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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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156 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Collective migration of cancer-associated fibroblasts is enhanced by overexpression of tight junction-associated proteins claudin-11 and occludin

Authors: Karagiannis, GS; Schaeffer, DF; Cho, CK; Musrap, N; Saraon, P; Batruch, I; Grin, A; Mitrovic, B; Kirsch, R; Riddell, RH; Diamandis, EP (In Press) HERO ID: 2215387

[Less] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas . . . [More] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas of various types of cancer are capable of executing a migratory program, characterized by accelerated motility and collective configuration. Since CAFs are reprogrammed derivatives of normal progenitors, including quiescent fibroblasts, we hypothesized that such migratory program could be context-dependent, thus being regulated by specific paracrine signals from the adjacent cancer population. Using the traditional scratch assay setup, we showed that only specific colon cancer cell lines (i.e. HT29) were able to induce collective CAF migration. By performing quantitative proteomics (SILAC), we identified a 2.7-fold increase of claudin-11, a member of the tight junction apparatus, in CAFs that exerted such collectivity in their migratory pattern. Further proteomic investigations of cancer cell line secretomes revealed a specific signature, involving TGF-β, as potential mediator of this effect. Normal colonic fibroblasts stimulated with TGF-β exerted myofibroblastic differentiation, occludin (OCLN) and claudin-11 (CLDN11) overexpression and cohort formation. Subsequently, inhibition of TGF-β attenuated all the previous effects. Immunohistochemistry of the universal tight junction marker occludin in a cohort of 30 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients defined a CAF subpopulation expressing tight junctions. Overall, these data suggest that cancer cells may induce CLDN11 overexpression and subsequent collective migration of peritumoral CAFs via TGF-β secretion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The crystal structure of human quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with its inhibitor phthalic acid

Authors: Malik, SS; Patterson, DN; Ncube, Z; Toth, EA (In Press) HERO ID: 2215421

[Less] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic . . . [More] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) in the first step of the de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis pathway. This puts QPRT at the junction of two different pathways, that is, de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis and the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Thus, QPRT is an important enzyme in terms of its biological impact and its potential as a therapeutic target. Here, we report the crystal structure of human QPRT bound to its inhibitor phthalic acid (PHT) and kinetic analysis of PHT inhibition of human QPRT. This structure, determined at 2.55 Å resolution, shows an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that helps in recognition of PHT and consequently its substrate QA. In addition to this hydrogen bonding network, we observe extensive van der Waals contacts with the PHT ring that might be important for correctly orientating the substrate QA during catalysis. Moreover, our crystal form allows us to observe an intact hexamer in both the apo- and PHT-bound forms in the same crystal system, which provides a direct comparison of unique subunit interfaces formed in hexameric human QPRT. We call these interfaces "nondimeric interfaces" to distinguish them from the typical dimeric interfaces observed in all QPRTs. We observe significant changes in the nondimeric interfaces in the QPRT hexamer upon binding PHT. Thus, the new structural and functional features of this enzyme we describe here will aid in understanding the function of hexameric QPRTs, which includes all eukaryotic and select prokaryotic QPRTs. Proteins 2013; © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays

Authors: Korfali, SI; Sabra, R; Jurdi, M; Taleb, RI (In Press) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1677563

[Less] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. . . . [More] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10 % of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5 % of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83 % of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9 % of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60 % of children's toys and 77 % of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7 %. The community survey indicated that 82 % of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17 % of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

Authors: Isling, LK; Boberg, J; Jacobsen, PR; Mandrup, KR; Axelstad, M; Christiansen, S; Vinggaard, AM; Taxvig, C; Kortenkamp, A; Hass, U (2014) Reproduction 147:465-476. HERO ID: 2215381

[Less] This study examined late life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine disrupting . . . [More] This study examined late life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, parabens and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high end human exposure, or a 450-times mixture of 9 predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age was assessed. Significantly fewer females showed regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared to controls. In 19 months old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls and in ventral prostate, an over-representation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared to controls particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

