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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Collective migration of cancer-associated fibroblasts is enhanced by overexpression of tight junction-associated proteins claudin-11 and occludin

Authors: Karagiannis, GS; Schaeffer, DF; Cho, CK; Musrap, N; Saraon, P; Batruch, I; Grin, A; Mitrovic, B; Kirsch, R; Riddell, RH; Diamandis, EP (In Press) HERO ID: 2215387

[Less] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas . . . [More] It has been suggested that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) positioned at the desmoplastic areas of various types of cancer are capable of executing a migratory program, characterized by accelerated motility and collective configuration. Since CAFs are reprogrammed derivatives of normal progenitors, including quiescent fibroblasts, we hypothesized that such migratory program could be context-dependent, thus being regulated by specific paracrine signals from the adjacent cancer population. Using the traditional scratch assay setup, we showed that only specific colon cancer cell lines (i.e. HT29) were able to induce collective CAF migration. By performing quantitative proteomics (SILAC), we identified a 2.7-fold increase of claudin-11, a member of the tight junction apparatus, in CAFs that exerted such collectivity in their migratory pattern. Further proteomic investigations of cancer cell line secretomes revealed a specific signature, involving TGF-β, as potential mediator of this effect. Normal colonic fibroblasts stimulated with TGF-β exerted myofibroblastic differentiation, occludin (OCLN) and claudin-11 (CLDN11) overexpression and cohort formation. Subsequently, inhibition of TGF-β attenuated all the previous effects. Immunohistochemistry of the universal tight junction marker occludin in a cohort of 30 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients defined a CAF subpopulation expressing tight junctions. Overall, these data suggest that cancer cells may induce CLDN11 overexpression and subsequent collective migration of peritumoral CAFs via TGF-β secretion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature

Authors: Deblonde, T; Cossu-Leguille, C; Hartemann, P (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Review] HERO ID: 788151

[Less] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", . . . [More] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", in wastewater and aquatic environments. The US EPA (United States - Environmental Protection Agency) defines emerging pollutants as new chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to identify data on emerging pollutants concentrations in wastewater, in influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the performance of sewage disposal. We collected 44 publications in our database. We sought especially for data on phthalates, Bisphenol A and pharmaceuticals (including drugs for human health and disinfectants). We gathered concentration data and chose 50 pharmaceutical molecules, six phthalates and Bisphenol A. The concentrations measured in the influent ranged from 0.007 to 56.63μg per liter and the removal rates ranges from 0% (contrast media) to 97% (psychostimulant). Caffeine is the molecule whose concentration in influent was highest among the molecules investigated (in means 56.63μg per liter) with a removal rate around 97%, leading to a concentration in the effluent that did not exceed 1.77μg per liter. The concentrations of ofloxacin were the lowest and varied between 0.007 and 2.275μg per liter in the influent treatment plant and 0.007 and 0.816μg per liter in the effluent. Among phthalates, DEHP is the most widely used, and quantified by the authors in wastewater, and the rate of removal of phthalates is greater than 90% for most of the studied compounds. The removal rate for antibiotics is about 50% and 71% for Bisphenol A. Analgesics, anti inflammatories and beta-blockers are the most resistant to treatment (30-40% of removal rate). Some pharmaceutical molecules for which we have not collected many data and which concentrations seem high as Tetracycline, Codeine and contrast products deserve further research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The crystal structure of human quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in complex with its inhibitor phthalic acid

Authors: Malik, SS; Patterson, DN; Ncube, Z; Toth, EA (In Press) HERO ID: 2215421

