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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays

Authors: Korfali, SI; Sabra, R; Jurdi, M; Taleb, RI (In Press) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. HERO ID: 1677563

[Less] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. . . . [More] Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10 % of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5 % of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83 % of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9 % of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60 % of children's toys and 77 % of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7 %. The community survey indicated that 82 % of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17 % of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Collective migration of cancer-associated fibroblasts is enhanced by overexpression of tight junction-associated proteins claudin-11 and occludin

Authors: Karagiannis, GS; Schaeffer, DF; Cho, CK; Musrap, N; Saraon, P; Batruch, I; Grin, A; Mitrovic, B; Kirsch, R; Riddell, RH; Diamandis, EP (In Press) HERO ID: 2215387

[Less] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas . . . [More] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas of various types of cancer are capable of executing a migratory program, characterized by accelerated motility and collective configuration. Since CAFs are reprogrammed derivatives of normal progenitors, including quiescent fibroblasts, we hypothesized that such migratory program could be context-dependent, thus being regulated by specific paracrine signals from the adjacent cancer population. Using the traditional scratch assay setup, we showed that only specific colon cancer cell lines (i.e. HT29) were able to induce collective CAF migration. By performing quantitative proteomics (SILAC), we identified a 2.7-fold increase of claudin-11, a member of the tight junction apparatus, in CAFs that exerted such collectivity in their migratory pattern. Further proteomic investigations of cancer cell line secretomes revealed a specific signature, involving TGF-β, as potential mediator of this effect. Normal colonic fibroblasts stimulated with TGF-β exerted myofibroblastic differentiation, occludin (OCLN) and claudin-11 (CLDN11) overexpression and cohort formation. Subsequently, inhibition of TGF-β attenuated all the previous effects. Immunohistochemistry of the universal tight junction marker occludin in a cohort of 30 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients defined a CAF subpopulation expressing tight junctions. Overall, these data suggest that cancer cells may induce CLDN11 overexpression and subsequent collective migration of peritumoral CAFs via TGF-β secretion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The crystal structure of human quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with its inhibitor phthalic acid

Authors: Malik, SS; Patterson, DN; Ncube, Z; Toth, EA (In Press) HERO ID: 2215421

[Less] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic . . . [More] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) in the first step of the de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis pathway. This puts QPRT at the junction of two different pathways, that is, de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis and the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Thus, QPRT is an important enzyme in terms of its biological impact and its potential as a therapeutic target. Here, we report the crystal structure of human QPRT bound to its inhibitor phthalic acid (PHT) and kinetic analysis of PHT inhibition of human QPRT. This structure, determined at 2.55 Å resolution, shows an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that helps in recognition of PHT and consequently its substrate QA. In addition to this hydrogen bonding network, we observe extensive van der Waals contacts with the PHT ring that might be important for correctly orientating the substrate QA during catalysis. Moreover, our crystal form allows us to observe an intact hexamer in both the apo- and PHT-bound forms in the same crystal system, which provides a direct comparison of unique subunit interfaces formed in hexameric human QPRT. We call these interfaces "nondimeric interfaces" to distinguish them from the typical dimeric interfaces observed in all QPRTs. We observe significant changes in the nondimeric interfaces in the QPRT hexamer upon binding PHT. Thus, the new structural and functional features of this enzyme we describe here will aid in understanding the function of hexameric QPRTs, which includes all eukaryotic and select prokaryotic QPRTs. Proteins 2013; © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analytical methods for selected emerging contaminants in human matrices-a review

Authors: Dirtu, AC; Van den Eede, N; Malarvannan, G; Ionas, AC; Covaci, A (In Press) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. [Review] HERO ID: 1249825

[Less] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being . . . [More] Emerging contaminants are a broad category of chemicals, previously unknown or unrecognized as being of concern, but which, because of their potential health effects associated with human exposure, are under increasing scrutiny. To accurately measure their levels in biological matrices, specific and sensitive analytical methods have recently been developed. We have reviewed here the methods used for analysis of selected emerging organic contaminants, for example metabolites of organophosphate triesters, metabolites of new phthalates or phthalate substitutes, perchlorate, organic UV filters, and polycyclic siloxanes, in human matrices. Although the use of new techniques and approaches has been emphasized, we also acknowledge methods previously used for other contaminants and adapted for the emerging contaminants listed above. In all cases, chromatography and mass spectrometry were the techniques of choice, because of their selectivity and sensitivity for measurements at ng g(-1) levels. Critical issues and challenges have been discussed, together with recommendations for further improvement in particular cases (e.g. metabolites of phthalates or their substitutes). In particular, the use of labeled internal standards, the availability of certified reference materials, and the need for interlaboratory comparison exercises are key aspects of further development of this field of research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature

Authors: Deblonde, T; Cossu-Leguille, C; Hartemann, P (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Review] HERO ID: 788151

