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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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3,323 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation and Characterization of Tablet Formulation based on Solid Dispersion of Glimepiride and Poly(ester amide) Hyperbranched Polymer

Authors: Reven, S; Homar, M; Peternel, L; Kristl, J; Zagar, E (In Press) Pharm Dev Technol. HERO ID: 1249959

[Less] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride . . . [More] The feasibility of incorporating a solid dispersion containing poorly soluble antidiabetic drug glimepiride and poly(ester amide) hyperbranched polymer into a tablet using a direct-compression tabletting technique was investigated. Tablet cores were additionally coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate in order to protect the extremely hygroscopic solid dispersion from atmospheric moisture. Preliminary stability studies show that glimepiride, which is in amorphous form within solid dispersion, is chemically stable, even if tablets are exposed to elevated temperature and/or moisture. In-vitro dissolution studies show some impact of storage conditions on the tablet cores disintegration time and, consequently, drug release rate. Glimepiride solubility also deteriorates somewhat, most probably due to its partial recrystallization. Storage conditions much less affect the physical stability of coated tablets, which was ascribed to reduced tablet hygroscopicity due to the presence of protecting coating. The hyperbranched polymers are rather new and complex macromolecules. Therefore, we addressed also the biocompatibility of hyperbranched polymer, i.e., its impact on haemolysis of the red blood cells. The concentration required for the haemolytic effect on the red blood cells is around 100-times higher than its expected gastrointestinal luminal concentration, which makes the occurrence of hyperbranched polymer mediated cytotoxicity very unlikely.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature

Authors: Deblonde, T; Cossu-Leguille, C; Hartemann, P (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Review] HERO ID: 788151

[Less] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", . . . [More] For 20 years, many articles report the presence of new compounds, called "emerging compounds", in wastewater and aquatic environments. The US EPA (United States - Environmental Protection Agency) defines emerging pollutants as new chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to identify data on emerging pollutants concentrations in wastewater, in influent and effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to determine the performance of sewage disposal. We collected 44 publications in our database. We sought especially for data on phthalates, Bisphenol A and pharmaceuticals (including drugs for human health and disinfectants). We gathered concentration data and chose 50 pharmaceutical molecules, six phthalates and Bisphenol A. The concentrations measured in the influent ranged from 0.007 to 56.63μg per liter and the removal rates ranges from 0% (contrast media) to 97% (psychostimulant). Caffeine is the molecule whose concentration in influent was highest among the molecules investigated (in means 56.63μg per liter) with a removal rate around 97%, leading to a concentration in the effluent that did not exceed 1.77μg per liter. The concentrations of ofloxacin were the lowest and varied between 0.007 and 2.275μg per liter in the influent treatment plant and 0.007 and 0.816μg per liter in the effluent. Among phthalates, DEHP is the most widely used, and quantified by the authors in wastewater, and the rate of removal of phthalates is greater than 90% for most of the studied compounds. The removal rate for antibiotics is about 50% and 71% for Bisphenol A. Analgesics, anti inflammatories and beta-blockers are the most resistant to treatment (30-40% of removal rate). Some pharmaceutical molecules for which we have not collected many data and which concentrations seem high as Tetracycline, Codeine and contrast products deserve further research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings

Author: Patel, S (2017) Medical Hypotheses 102:106-111. HERO ID: 3859158

[Less] In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal . . . [More] In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention. The adverse effects of the fragrance constituents as phthalates, paraben, glutaraldehyde, hydroperoxides, oil of turpentine, metals, nitro musks, and essential oils, among others, are being identified. The endocrine-immune-neural axis perturbation pathways of these chemicals are being proven. Despite the revelations of cause-effect nexus, a majority of the vulnerable populations are unaware and unmotivated to avoid these 'slow poisons'. Hence, the researchers need to further validate the toxicity of fragrance compounds, and raise awareness towards the health risks. In this regard, a number of pathologies triggered by fragrance exposure, yet proven only scantily have been hypothesized. Analysis of the health issues from multiple facets, including the pivotal 'stressors - extracellular acidosis - aromatase upregulation - estrogen hyperproduction - inflammation' link has been proposed. Fragrance compounds share configurational similarity with carcinogenic environmental hydrocarbons and they provoke the expression of cytochrome group monooxygenase enzyme aromatase. This enzyme aromatizes androgens to form estrogen, the powerful signaling hormone, which underlies the majority of morbidities. This holistic review with a repertoire of preliminary evidences and robust hypotheses is expected to usher in deserving extent of research on this pervasive health risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organophosphate esters flame retardants in the indoor environment

Authors: Vykoukalová, M; Venier, M; Vojta, Š; Melymuk, L; Bečanová, J; Romanak, K; Prokeš, R; Okeme, JO; Saini, A; Diamond, ML; Klánová, J (2017) Environment International 106:97-104. HERO ID: 3861792

