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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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412 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation and Characterization of Tablet Formulation based on Solid Dispersion of Glimepiride and Poly(ester amide) Hyperbranched Polymer

Authors: Reven, S; Homar, M; Peternel, L; Kristl, J; Zagar, E (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1249959

[Less] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride . . . [More] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride and poly(ester amide) hyperbranched polymer into a tablet using a direct-compression tabletting technique was investigated. Tablet cores were additionally coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in order to protect the extremely hygroscopic solid dispersion from atmospheric moisture. Preliminary stability studies show that glimepiride, which is in amorphous form within solid dispersion, is chemically stable, even if tablets are exposed to elevated temperature and/or moisture. In-vitro dissolution studies show some impact of storage conditions on the tablet cores disintegration time and, consequently, drug release rate. Glimepiride solubility also deteriorates somewhat, most probably due to its partial recrystallization. Storage conditions much less affect the physical stability of coated tablets, which was ascribed to reduced tablet hygroscopicity due to the presence of protecting coating. The hyperbranched polymers are rather new and complex macromolecules. Therefore, we addressed also the biocompatibility of hyperbranched polymer, i.e., its impact on haemolysis of the red blood cells. The concentration required for the haemolytic effect on the red blood cells is around 100-times higher than its expected gastrointestinal luminal concentration, which makes the occurrence of hyperbranched polymer mediated cytotoxicity very unlikely.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays

Authors: Korfali, SI; Sabra, R; Jurdi, M; Taleb, RI (In Press) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1677563

[Less] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. . . . [More] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10 % of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5 % of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83 % of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9 % of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60 % of children's toys and 77 % of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7 %. The community survey indicated that 82 % of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17 % of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: Towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results

Authors: Schindler, BK; Esteban, M; Koch, HM; Castano, A; Koslitz, S; Cañas, A; Casteleyn, L; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Schwedler, G; Schoeters, G; Hond, ED; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bloemen, L; Horvat, M; Knudsen, LE; Joas, A; Joas, R; Biot, P; Aerts, D; Lopez, A; Huetos, O; Katsonouri, A; Maurer-Chronakis, K; Kasparova, L; Vrbík, K; Rudnai, P; Naray, M; Guignard, C; Fischer, ME; Ligocka, D; Janasik, B; Reis, MF; Namorado, S; Pop, C; Dumitrascu, I; Halzlova, K; Fabianova, E; Mazej, D; Tratnik, JS; Berglund, M; Jönsson, B; Lehmann, A; Crettaz, P; Frederiksen, H; Nielsen, F; Mcgrath, H; Nesbitt, I; De Cremer, K; Vanermen, G; Koppen, G; Wilhelm, M; Becker, K; Angerer, J (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:653-661. HERO ID: 2230997

[Less] COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop . . . [More] COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and between 18.9 and 45.3% for the phthalate metabolites. Plausibility control of the HBM results of all participating countries disclosed analytical shortcomings in the determination of Cd when using certain ICP/MS methods. Results were corrected by reanalyzes. The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project for the first time succeeded in performing a harmonized pan-European HBM project. All data raised have to be regarded as utmost reliable according to the highest international state of the art, since highly renowned laboratories functioned as reference laboratories. The procedure described here, that has shown its success, can be used as a blueprint for future transnational, multicentre HBM projects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

Authors: Isling, LK; Boberg, J; Jacobsen, PR; Mandrup, KR; Axelstad, M; Christiansen, S; Vinggaard, AM; Taxvig, C; Kortenkamp, A; Hass, U (2014) Reproduction 147:465-476. HERO ID: 2215381

[Less] This study examined late life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine disrupting . . . [More] This study examined late life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, parabens and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high end human exposure, or a 450-times mixture of 9 predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age was assessed. Significantly fewer females showed regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared to controls. In 19 months old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls and in ventral prostate, an over-representation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared to controls particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

Authors: Tefre de Renzy-Martin, K; Frederiksen, H; Christensen, J; Boye Kyhl, H; Andersson, AM; Husby, S; Barington, T; Main, KM; Jensen, TK (2014) Reproduction 147:443-453. HERO ID: 2215384

[Less] Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. . . . [More] Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women. We therefore studied current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in 200 healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between weeks 8-30 of pregnancy and analysed for 10 phenols, 7 parabens and 16 phthalate metabolites by LC-MS/MS. The 33 analytes represent 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in urine from most women. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite (s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups suggesting joint exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DI) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable daily intake (TDI) and with Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the individual estimated DI of phthalates and BPA was below TDI, our results still raise concern. As current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, the true cumulative risk for the foetus may be underestimated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals: molecular mechanisms of actions on putative human diseases

Authors: Yoon, K; Kwack, SJ; Kim, HS; Lee, BM (2014) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews 17:127-174. [Review] HERO ID: 2345933

