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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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345 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal care product use among adults in NHANES: Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and phenols and use of mouthwash and sunscreen

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Colacino, JA; Lewis, RC; Meeker, JD (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:326-332. HERO ID: 3230216

[Less] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting . . . [More] Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 11 May 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.27.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Racial and ethnic variations in phthalate metabolite concentration changes across full-term pregnancies

Authors: James-Todd, TM; Meeker, JD; Huang, T; Hauser, R; Seely, EW; Ferguson, KK; Rich-Edwards, JW; Mcelrath, TF (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:160-166. HERO ID: 3230224

[Less] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and . . . [More] Higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes, as well as poor infant/child health outcomes. In non-pregnant populations, phthalate metabolite concentrations vary by race/ethnicity. Few studies have documented racial/ethnic differences between phthalate metabolite concentrations at multiple time points across the full-course of pregnancy. The objective of the study was to characterize the change in phthalate metabolite concentrations by race/ethnicity across multiple pregnancy time points. Women were participants in a prospectively collected pregnancy cohort who delivered at term (≥37 weeks) and had available urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations for ≥3 time points across full-term pregnancies (n=350 women). We assessed urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites that were log-transformed and specific gravity-adjusted. We evaluated the potential racial/ethnic differences in phthalate metabolite concentrations at baseline (median 10 weeks gestation) using ANOVA and across pregnancy using linear mixed models to calculate the percent change and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Almost 30% of the population were non-Hispanic black or Hispanic. With the exception of mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP) and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, baseline levels of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in non-whites (P<0.05). When evaluating patterns by race/ethnicity, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and MCPP had significant percent changes across pregnancy. MEP was higher in Hispanics at baseline and decreased in mid-pregnancy but increased in late pregnancy for non-Hispanic blacks. MCPP was substantially higher in non-Hispanic blacks at baseline but decreased later in pregnancy. Across pregnancy, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women had higher concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. These differences may have implications for racial/ethnic differences in adverse pregnancy and child health outcomes.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 February 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Life without plastic: A family experiment and biomonitoring study

Authors: Hutter, HP; Kundi, M; Hohenblum, P; Scharf, S; Shelton, JF; Piegler, K; Wallner, P (2016) Environmental Research 150:639-644. HERO ID: 3230354

[Less] Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal . . . [More] Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal and human studies, and human bio-monitoring studies demonstrate widespread exposure in the US and Europe. Out of concern for the environment and health, individuals may attempt to modify their environment, diet, and consumer choices to avoid such exposures, but these natural experiments are rarely if ever quantitatively evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites following an exposure reduction intervention among an Austrian family of five. Urine samples were taken shortly after the family had removed all plastic kitchenware, toys, and bathroom products, and started a concerted effort to eat less food packaged in plastic. Two-months later, urine samples were collected at a follow-up visit, and concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites were compared. Shortly after removal of plastic urinary concentrations of BPA were below limit of quantification in all samples. Phthalate concentrations were low, however, 10 of 14 investigated metabolites could be found above limit of quantification. After the two-month intervention, phthalate urinary concentrations had declined in some but not all family members. In the mother most phthalate metabolites increased. The low levels might be partly due to the environmentally conscious lifestyle of the family and partly due to the fact that body levels had dropped already because of the delay of four days between finishing removal and first measurement. Further two months avoidance of dietary exposure and exposure to environmental plastics reduced urinary concentrations for all but one metabolite in the oldest son only, but decreased somewhat in all family members except the mother.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level

Authors: Chi, Z; Wang, D; You, H (2016) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 51:553-557. HERO ID: 3230369

[Less] Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes . . . [More] Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between Repeated Measures of Maternal Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Thyroid Hormone Parameters during Pregnancy

Authors: Johns, LE; Ferguson, KK; Mcelrath, TF; Mukherjee, B; Meeker, JD (2016) Environmental Health Perspectives 124:1808-1815. HERO ID: 3230370

[Less] BACKGROUND: Maintaining thyroid homeostasis during pregnancy is essential for normal . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Maintaining thyroid homeostasis during pregnancy is essential for normal fetal growth and development. Growing evidence suggests that phthalates interfere with normal thyroid function. Few human studies have investigated the degree to which phthalates may affect thyroid hormone levels in particularly susceptible populations such as pregnant women.

OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between repeated measures of urinary phthalate metabolites and plasma thyroid hormone levels in samples collected at up to four time points per subject in pregnancy. Additionally, we investigated the potential windows of susceptibility to thyroid hormone disturbances related to study visit of sample collection.

METHODS: Data were obtained from pregnant women (N=439) participating in a nested case-control study of preterm birth with 116 cases and 323 controls. We measured 9 phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine samples collected at up to four study visits per subject during pregnancy (median= 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). We also measured a panel of thyroid function markers in plasma collected at the same four time points per subject during pregnancy.

RESULTS: While our results were generally null, in repeated measures analyses we observed that phthalate metabolites were largely inversely associated with thyrotropin (TSH) and positively associated with free and total thyroid hormones. Cross-sectional analyses by study visit revealed that the magnitude and/or direction of these relationships varied by timing of exposure during gestation.

CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous reports showing the potential for environmental phthalate exposure to alter circulating levels of thyroid hormones in pregnant women.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Longitudinal Associations of Phthalate Exposures During Childhood and Body Size Measurements in Young Girls

Authors: Deierlein, AL; Wolff, MS; Pajak, A; Pinney, SM; Windham, GC; Galvez, MP; Silva, MJ; Calafat, AM; Kushi, LH; Biro, FM; Teitelbaum, SL; Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (2016) Epidemiology 27:492-499. HERO ID: 3230400

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalates are environmental chemicals that may play a role in the development . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalates are environmental chemicals that may play a role in the development of obesity. Few studies have investigated longitudinal associations between postnatal phthalate exposures and subsequent anthropometric measurements in children.

METHODS: We collected data as part of The Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program at three US sites. A total of 1,239 girls, aged 6-8 years, were enrolled in 2004-2007. We categorized baseline phthalate exposures, assessed from creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of low-molecular weight phthalate metabolites, as low, <78; medium, 78 to <194; and high, ≥194 μg/g creatinine and of high-molecular weight phthalates as low, <111; medium, 111-278; and high, ≥278 μg/g creatinine. Anthropometric measurements were collected through 2012 (n = 1,017). Linear mixed effects regression estimated how baseline low and high-molecular weight phthalate concentrations related to changes in girls' body mass index (BMI), height, and waist circumference at ages 7-13 years.

RESULTS: Low-molecular weight phthalates were positively associated with gains in BMI and waist circumference. Predicted differences in BMI and waist circumference between girls with high versus low concentrations of low-molecular weight phthalates increased from 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.02, 1.1) to 1.2 kg/m (95% CI: 0.28, 2.1) and from 1.5 (95% CI: -0.38, 3.3) to 3.9 cm (95% CI: 1.3, 6.5), respectively. High-molecular weight phthalates were negatively associated with height but only among girls who were normal weight at baseline (BMI ≤ 85th percentile).

CONCLUSION: Phthalates, specifically low-molecular weight phthalates, have small but detectable associations with girls' anthropometric outcomes. Low-molecular weight phthalates showed stronger associations than other types of phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Additional oxidized and alkyl chain breakdown metabolites of the plasticizer DINCH in urine after oral dosage to human volunteers

Authors: Schütze, A; Otter, R; Modick, H; Langsch, A; Brüning, T; Koch, HM (2016) Archives of Toxicology 91:179-188. HERO ID: 3230407

[Less] Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) (diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a new high molecular weight plasticizer . . . [More] Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) (diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a new high molecular weight plasticizer and a non-aromatic phthalate substitute. In this follow-up study, we further investigated the extensive oxidative metabolism of Hexamoll(®) DINCH(®) after oral dosage of 50 mg to three male volunteers (0.552-0.606 mg/kg body weight). Urine samples were consecutively collected over 48 h post-dose. Chemical analysis was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS with labeled internal standards. New metabolites were tentatively identified and quantified via fragmentation analogies and new standard substances. In addition to the five urinary DINCH metabolites previously reported by us, we identified two groups of extensively oxidized metabolites characterized (a) by multiple side chain oxidation and breakdown and (b) by hydroxylation at the cyclohexane ring. The five newly identified carboxylated breakdown metabolites represented in sum 5.12 ± 0.49 % of the applied dose. MCHxCH (cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono carboxyhexyl ester) was identified as a major metabolite (2.71 ± 0.34 %) and thus represents the second most important specific metabolite of DINCH after OH-MINCH (10.7 ± 2.1 %). Less than 1 % was excreted as ring-hydroxylated metabolites (four metabolites identified). Based upon a new reference standard, we can also update oxo-MINCH to 2.6 % of the applied dose. This follow-up study increases the total amount of the recovered dose from 39.2 to 45.7 % and describes a new major metabolite (MCHxCH) of DINCH that can be used as an additional valuable and specific biomarker to assess DINCH(®) exposure in future human biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Indoor/outdoor PM2.5 elemental composition and organic fraction medications, in a Greek hospital

Authors: Loupa, G; Zarogianni, AM; Karali, D; Kosmadakis, I; Rapsomanikis, S (2016) Science of the Total Environment 550:727-735. HERO ID: 3230418

[Less] In the newly constructed General Hospital of Kavala, Greece, air quality was monitored in two indoor . . . [More] In the newly constructed General Hospital of Kavala, Greece, air quality was monitored in two indoor locations (the Triage room at the emergency department and the Laboratory of bio-pathology) and also outdoors. Indoor PM2.5 filter samples were collected at both rooms and outdoors, in the yard of the hospital. PM2.5 organic content and elemental composition were determined. Analyses of selected organic compounds in PM2.5 samples, revealed that chemicals from medications were distributed in the air of the hospital. Qualitatively, dehydrocholic acid, hydrocortisone acetate, gama-bufotalin, syrosingopine, dimethyl phthalate and o,p'-DDT were found in the Triage. In the bio-pathology laboratory, triethoxypentylsilane and carbohydrazide were also found. An unexpected air pollutant pathway was the pneumatic system which delivered the blood samples from the emergency department to the bio-pathology laboratory, as the presence of gama-bufotalin and syrosingopine was found in the aerosol samples from both locations. Indoor PM2.5 24-h average mass concentration ranged from 10.16μgm(-3) to 21.87μgm(-3) in the laboratory and between 9.86μgm(-3) to 26.27μgm(-3) in the Triage room, where the limit value set for human health protection, i.e. 25μgm(-3) for 24h, was exceeded once. The I/O 24-h average PM2.5 mass concentration ratio, ranged from 0.74-1.11 in the Triage and from 0.67-1.07 in the Lab, respectively. On the contrary, the I/O elemental concentration ratios were below unity for the whole campaign, indicating an outdoor origin of the monitored elements (Al, Si, Br, P, S, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn). This finding was also confirmed by high sulfur I/O ratios in both rooms. The diurnal variations of PM2.5, Black Carbon, CO2 concentrations and microclimatic conditions were also monitored.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites in american alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from selected Florida wetlands

Authors: Brock, JW; Bell, JM; Guillette, LJ (2016) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 71:1-6. HERO ID: 3070916

[Less] Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with . . . [More] Phthalates have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in laboratory animals and are associated with altered development of the reproductive system in humans. Further, human have significant exposure to phthalates. However, little is known concerning the exposure of wildlife to phthalates. We report urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations from fifty juvenile alligators from three Florida lakes and a site in the Everglades. Urinary phthalate monoester concentrations varied widely among alligators from the different sites but also among alligators from the same site. Mono-2-ethylhexy phthalate and monobutyl phthalate were found in most samples of alligator urine with maximums of 35,700 ng/mL and 193 ng/mL, respectively. Monobenzyl phthalate was found in 5 alligators with a maximum of 66.7 ng/mL. Other monoesters were found in only one or two alligator urine samples. The wide variation within and among sites, in addition to the high levels of mEHP, mBP and mBzP, is consistent with exposure arising from the intermittent spraying of herbicide formulations to control invasive aquatic plants in Florida freshwater sites. Phthalate diesters are used as adjuvants in many of these formulations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors: Du, L; Ma, L; Qiao, Y; Lu, Y; Xiao, D (2016) Food Chemistry 197 Pt B:1200-1206. HERO ID: 3070928

[Less] Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have . . . [More] Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.