[Less] Concentrations of 13 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in air, dust and window . . . [More] Concentrations of 13 organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013 to look for abundances, differences among regions, and partitioning behavior. In general, we observed the highest concentrations for halogenated OPEs, particularly TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, and also non-halogenated TPHP. Differences between regions strongly depended on the matrix. The concentrations of OPEs in dust were significantly higher in the US than in Canada (CAN) and Czech Republic (CZ). CZ had the highest concentrations in window film and CAN in air. ΣOPE concentrations were 2-3 and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than ΣBFRs in air, and dust and window films, respectively. We found a significant relationship between the concentrations in dust and air, and between the concentrations in window film and air for OPEs with log KOA values <12, suggesting that equilibrium was reached for these compounds but not for those with log KOA>12. This hypothesis was confirmed by a large discrepancy between values predicted using a partitioning model and the measured values for OPEs with log KOA values >12.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multi-channel silicone rubber traps as denuders for gas-particle partitioning of aerosols from semi-volatile organic compounds

Authors: Kohlmeier, V; Dragan, GC; Karg, EW; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Breuer, D; Forbes, PBC; Rohwer, ER; Zimmermann, R (2017) Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 19:676-686. HERO ID: 3864334

[Less] During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution . . . [More] During many measurements it is important to account for possible changes in the gas-particle distribution of aerosols containing semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). If denuders are combined with currently used personal air samplers, a simultaneous differential sampling of the gas and particle phase is possible. Here we analysed the transmission efficiency of denuders based on multi-channel silicone rubber traps (setup: 9 cm long glass liner (ID 4 mm), containing 22 parallel silicone rubber tubes (55 mm long, ID 0.3 mm, OD 0.5 mm)) with polystyrene latex (PSL) particles for different scenarios. n-Hexadecane, dimethyl phthalate and diethylene glycol gases were used to measure the time-dependent gas phase collection efficiency of a denuder. Additionally, the evaporation of n-hexadecane aerosol particles passing through the denuders was investigated. Our results showed high transmission efficiencies from 91 to 100% (variation coefficients 3.69-9.65%) for the denuders operated vertically at a flow rate of 0.5 l min(-1). With regard to the gas phase collection efficiency, nonpolar n-hexadecane gas was trapped with higher efficiency (87% after 22 h) than dimethyl phthalate gas (27% after 22 h), while for highly polar diethylene glycol the gas phase collection efficiency was 50% after 2 h. Regarding the evaporation of aerosol particles, smaller particles and lower flow rates led to higher particle volume reduction inside the denuders. In conclusion, the tested denuders are suitable for determining the gas-particle partitioning of SVOC aerosols of nonpolar substances and show above 90% transmission for all tested particle sizes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New sampling device for on-site measurement of SVOC gas-phase concentration at the emitting material surface

Authors: Ghislain, M; Beigbeder, J; Plaisance, H; Desauziers, V (2017) HERO ID: 3866779

[Less] The gas-phase concentration at the material surface (y 0 ) is pointed out in the literature as a key . . . [More] The gas-phase concentration at the material surface (y 0 ) is pointed out in the literature as a key parameter to describe semivolatile organic compound (SVOC) emissions from materials. This is an important input data in predictive models of SVOC behavior indoors and risk exposure assessment. However, most of the existing measurement methods consist of determining emission rates and not y 0 and none allow on-site sampling. Hence, a new passive sampler was developed. It consists of a glass cell that is simply placed on the material surface until reaching equilibrium between material and air; y 0 is then determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and GC-MS analysis. The limits of detection are at the μg/m(3) level and relative standard deviations (RSD) below 10%. A variation of 11% between two sets of experiments involving different cell volumes confirmed the y 0 measurement. In addition, due to the ability of SVOCs to be sorbed on surfaces, the cell wall/air partition was assessed by determining the inner cell surface concentration of SVOCs, which is the concentration of SVOCs adsorbed on the glass, and the cell surface/air partition coefficient (K glass ). The recovery yields of the SVOCs sorbed on the cell walls are strongly compound-dependent and comprise between 2 and 93%. The K glass coefficients are found to be lower than the stainless steel/air partition coefficient (K ss ), showing that glass is suitable for the SVOC sampling. This innovative tool opens up promising perspectives in terms of identification of SVOC sources and quantification of their emissions indoors, and would significantly contribute to human exposure assessment. Graphical Abstract Passive sampling for the determination of SVOCs concentration at the material/air interface.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Time-Variant Genetic Effects as a Cause for Preterm Birth: Insights from a Population of Maternal Cousins in Sweden

Authors: Juodakis, J; Bacelis, J; Zhang, G; Muglia, LJ; Jacobsson, B (2017) HERO ID: 3874508