[Less] Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), phytoestrogens such as . . . [More] Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), phytoestrogens such as genistein and daidzein, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are associated with a variety of adverse health effects in organisms or progeny by altering the endocrine system. Environmental estrogens, including BPA, phthalates, and phytoestrogens, are the most extensively studied and are considered to mimic the actions of endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2). Diverse modes of action of estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) have been described, but the mode of action of estrogenic EDC is postulated to be more complex and needs to be more clearly elucidated. This review examines the adverse effects of estrogenic EDC on male or female reproductive systems and molecular mechanisms underlying EDC effects that modulate ER-mediated signaling. Mechanisms of action for estrogenic EDC may involve both ER-dependent and ER-independent pathways. Recent findings from systems toxicology of examining estrogenic EDC are also discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accelerating the dissolution of enteric coatings in the upper small intestine: evolution of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system to assess drug release

Authors: Varum, FJ; Merchant, HA; Goyanes, A; Assi, P; Zboranová, V; Basit, AW (2014) International Journal of Pharmaceutics 468:172-177. HERO ID: 2345935

[Less] Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products . . . [More] Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products can take up to 2 h to disintegrate in the human small intestine, which clearly highlights the inadequacy of the in vitro test method to predict in vivo behaviour of these formulations. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer, stabilized by an Auto pH™ System, as a better surrogate of the conditions of the proximal small intestine to investigate the dissolution behaviour of standard and accelerated release enteric double coating formulations. Prednisolone tablets were coated with 3 or 5 mg/cm(2) of partially neutralized EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55, HP-55 or HPMC adjusted to pH 6 or 8. An outer layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied at 5mg/cm(2). For comparison purposes, a standard single layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied to the tablets. Dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus in 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, followed by pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer. EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 single-coated tablets showed a slow drug release with a lag time of 75 min in buffer, whereas release from the EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 double-coated tablets was accelerated. These in vitro lag times closely match the in vivo disintegration times for these coated tablets reported previously. Drug release was further accelerated from modified double coatings, particularly in the case of coatings with a thinner inner layer of HP-55 or HPMC (pH 8 and KH2PO4). This study confirms that the pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system offers significant advantages during the development of dosage forms designed to release the drug in the upper small intestine.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of High Pressure on Crystallization Kinetics of van der Waals Liquid: An Experimental and Theoretical Study

Authors: Adrjanowicz, K; Grzybowski, A; Grzybowska, K; Pionteck, J; Paluch, M (2014) HERO ID: 2345992

[Less] Theoretical and experimental studies on the crystallization of a supercooled liquid, dimethyl phthalate, . . . [More] Theoretical and experimental studies on the crystallization of a supercooled liquid, dimethyl phthalate, are explored in a wide range of temperatures and pressures (up to 1.8 GPa). By considering only isochronal conditions, we were able to control molecular mobility and untangle the thermodynamic effects on crystallization from kinetic ones. The analysis of experimental results revealed that crystallization of supercooled dimethyl phthalate speeds up under pressure. However, at pressures higher than ca. 1.2 GPa, a sudden change in the crystallization tendency of the investigated material was observed. Thermodynamic aspects of the crystallization process under the invariable influence of the mobility factor were described theoretically within the formalism provided by Gutzow and co-workers [Gutzow, I. et al. J. Mater. Sci. 1997, 32, 5389-5403]. The validity of the classical approach applied to express thermodynamic parameters governing the liquid/crystal phase transition under compression is carefully discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

Authors: Auger, J; Eustache, F; Rouiller-Fabre, V; Canivenc-Lavier, MC; Livera, G (2014) Asian Journal of Andrology 16:60-70. HERO ID: 2346004

[Less] In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional . . . [More] In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Determination of 15 PAEs in Fatty Food by SPE-GC/MS

Authors: Xing Yinghao; Wu Jun (2014) HERO ID: 2346025

[Less] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) may be used as plasticizer and softener for the manufacturing of plastic . . . [More] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) may be used as plasticizer and softener for the manufacturing of plastic products, especially in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The residue of PAEs in food may affect human health. The method of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of 15 PAEs are established by total ion chromatogram (TIC) and select ion monitor (SIM) of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Combined with the solid phase extraction (SPE) method, PAEs residue of some fatty food in plastic packaging was detected, with the assessment of PAEs residual be discussed. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99. The limit of quantity was 2.93 similar to 105.24 mu g/kg and the limits of detection (LOD) for PAEs had values from 0.97 mu g/kg to 34.73 mu g/kg. This method was used for quantification of traces of PAEs in fatty food. The results showed that 9 PAEs residual in fatty food were at the range of <50 similar to 1160 mu g/kg and detection rates were between 16.67 %(1:6)similar to 83.33 %(5:6). None of them was out of national standard.