Authors: Tefre de Renzy-Martin, K; Frederiksen, H; Christensen, J; Boye Kyhl, H; Andersson, AM; Husby, S; Barington, T; Main, KM; Jensen, TK (2014) Reproduction 147:443-453. HERO ID: 2215384

[Less] Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. . . . [More] Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women. We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC-MS/MS. The 33 analytes represent 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in urine from most women. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite (s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups suggesting joint exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DI) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results still raise concern. As current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, the true cumulative risk for the foetus may be underestimated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emission factors for gases and particle bound substances produced by firing lead-free small caliber ammunition

Authors: Wingfors, H; Svensson, K; Hägglund, L; Hedenstierna, S; Magnusson, R (2014) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 11:282-291. HERO ID: 2215398

[Less] ABSTRACT Lead-free ammunition is becoming increasingly popular because of the environmental and human . . . [More] ABSTRACT Lead-free ammunition is becoming increasingly popular because of the environmental and human health issues associated with the use of leaded ammunition. However, there is a lack of data on the emissions produced by firing such ammunition. We report emission factors for toxic gases and particle-bound compounds produced by firing lead-free ammunition in a test chamber. Carbon monoxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide levels within the chamber were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while total suspended particles and respirable particles were determined gravimetrically. The metal content of the particulate emissions was determined and the associated organic compounds were characterized in detail using a method based on thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The particulate matter (∼30 mg/round) consisted primarily of metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe along with soot arising from incomplete combustion. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as carbazole, quinoline and phenazine were responsible for some of the 25 most significant chromatographic peaks, together with PAHs, diphenylamine and phthalates . Emission factors were determined for PAHs and oxygenated PAHs; the latter were less abundant in the gun smoke particles than in domestic dust and diesel combustion smoke. This may be due to the oxygen-deficient conditions that occur when the gun is fired. By using an electrical low pressure impactor, it was demonstrated that more than 90% of the particles produced immediately after firing the weapon had diameters of less than 30 nm, and so most of the gun smoke particles belonged the nanoparticle regime.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary phthalates and low-grade albuminuria in US children and adolescents

Authors: Trasande, L; Sathyanarayana, S; Trachtman, H (2014) Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 9:100-109. HERO ID: 2215401

[Less] BACKGROUND: Low-grade albuminuria is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction and is . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Low-grade albuminuria is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A graded level of exposure to bisphenol A was recently identified to be associated with increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in children and adults. Because bisphenol A and phthalates coexist as dietary contaminants, this study investigated whether exposure to phthalates is also associated with low-grade albuminuria.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Data were examined from 667 children who participated in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had results for urinary phthalate metabolites and albumin excretion. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were measured in a first morning specimen using a solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay and a Roche/Hitachi Modular P Chemistry Analyzer with an enzymatic method, respectively. Phthalate metabolites were analyzed in a separate spot urine sample from each participant, using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy.

RESULTS: For each (roughly) 3-fold increase in metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (a high molecular weight phthalate commonly found in foods), a 0.55 mg/g increase in albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was identified (P=0.02), whereas a 1.30-fold odds of a higher ACR quartile was also identified for each (roughly) 3-fold increase (P=0.02). Higher ACR was not identified in relationship to metabolites of lower molecular phthalates commonly found in lotions or shampoos, suggesting specificity.

CONCLUSIONS: Although reverse causation and unmeasured confounders represent alternative explanations, these findings, in conjunction with our earlier data on bisphenol A, indicate that a wide array of environmental toxins may adversely affect albuminuria and potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the potential long-term health implications of ongoing exposure in this vulnerable subpopulation, our data support both further study and renewed regulatory efforts to limit exposure during childhood.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PVC flooring at home and development of asthma among young children in Sweden, a 10-year follow-up

Authors: Shu, H; Jönsson, BA; Larsson, M; Nånberg, E; Bornehag, CG (2014) Indoor Air 24:227-235. HERO ID: 2215410

[Less] The incidence of asthma and allergy has increased throughout the developed world over the past decades. . . . [More] The incidence of asthma and allergy has increased throughout the developed world over the past decades. During the same period of time, the use of industrial chemicals such as phthalates, commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring material, has increased. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PVC flooring in the home of children in the age of 1-5 years is associated with the development of asthma in 5- and 10-year follow-up investigations (n = 3228). Dampness in Buildings and Health Study (DBH Study) commenced in 2000 in Värmland, Sweden. The current analyses included subjects who answered all baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were applied to questionnaire results. Children who had PVC floorings in the bedroom at baseline were more likely to develop doctor-diagnosed asthma during the following 10-year period when compared with children living without. There were indications that PVC flooring in the parents' bedrooms was strongly associated with the new cases of doctor-diagnosed asthma when compared with child's bedroom. Our results suggest that PVC flooring exposure during pregnancy could be a critical period in the development of asthma in children at a later time; prenatal exposure and measurements of phthalate metabolites should be included in the future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Entering markets and bodies: Increasing levels of the novel plasticizer Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) in 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank

Authors: Schütze, A; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Koch, HM (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:421-426. HERO ID: 2215423

[Less] DINCH (diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) was introduced into the world market in 2002 as a non-aromatic . . . [More] DINCH (diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) was introduced into the world market in 2002 as a non-aromatic plasticizer and phthalate substitute. We analyzed 300 urine samples (24h voids) of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB for Human tissues, ESB Hum) for specific DINCH metabolites by on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. Urine samples of the ESB Hum were from the years 1999, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, chosen to investigate the appearance and a possible trend of DINCH exposure since its market introduction. No DINCH metabolites were detected in the 1999 and 2003 samples. From 2006 on, the percentage of samples with DINCH metabolites above the LOQ increased significantly over the years (7% in 2006, 43% in 2009 and 98% in 2012). The cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (OH-MINCH) was the predominant metabolite. Median (and 95th percentile) concentrations (in μg/l) increased from <LOQ (0.09) in 2006, to <LOQ (1.02) in 2009 to 0.39 (2.09) in 2012. All oxidized DINCH metabolites (OH-MINCH, cx-MINCH, oxo-MINCH) correlated strongly among each other (ρ>0.75, p<0.001). The median (95th percentile) DINCH intake in 2012 was calculated to be 0.14 (1.07)μg/kg body weight/day which is considerably below daily intakes currently deemed tolerable. DINCH is regarded to have a preferred toxicological profile over certain anti-androgenic phthalates. The continuation of DINCH measurements in the ESB Hum and other human biomonitoring studies like the German Environmental Survey (GerES) allows tracking the development of DINCH body burdens, the distribution of exposure levels and daily intakes, providing basic data for future toxicological assessment and further epidemiological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lower concentrations of phthalates induce proliferation in human breast cancer cells

Authors: Chen, FP; Chien, MH (2014) Climacteric 17:377-384. HERO ID: 2215392

[Less] Objective: To explore the effect and pathway of phthalates on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methods: . . . [More] Objective: To explore the effect and pathway of phthalates on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Methods: MCF-7 cells were treated with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (10−10–10−4 mol/l). After incubation for 24, 48, 72, and 92 h, the cells were harvested and extracted for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The proteins involving proliferative and apoptotic pathways were evaluated by Western blot analysis.

Results: MTT assay revealed cell toxicity at more than 10−5 mol/l for DEHP and at 10−4 mol/l for both BBP and DBP in MCF-7 cells. Cell proliferation was significantly increased at 10−8–10−5 mol/l of BBP and DBP, and at 10−8–10−6 mol/l of DEHP treatment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was substantially increased in cultures with DEHP (10−8–10−6 mol/l), BBP (10−8–10−5 mol/l), and DBP (10−7–10−5 mol/l). Obvious increases in PI3K, p-AKT, and PCNA were noted in cultures with 17β-estradiol, BBP, DBP, and DEHP. Estrogen receptor α expression was also notably increased in treatment with estradiol, BBP, DBP, and DEHP.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that, even at a very low concentration, BBP, DBP, and DEHP were not only still capable of inducing a proliferative effect through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway but also displaying estrogenic activity. Therefore, the current reference doses for phthalates defined by governments should be further evaluated.