[Less] Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide, yet its etiology remains . . . [More] Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide, yet its etiology remains largely unexplained. We propose that the genetic factors controlling this trait could act in a nonuniform manner during pregnancy, with each factor having a unique "window of sensitivity." We test this hypothesis by modeling the distribution of gestational ages (GAs) observed in maternal cousins from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n = 35,541 pairs). The models were built using a time-to-event framework, with simulated genetic factors that increase the hazard of birth either uniformly across the pregnancy (constant effect) or only in particular windows (varying effect). By including various combinations of these factors, we obtained four models that were then optimized and compared. Best fit to the clinical data was observed when most of the factors had time-variant effects, independently of the number of loci simulated. Finally, power simulations were performed to assess the ability to discover varying-effect loci by usual methods for genome-wide association testing. We believe that the tools and concepts presented here should prove useful for the design of future studies of PTD and provide new insights into the genetic architecture determining human GA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Standardized Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Matrix Effect, Recovery, Process Efficiency, and Internal Standard Association

Authors: Bienvenu, JF; Provencher, G; Bélanger, P; Bérubé, R; Dumas, P; Gagné, S; Gaudreau, É; Fleury, N (2017) Analytical Chemistry 89:7560-7568. HERO ID: 3972317

[Less] The matrix effects (MEs) on the quantification of an analyte can be significant and should not be neglected . . . [More] The matrix effects (MEs) on the quantification of an analyte can be significant and should not be neglected during development and validation of an analytical method. According to this premise, we developed a standardized procedure based on a set of six tests performed on six different sample matrices to detect and characterize the effects of the matrix for single and multiple analytes methods. The link between the matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy, precision, and calibration curve was underscored by calculations performed with peak areas, ratios of standard/internal standard peak area, and concentrations. The terms instrumental ME and global ME were introduced, and the term recovery was subdivided for clarity. The test accounts for the presence of ubiquitous and endogenous analytes through background subtraction. The results showed the necessity for using samples with an original concentration in the same range and that the concentration selected for the addition had a definite impact on the results. The use of six-sample matrices provided a standard deviation on the results, and this information could be inserted in a method performance result to show precision. The tool also allows for testing of different analytes/internal standard combinations, which helps with the selection of the association with minimum MEs. A UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of several phthalate metabolites in urine was developed and validated with this test. This methodology responds to a scientific need for homogeneity, clarity, and understanding of the results and facilitates the decision-making process while lowering the required costs and time.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disposition of the emerging brominated flame retardant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, in female Sprague Dawley rats: Effects of dose, route and repeated administration

Authors: Knudsen, GA; Sanders, JM; Birnbaum, LS (2017) Xenobiotica 47:245-254. HERO ID: 3350281

[Less] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, . . . [More] 1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP; CAS No. 26040-51-7; PubChem CID: 117291; MW 706.15 g/mol, elsewhere: TeBrDEPH, TBPH, or BEHTBP) is used as an additive brominated flame retardant in consumer products.

2. Female Sprague Dawley rats eliminated 92-98% of [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP unchanged in feces after oral administration (0.1 or 10 μmol/kg). A minor amount of each dose (0.8-1%) was found in urine after 72 h. Disposition of orally administered BEH-TEBP in male B6C3F1/Tac mice was similar to female rats.

3. Bioaccumulation of [(14)C]-radioactivity was observed in liver and adrenals following 10 daily oral administrations (0.1 μmol/kg/day). These tissues contained 5- and 10-fold higher concentrations of [(14)C]-radioactivity, respectively, versus a single dose.

4. IV-administered [(14)C]-BEH-TEBP (0.1 μmol/kg) was slowly eliminated in feces, with >15% retained in tissues after 72 h. Bile and fecal extracts from these rats contained the metabolite mono-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP).

5. BEH-TEBP was poorly absorbed, minimally metabolized and eliminated mostly by the fecal route after oral administration. Repeated exposure to BEH-TEBP led to accumulation in some tissues. The toxicological significance of this effect remains to be determined. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (Project ZIA BC 011476).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water and tea beverage samples

Authors: Wang, H; Hu, L; Li, W; Yang, X; Lu, R; Zhang, S; Zhou, W; Gao, H; Li, J (2017) HERO ID: 3479554

[Less] A novel in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids . . . [More] A novel in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids (in-syringe SIL-DLLME) was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD) to detect five benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in water and tea beverage samples. In this method, the hydrophobic ionic liquid [N8881][PF6] was formed in situ by the metathesis reaction between [N8881]Cl and the anion-exchange reagent KPF6 to extract the target analytes. The whole extraction procedure was performed in a syringe. The solidified extractant could be separated from the aqueous phase by exposing the emulsified extraction solution to an ice bath and then easily collected by squeezing out the aqueous phase through the prepared NWPP-based needle. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of [N8881]Cl, the molar ratio of [N8881]Cl to KPF6, salt addition, cooling time, solution temperature, sample pH and sample volume, were evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method was validated with satisfactory results: good linearities with coefficients of determination greater than 0.99 were obtained in the range of 2-500µgL(-1); the limits of detection varied between 0.29 and 0.59µgL(-1); the recoveries of the five benzoylurea insecticides ranged from 85.93% to 90.52%; and the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=3) relative standard deviations were less than 5.36%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of BUs in real water and tea beverage samples.