[Less] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic . . . [More] Quinolinic acid (QA), a biologically potent but neurodestructive metabolite is catabolized by quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) in the first step of the de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis pathway. This puts QPRT at the junction of two different pathways, that is, de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis and the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation. Thus, QPRT is an important enzyme in terms of its biological impact and its potential as a therapeutic target. Here, we report the crystal structure of human QPRT bound to its inhibitor phthalic acid (PHT) and kinetic analysis of PHT inhibition of human QPRT. This structure, determined at 2.55 Å resolution, shows an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that helps in recognition of PHT and consequently its substrate QA. In addition to this hydrogen bonding network, we observe extensive van der Waals contacts with the PHT ring that might be important for correctly orientating the substrate QA during catalysis. Moreover, our crystal form allows us to observe an intact hexamer in both the apo- and PHT-bound forms in the same crystal system, which provides a direct comparison of unique subunit interfaces formed in hexameric human QPRT. We call these interfaces "nondimeric interfaces" to distinguish them from the typical dimeric interfaces observed in all QPRTs. We observe significant changes in the nondimeric interfaces in the QPRT hexamer upon binding PHT. Thus, the new structural and functional features of this enzyme we describe here will aid in understanding the function of hexameric QPRTs, which includes all eukaryotic and select prokaryotic QPRTs. Proteins 2013; © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Alternative plasticizer, 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester, for blood containers with protective effects on red blood cells and improved cold resistance

Authors: Morishita, Y; Nomura, Y; Fukui, C; Fujisawa, A; Watanabe, K; Fujimaki, H; Kumada, H; Inoue, K; Morikawa, T; Takahashi, M; Kawakami, T; Sakoda, H; Mukai, T; Yuba, T; Ken‐Ichi, I; Tanoue, A; Ken‐Ichi, M; Ung‐Il, C; Ogawa, K; Yoshida, M; Haishima, Y (2018) Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B: Applied Biomaterials 106:1052-1063. HERO ID: 5705573

[Less] Di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted . . . [More] Di (2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted from PVC‐made blood containers and protects against red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. However, concerns have arisen regarding the reproductive and developmental risks of DEHP in humans, and the use of alternative plasticizers for medical devices has been recommended worldwide. In this study, we propose that the use of a novel plasticizer, 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester (DL9TH), could help produce more useful and safe blood containers. PVC sheet containing DL9TH and di (2‐ethylhexyl) 4‐cyclohexene‐1,2‐dicarboxylate (DOTH) provides comparable or superior protective effects to RBCs relative to PVC sheet containing DEHP or di‐isononyl‐cyclohexane‐1,2‐dicarboxylate (DINCH®, an alternative plasticizer that has been used in PVC sheets for blood containers). The total amount of plasticizer eluted from DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC sheets is nearly the same as that eluted from DEHP‐PVC sheets. In addition, DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC has better cold resistance than DEHP‐ and DINCH®‐PVC sheets. In vitro and in vivo tests for biological safety based on International Organization for Standardization guidelines (10993 series) suggest that the DOTH/DL9TH‐PVC sheet can be used safely. Subchronic toxicity testing of DL9TH in male rats in accordance with the principles of Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development Test Guideline 408 showed that DL9TH did not induce adverse effects up to the highest dose level tested (717 mg/kg body weight/day). There were no effects on testicular histopathology and sperm counts, and no indications of endocrine effects: testosterone, thyroid‐stimulating hormone, follicle‐stimulating hormone, and 17β‐estradiol were unchanged by the treatment, compared with the control group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1052–1063, 2018.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Maternal phthalate exposure promotes allergic airway inflammation over 2 generations through epigenetic modifications

Authors: Jahreis, S; Trump, S; Bauer, M; Bauer, T; Thürmann, L; Feltens, R; Wang, Q; Gu, L; Grützmann, K; Röder, S; Averbeck, M; Weichenhan, D; Plass, C; Sack, U; Borte, M; Dubourg, V; Schüürmann, G; Simon, JC; Martin Von, B; Hackermüller, J; Eils, R; Lehmann, I; Polte, T (2018) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 141:741-753. HERO ID: 5490441

[Less] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible . . . [More] Background Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. Objective We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations. Methods Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways. Results In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4+T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1(Zfpm1)emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma. Conclusion These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Critique of Risk Disclosure as the Solution for Minimizing Toxic Exposures in Pregnancy

Authors: Ford, AR; Scott, DN (2017) New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 27:51-67. HERO ID: 3859120

[Less] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of . . . [More] The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of future children are receiving increased attention in popular media and in the academic press. In response, health profession organizations are developing clinical practice guidelines for warning pregnant women about the risks associated with exposures to certain toxics. We evaluate different sides of a risk-avoidance approach for pregnant women in the context of a hypothetical case study involving phthalates and women who work in nail salons. We consider the ubiquitous nature of low-dose exposures and both the positive aspects and limitations of promoting avoidance measures with respect to phthalate exposures. We conclude that a risk-disclosure approach has both practical limitations and equity dimensions which must be factored in to public health guidelines and messaging and the development of clinical practice guidelines. Upstream solutions including regulatory action on chemicals and heightened attention to environmental justice would result in optimal management of this issue.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Application of mesoscale simulation to explore the aggregate morphology of pH-sensitive nanoparticles used as the oral drug delivery carriers under different conditions

Authors: Wang, Y; Chen, BZ; Liu, YJ; Wu, ZM; Guo, XD (2017) Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 151:280-286. HERO ID: 3859135

[Less] The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug . . . [More] The pH-sensitive nanoparticles are selected as the potentially promising oral protein and peptide drug carriers due to their excellent performance. With the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (PLGA/HP55) nanoparticle as a model nanoparticle, the structure-property relationship of nanoparticles with different conditions is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations in our work. In the oral drug delivery system, the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is hydrophobic polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) is pH-sensitive enteric polymer which used to protect the nanoparticles through the stomach and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is hydrophilic polymer as the stabilizer. It can be seen from DPD simulations that all polymer molecules form spherical core-shell nanoparticles with stabilizer PVA molecules adsorbed on the outer surface of the PLGA/HP55 matrix at certain compositions. The DPD simulation study can provide microscopic insight into the formation and morphological changes of pH-sensitive nanoparticles which is useful for the design of new materials for high-efficacy oral drug delivery.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diet and contaminants: driving the rise to obesity epidemics?

Authors: Di Ciaula, A; Portincasa, P (2017) Current Medicinal Chemistry. HERO ID: 3859152

[Less] The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented . . . [More] The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity. Widely diffused toxics (mainly BPA, phthalates, pesticides) are able to promote obesity in children and adults, mainly by acting on the differentiation pathway linking multipotent stromal stem cell to mature adipocyte, modulating epigenetic factors and influencing a series of mechanisms finally leading to altered dietary habits, increased adipocyte formation and fat storage. Furthermore, the adipose tissue is an important target for several chemicals (mainly POPs) which represent a threat to metabolic health. In conclusion, besides excessive individual energy intake and inadequate lifestyle, other broadly diffused and modifiable factors (mainly ingestion of toxic chemicals with food) seem to have a critical role in the rapid epidemiological growing of obesity, also considering trans-generational transmission of risk and later development of obesity due to exposure during early life. Further studies are needed, to better assess interactions between cumulative effects of toxic food contaminants and modification of diet and lifestyle, and to verify the efficacy of primary prevention strategies acting on all these factors and potentially able to reverse the continuous rising of the obesity epidemic.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia

Author: Thong, BY (2017) 7:57-64. [Review] HERO ID: 3863206

[Less] Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% . . . [More] Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze bisphenol A and other plasticizer metabolites

Authors: Fernandez, MA; André, LC; Cardeal, ZL (2017) Journal of Chromatography A 1481:31-36. HERO ID: 3466575

[Less] Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and . . . [More] Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and animals, including actions in the endocrine system. Their metabolites in urine can be used as biomarkers to assess human exposure. This paper describes the development of a new method to determine bisphenol A and eight phthalate metabolites in urine samples using hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method showed linearity, precision, limits of detection, and quantification suitable to analyze these compounds at low concentration levels in urine. Limits of detection ranged from 0.777 to 23.3μgL(-1), showing sensitivity for evaluating environmental exposure. Relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 11.7 to 19.7%. The developed method presented a good biomarker alternative for evaluating environmental exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates.