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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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465 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The relationship between phthalates and obesity: Serum and urinary concentrations of phthalates

Authors: Oktar, S; Sungur, S; Okur, R; Yilmaz, N; Ustun, I; Gokce, C (2017) Minerva Endocrinologica 42:46-52. HERO ID: 2966086

[Less] AIM: A limited number of human and animal studies suggest that a relationship exists . . . [More] AIM: A limited number of human and animal studies suggest that a relationship exists between phthalates and obesity, although this is not supported by all research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the levels of phthalates in human blood and urine samples.

METHODS: Sixty-four overweight or 132 obese individuals (total 196) of different ages (minmax, 17-62; mean ± SD, 42.07±11.3) and genders (f/m, 97/99) enrolled in the study. BMI and waist circumference were measured to diagnose obesity. Venous blood samples were taken after overnight fasting. To compare the urine phthalates among participants, single spot urine (at least 10 mL) was collected from the subject after blood samples were taken. Urine and blood phthalate concentrations were measured using gas chromatography.

RESULTS: Total blood/urinary phthalate levels significantly increased in proportion to the degree of obesity. There was a high correlation between the level of total phthalates in serum and BMI (correlation coefficient = 0.697, p <0.001), and between total urinary phthalate levels and BMI (correlation = 0.707, p <0.001).

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to have shown that both blood and urinary phthalates increased in proportion to BMI. The results show a strong association between obesity and phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A new sesquiterpenoid quinone with cytotoxicity from Abelmoschus sagittifolius

Authors: Chen, DL; Xiao-Po, Z; Guo-Xu, M; Hai-Feng, W; Jun-Shan, Y; Xu-Dong, X (2016) Natural Product Research 30:565-569. HERO ID: 5750984

[Less] A new sesquiterpenoid quinone, Acyl hibiscone B (1), together with five known compounds, (R)-lasiodiplodin . . . [More] A new sesquiterpenoid quinone, Acyl hibiscone B (1), together with five known compounds, (R)-lasiodiplodin (2), (R)-de- O -methyllasiodiplodin, (3) dibutyl phthalate (4), (R)-9-phenylnonan-2-ol (5) and hibiscone B (6), was obtained from the stem tuber of Abelmoschus sagittifolius . The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by analysing its ¹H and ¹³C NMR, ¹H- ¹H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and HR-ESI-MS values. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against Hela and HepG-2 human cancer cell lines.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary

Authors: Zhou, L; Lei, Y; Zhang, D; Ahmed, S; Chen, S (2016) Science of the Total Environment 541:570-578. HERO ID: 3045466

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were <0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0-50ngmL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)=0.994) was achieved. The observed IC50 (7.34ngmL(-1)) and LOD (0.06ngmL(-1)) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00ngmL(-1). Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8-114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93-11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p<0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening tool to detect DBP in urinary samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates during pregnancy and ultrasound measures of fetal growth in the INMA-Sabadell cohort

Authors: Casas, M; Valvi, D; Ballesteros-Gomez, A; Gascon, M; Fernández, MF; Garcia-Esteban, R; Iñiguez, C; Martinez, D; Murcia, M; Monfort, N; Luque, N; Rubio, S; Ventura, R; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:521-528. HERO ID: 3045509

[Less] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may affect fetal growth; however, previous findings are inconsistent and based on few studies.

OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates were associated with fetal growth in a Spanish birth cohort of 488 mother-child pairs.

METHODS: We measured BPA and eight phthalates [four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (DEHPm), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three low molecular weight phthalate metabolites (LMWPm)] in two spot-urine samples collected during the first and third trimester of pregnancy. We estimated growth curves for femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) during pregnancy (weeks 12-20 and 20-34), and for birth weight, birth length, head circumference at birth, and placental weight.

RESULTS: Overall, results did not support associations between exposure to BPA or DEHPm during pregnancy and fetal growth parameters. Prenatal MBzP exposure was positively associated with FL at 20-34 weeks resulting in an increase of 3.70% of the average FL (95% CI: 0.75, 6.63%) per doubling of MBzP concentration. MBzP was positively associated with birth weight among boys (48 g; 95% CI: 6, 90) but not in girls (-27 g; 95% CI: -79, 25) (interaction p-value = 0.04). The LMWPm mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was negatively associated with HC at 12-20 pregnancy weeks (-4.88% of HC average [95% CI: -8.36, -1.36%]).

CONCLUSIONS: This study, one of the first to combine repeat exposure biomarker measurements and multiple growth measures during pregnancy, finds little evidence of associations of BPA or phthalate exposures with fetal growth. Phthalate metabolites MBzP and MnBP were associated with some fetal growth parameters, but these findings require replication.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A and associations with follicular-phase length, luteal-phase length, fecundability, and early pregnancy loss

Authors: Jukic, AM; Calafat, AM; Mcconnaughey, DR; Longnecker, MP; Hoppin, JA; Weinberg, CR; Wilcox, AJ; Baird, DD (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:321-328. HERO ID: 3045512

[Less] BACKGROUND: Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) show reproductive effects in animal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) show reproductive effects in animal studies and potentially affect human ovulation, conception, and pregnancy loss.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated these chemicals in relation to follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, time to pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss (within six weeks of the last menstrual period) among women attempting pregnancy.

METHODS: Women discontinuing contraception provided daily first-morning urine specimens and recorded days with vaginal bleeding for up to six months. Specimens had previously been analyzed for estrogen and progesterone metabolites and human chorionic gonadotropin. 221 participants contributed 706 menstrual cycles. We measured 11 phthalate metabolites and BPA in pooled urine from three specimens spaced throughout each menstrual cycle. We analyzed associations between chemical concentrations and outcomes using linear mixed models for follicular- and luteal-phase lengths, discrete-time fecundability models for time to pregnancy and logistic regression for early pregnancy loss.

RESULTS: Higher concentrations of monocarboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP) were associated with shorter luteal phase (2nd tertile vs. 1st tertile: -0.5 days (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.9, -0.1), 3rd vs. 1st: -0.4 days (CI: -0.8, 0.01), p=0.04). BPA was also associated with shorter luteal phase (2nd vs. 1st: -0.8 days (CI: -1.2, -0.4), 3rd vs. 1st: -0.4 days (CI: -0.8, 0.02), p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: BPA and MCOP (or its precursors) were associated with shorter luteal phase. Menstrual-cycle-specific estimates of urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites were not associated with detrimental alterations in follicular-phase length, time to pregnancy, or early pregnancy loss, and in fact, DEHP metabolites (MEOHP and ∑(DEHP) were associated with reduced early loss. These findings should be confirmed in future human studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters

Authors: Bui, TT; Giovanoulis, G; Cousins, AP; Magnér, J; Cousins, IT; de Wit, CA (2016) Science of the Total Environment 541:451-467. [Review] HERO ID: 3045471

[Less] Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, . . . [More] Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, human exposure and health effects are limited. Here we review 20 alternative plasticizers in current use and their human exposure, hazard and risk. Physicochemical properties are collated for these diverse alternatives and log KOW values range over 15 orders of magnitude and log KAW and log KOA values over about 9 orders of magnitude. Most substances are hydrophobic with low volatility and are produced in high volumes for use in multiple applications. There is an increasing trend in the total use of alternative plasticizers in Sweden compared to common phthalate esters in the last 10years, especially for DINCH. Evaluative indoor fate modeling reveals that most alternatives are distributed to vertical surfaces (e.g. walls or ceilings). Only TXIB and GTA are predicted to be predominantly distributed to indoor air. Human exposure data are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure only exists for DEHT and DINCH, which show increasing trends in body burdens. Human intake rates are collected and compared with limit values with resulting risk ratios below 1 except for infant's exposure to ESBO. PBT properties of the alternatives indicate mostly no reasons for concern, except that TEHPA is estimated to be persistent and TCP toxic. A caveat is that non-standard toxicological endpoint results are not available and, similar to phthalate esters, the alternatives are likely "pseudo-persistent". Key data gaps for more comprehensive risk assessment are identified and include: analytical methods to measure metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, toxicological information regarding non-standard endpoints such as endocrine disruption and a further refined exposure assessment in order to consider high risk groups such as infants, toddlers and children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of respiratory health relevance in French dwellings

Authors: Dallongeville, A; Costet, N; Zmirou-Navier, D; Le Bot, B; Chevrier, C; Deguen, S; Annesi-Maesano, I; Blanchard, O (2016) Indoor Air 26:426-438. HERO ID: 2918731

[Less] Over the last decades, the prevalence of childhood respiratory conditions has dramatically increased . . . [More] Over the last decades, the prevalence of childhood respiratory conditions has dramatically increased worldwide. Considering the time spent in enclosed spaces, indoor air pollutants are of major interest to explain part of this increase. This study aimed to measure the concentrations of pollutants known or suspected to affect respiratory health that are present in dwellings in order to assess children's exposure. Measurements were taken in 150 homes with at least one child, in Brittany (western France), to assess the concentrations of 18 volatile organic compounds (among which four aldehydes and four trihalomethanes) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (seven phthalates and two synthetic musks). In addition to descriptive statistics, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate grouping of contaminants. Formaldehyde was highly present and above 30 μg/m(3) in 40% of the homes. Diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and dimethylphthalate were quantified in all dwellings, as well as Galaxolide and Tonalide. For each chemical family, the groups appearing in the PCA could be interpreted in term of sources. The high prevalence and the levels of these compounds, with known or suspected respiratory toxicity, should question regulatory agencies to trigger prevention and mitigation actions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and reproductive outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization: results from the EARTH study

Authors: Hauser, R; Gaskins, AJ; Souter, I; Smith, KW; Dodge, LE; Ehrlich, S; Meeker, JD; Calafat, AM; Williams, PL (2016) 124:831-839. HERO ID: 5530402

[Less] Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be . . . [More] Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004-2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, capital sigma DEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of capital sigma DEHP were -0.19 (-0.29, -0.08) and -0.19 (-0.28, -0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following ART.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between bone mineral density and urinary phthalate metabolites among post-menopausal women: A cross-sectional study of NHANES data 2005-2010

Authors: Deflorio-Barker, SA; Turyk, ME (2016) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 26:326-345. HERO ID: 3045439

[Less] Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases with age, especially among post-menopausal women. Exposures to . . . [More] Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases with age, especially among post-menopausal women. Exposures to endocrine disruptors, such as phthalate diesters, could alter BMD through a variety of unidentified mechanisms. A hypothesis-generating study investigated associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and BMD at the femoral neck and spine in post-menopausal women (n = 480) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2005 to 2010. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), molar sum of low molecular weight metabolites (mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MIBP), MEP), molar sum of estrogenic metabolites (MNBP, MIBP, MEP, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBZP)), and an estrogenic equivalency factor were negatively associated with spinal BMD. Some associations were modified by age or BMI. The cross-sectional study design, uncertainty regarding the critical time window of exposure, the potential for exposure misclassification, and residual confounding limit our abilities to draw causal conclusions regarding phthalate metabolites and BMD in post-menopausal women. Future studies should address these limitations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China

Authors: Zheng, X; Xu, F; Luo, X; Mai, B; Covaci, A (2016) Chemosphere 150:545-550. HERO ID: 5164239

[Less] Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate . . . [More] Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs.