of sampling is the need to extract the entire wipe sample to achieve adequate sensitivity and to ensure representativeness. Most surface wipe methods require collection of multiple samples for related chemicals or chemical classes having similar physiochemical properties. In an effort to analyze a broad suite of pollutants collected from a single surface wipe sample, we developed a new method for the analysis of selected organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, pyrethroid transformation products (TPs), bisphenol A (BPA) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). This is the first time this suite of compounds has been analyzed from a single indoor wipe sample because of the issues uniquely related to these sample types, namely high levels of interfering compounds such as phthalate esters and other residues found in the indoor environment. This new method uses extraction via sonication followed by solvent exchange into hexane, clean-up and liquid/liquid extraction. The extract portion containing insecticides and PBDEs is further purified using solid phase extraction prior to concentration and analysis. The portion containing BPA and TPs is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate before concentration and derivatization with 99:1 trimethylsilyl 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(trimethylsilyl)acetimidate:chlorotrimethylsilane. Wipe extract sub-classes were then analyzed by GC/MS in electron impact mode for insecticides, BPA and TPs while negative chemical ionization mode was employed for PBDEs. Method detection limits were <16.4 pg/cm(2) for all compounds with most being <5 pg/cm². Over 400 samples, including QA/QC samples, were analyzed with mean surrogate recoveries ranging from 76 to 95%. The most frequently detected chemicals from our suite were chlorpyrifos, permethrin, bisphenol A, BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Permethrin (107 pg/cm² on floors and 18 pg/cm² on windows) and bisphenol A (110 pg/cm² on floors and 6.8 pg/cm² on windows) had the highest concentrations measured in the wipe samples. Results from the method evaluation and routine sample analysis are presented.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of probiotic tablets using microparticles: viability studies and stability studies

Authors: E Silva, JP; Sousa, SC; Costa, P; Cerdeira, E; Amaral, MH; Lobo, JS; Gomes, AM; Pintado, MM; Rodrigues, D; Rocha-Santos, T; Freitas, AC (2013) AAPS PharmSciTech 14:121-127. HERO ID: 1597687

[Less] Alternative vectors to deliver viable cells of probiotics, to those conferring limited resistance to . . . [More] Alternative vectors to deliver viable cells of probiotics, to those conferring limited resistance to gastrointestinal conditions, still need to be sought. Therefore the main goal of the study was to develop tablets able to protect entrapped probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity, thus providing an easily manufacturing scale-up dosage form to deliver probiotics to the vicinity of the human colon. Whey protein concentrate microparticles with Lactobacillus paracasei L26 were produced by spray-drying and incorporated in tablets with cellulose acetate phthalate and sodium croscarmellose. The viability of L. paracasei L.26 throughout tableting as well as its gastric resistance and release from the tablets were evaluated. Storage stability of L. paracasei L26 tablets was also performed by evaluation of viable cells throughout 60 days at 23°C and 33% relative humidity. A decrease of approximately one logarithmic cycle was observed after the acid stage and the release of L. paracasei L26 from the tablets occurred only after 4 h in the conditions tested. Microencapsulated L. paracasei L26 in tablets revealed some susceptibility to the storage conditions tested since the number of viable cells decreased 2 log cycles after 60 days of storage. However, the viability of L. paracasei L26 after 45 days of storage did not reveal significant susceptibility upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The developed probiotic tablets revealed to be potential vectors for delivering viable cells of L. paracasei L26 and probably other probiotics to persons/patients who might benefit from probiotic therapy.