[Less] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", . . . [More] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", in wastewater and aquatic environments. The US EPA (United States - Environmental Protection Agency) defines emerging pollutants as new chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to identify data on emerging pollutants concentrations in wastewater, in influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the performance of sewage disposal. We collected 44 publications in our database. We sought especially for data on phthalates, Bisphenol A and pharmaceuticals (including drugs for human health and disinfectants). We gathered concentration data and chose 50 pharmaceutical molecules, six phthalates and Bisphenol A. The concentrations measured in the influent ranged from 0.007 to 56.63μg per liter and the removal rates ranges from 0% (contrast media) to 97% (psychostimulant). Caffeine is the molecule whose concentration in influent was highest among the molecules investigated (in means 56.63μg per liter) with a removal rate around 97%, leading to a concentration in the effluent that did not exceed 1.77μg per liter. The concentrations of ofloxacin were the lowest and varied between 0.007 and 2.275μg per liter in the influent treatment plant and 0.007 and 0.816μg per liter in the effluent. Among phthalates, DEHP is the most widely used, and quantified by the authors in wastewater, and the rate of removal of phthalates is greater than 90% for most of the studied compounds. The removal rate for antibiotics is about 50% and 71% for Bisphenol A. Analgesics, anti inflammatories and beta-blockers are the most resistant to treatment (30-40% of removal rate). Some pharmaceutical molecules for which we have not collected many data and which concentrations seem high as Tetracycline, Codeine and contrast products deserve further research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review

Authors: Ye, W; Zhang, X; Gao, J; Cao, G; Zhou, X; Su, X (2017) Science of the Total Environment 586:696-729. HERO ID: 3603220

[Less] After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed . . . [More] After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low cost and low energy consumption. However, besides a roadmap, substantial efforts are still needed to develop affordable, applicable and general ventilation solutions to improve the IAQ of residential buildings in China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Food consumption survey of Shanghai adults in 2012 and its associations with phthalate metabolites in urine

Authors: Dong, R; Zhou, T; Zhao, S; Zhang, H; Zhang, M; Chen, J; Wang, M; Wu, M; Li, S; Chen, B (2017) Environment International 101:80-88. HERO ID: 3841187

[Less] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a significant exposure pathway for phthalates. In this study, we assessed the associations between food consumption and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among Shanghai adults.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2418 participants was conducted in the fall of 2012. Recent food consumption was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall survey, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) characterized long-term dietary patterns. Urinary metabolites of six phthalates were measured.

RESULTS: Both the 24-h recall survey and FFQ identified wheat, dairy, and fruits as being positively associated with the excretion of phthalate metabolites. The 24-h recall data also showed positive associations with processed meats and alcohol. We evaluated the impact of reported consumption of multiple food categories simultaneously (wheat, fruits, meats, etc.) on metabolite excretion and found that, as more food types were consumed, the number of metabolites excreted, as well as their concentrations, increased with high significance (p values<0.0001). We also evaluated the two survey instruments together. When both surveys reported consumption of fruits and dairy, the numbers of metabolites and their concentrations were significantly higher compared to when both surveys reported non-consumption, (p values<0.000001). Rice consumption was found to be negatively associated with phthalate excretion; frequent and high levels of rice consumption were found to be associated with lower excretion of metabolites.

CONCLUSION: Food consumption was associated with phthalate exposure in Shanghai adults. Both 24-h recall and FFQ identified significant associations between consumption of food types and phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing in rats

Authors: Kim, BJ; Kim, J; Keoboutdy, V; Kwon, HJ; Oh, SH; Jung, JY; Park, IY; Paik, KC (2017) International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 97:61-65. HERO ID: 3859049

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing.

METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6). Phthalate was given once per day from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P28. Upon completion, at P28, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle response (GPIAS) at each gap duration (2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 80 ms) were measured, and gap detection threshold (GDT) was calculated. These outcomes were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Hearing thresholds by ABR showed no significant differences at all frequencies between the two groups. Regarding GPIAS, no significant difference was observed, except at a gap duration of 20 ms (p = 0.037). The mean GDT of the phthalate group (44.0 ms) was higher than that of the control group (20.0 ms), but without statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the phthalate group tended to demonstrate more of a scattered distribution in the GDT group than the in the control group.

CONCLUSION: Neonatal phthalate exposure may disrupt the development of auditory temporal processing in rats.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Children with atopic dermatitis and frequent emollient use have increased urinary levels of low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites and parabens

Authors: Overgaard, LE; Main, KM; Frederiksen, H; Stender, S; Szecsi, PB; Williams, HC; Thyssen, JP (2017) Allergy 72:1768-1777. HERO ID: 3859050

[Less] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between emollient use, atopic dermatitis and FLG mutations, respectively, with urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in Danish children.

METHODS: Eight hundred and forty-five Danish children 4-9 years of age were studied. Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens were determined, and children were genotyped for common FLG loss-of-function mutations. Information about atopic dermatitis and use of emollients was obtained from questionnaires completed by parents.

RESULTS: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 16.1%. Phthalate metabolite and paraben levels were generally higher in children with frequent use of emollients compared to uncommon users, reaching statistical significance for some LMW phthalates and parabens. While there was no association with common FLG mutations, children with atopic dermatitis had significantly higher urinary levels of one LMW phthalate and two parabens, respectively, when compared to children without atopic dermatitis.

CONCLUSION: Emollient use and atopic dermatitis were associated with modestly increased internal LMW phthalate and paraben exposure in 4-9 year old children. It is unknown whether the difference is explained by increased use of the specific emollients that are used to treat pruritic and inflamed skin, and/or whether the impaired skin barrier allows chemicals to penetrate more easily. Moreover, the putative toxicological burden is unknown.