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Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies

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649 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze bisphenol A and other plasticizer metabolites

Authors: Fernandez, MA; André, LC; Cardeal, ZL (2017) Journal of Chromatography A 1481:31-36. HERO ID: 3466575

[Less] Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and . . . [More] Phthalates and bisphenol A are important environmental pollutants due to their toxicity for humans and animals, including actions in the endocrine system. Their metabolites in urine can be used as biomarkers to assess human exposure. This paper describes the development of a new method to determine bisphenol A and eight phthalate metabolites in urine samples using hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method showed linearity, precision, limits of detection, and quantification suitable to analyze these compounds at low concentration levels in urine. Limits of detection ranged from 0.777 to 23.3μgL(-1), showing sensitivity for evaluating environmental exposure. Relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 11.7 to 19.7%. The developed method presented a good biomarker alternative for evaluating environmental exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water and tea beverage samples

Authors: Wang, H; Hu, L; Li, W; Yang, X; Lu, R; Zhang, S; Zhou, W; Gao, H; Li, J (2017) HERO ID: 3479554

[Less] A novel in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids . . . [More] A novel in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of ionic liquids (in-syringe SIL-DLLME) was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD) to detect five benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in water and tea beverage samples. In this method, the hydrophobic ionic liquid [N8881][PF6] was formed in situ by the metathesis reaction between [N8881]Cl and the anion-exchange reagent KPF6 to extract the target analytes. The whole extraction procedure was performed in a syringe. The solidified extractant could be separated from the aqueous phase by exposing the emulsified extraction solution to an ice bath and then easily collected by squeezing out the aqueous phase through the prepared NWPP-based needle. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of [N8881]Cl, the molar ratio of [N8881]Cl to KPF6, salt addition, cooling time, solution temperature, sample pH and sample volume, were evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method was validated with satisfactory results: good linearities with coefficients of determination greater than 0.99 were obtained in the range of 2-500µgL(-1); the limits of detection varied between 0.29 and 0.59µgL(-1); the recoveries of the five benzoylurea insecticides ranged from 85.93% to 90.52%; and the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=3) relative standard deviations were less than 5.36%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of BUs in real water and tea beverage samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative toxicity, oxidative stress and endocrine disruption potential of plasticizers in JEG-3 human placental cells

Authors: Pérez-Albaladejo, E; Fernandes, D; Lacorte, S; Porte, C (2017) Toxicology In Vitro 38:41-48. HERO ID: 3469255

[Less] Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans . . . [More] Plasticizers are suspected to be toxic and/or to modulate or disrupt the endocrine system of humans and to cross the placental barrier, being embryonic and fetal development a particularly vulnerable period. This work investigates the comparative toxicity and ability to interfere with the synthesis of steroids and to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) of a selected number of plasticizers, including bisphenol A (BPA), nonyl- (NP) and octylphenol (OP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP), in the human placenta JEG-3 cells. Moreover, the bioavailability of chemicals in culture medium has been investigated. After 24h exposure, OP and NP showed the highest cytotoxicity (EC50: 36-40μM) followed by BPA (138-219μM), whereas no significant toxicity was observed for phthalates. Notwithstanding, BBP and DBP significantly decreased P450 aromatase activity (experimental IC50: 14-15μM), while NP and OP (20μM) increased the activity. Overall, this study evidences the differential toxicity and ability to modulate placental aromatase activity of some of the compounds nowadays used as plasticizers, and highlights the need of an accurate determination of the bioavailability of chemicals to improve the sensitivity of in-vitro tests.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of Long-Term In Vivo Exposure to Di-2-Ethylhexylphthalate on Thyroid Hormones and the TSH/TSHR Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

Authors: Dong, X; Dong, J; Zhao, Y; Guo, J; Wang, Z; Liu, M; Zhang, Y; Na, X (2017) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14. HERO ID: 3466560

[Less] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and . . . [More] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that DEHP-exposure may be associated with altered serum thyroid hormones (THs) levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms were largely unknown. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms, 128 Wistar rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 3 months (M) and 6 M, respectively. After exposure, expression of genes and proteins in the thyroid, pituitary, and hypothalamus tissues of rats were analyzed by Q-PCR and western blot, while the sera and urine samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay and ELISA. Results showed that serum THs levels were suppressed by DEHP on the whole. DEHP treatment influenced the levels of rats' thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr), Deiodinases 1 (D1), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and thyroglobulin (TG) mRNA/protein expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and decreased urine iodine. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones via disturbing the HPT axis, and the activated TSH/TSHR pathway is required to regulate thyroid function via altering TRHr, TSHβ, NIS, TSHr, TPO, TTF-1 and TG mRNA/protein expression of the HPT axis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate could disrupt the insulin signaling pathway in liver of SD rats and L02 cells via PPARγ

Authors: Zhang, W; Shen, XY; Zhang, WW; Chen, H; Xu, WP; Wei, W (2017) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 316:17-26. HERO ID: 3466570

[Less] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous industrial pollutant in our daily life, has been reported . . . [More] Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous industrial pollutant in our daily life, has been reported to cause adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies previously. Recently, it has been reported to be an endocrine disrupter and ligand to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, which could influence the homeostasis of liver metabolic systems and contribute to the development of type-2 diabetes. However, the potential mechanisms are not known yet. This study was designed to solve these problems with male SD rats and normal human hepatocyte line, L02 cells, exposed to DEHP for toxicological experiments. Adult male SD rats were divided into four groups, normal group fed with regular diets and three DEHP-treated groups (dissolved in olive oil at doses of 0.05, 5 and 500mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubations for 15weeks). L02 cells were divided into 6 groups, normal group with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100μmol/l DEHP groups. DEHP-exposed rats exhibited significant liver damage, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance along with reduced expression of insulin receptor and GLUT4 proteins in the liver tissues. The results of in vitro experiments could determine that the DEHP-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) played a key role in the production of oxidative stress and down-regulated expression of insulin receptor and GLUT4 proteins in L02 cells. This conclusion could be supported by the results of in vitro experiments, in which the cells were exposed to DEHP with GW9662 (PPARγ inhibitor). In general, these results highlight the key role of PPARγ in the process of insulin resistance induced by DEHP.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administrations on Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Apoptosis and Gene Quantification in Mouse Model

Authors: Absalan, F; Saremy, S; Mansori, E; Taheri Moghadam, M; Eftekhari Moghadam, AR; Ghanavati, R (2017) Cell Journal 18:503-513. HERO ID: 3466563

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups. Control group oocytes were retrieved from mice that received only normal saline. The experimental groups I, II or III oocytes were retrieved from mice treated with 50, 100 or 200 µl DEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. The experimental groups IV, V or VI oocytes were retrieved from mouse exposed to 50, 100 or 200 µl MEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. Fertilization and embryonic development were carried out in OMM and T6 medium. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit, with PI staining. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pou5f1, Ccna1 and Asah1 were examined in oocytes. Finally, mouse embryo at early blastocyst stage was stained with acridine-orange (AO) and ethidium-bromide (EB), in order to access their viability.

RESULTS: The proportion of oocytes that progressed up to metaphase II (MII) and 2-cells embryo formation stage was significantly decreased by exposure to MEHP or DEHP, in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and PI positive oocytes showed greater quantity in the treated mice than control. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that expression levels of Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 were significantly lower in the treated mouse oocytes than control. The total cell count for blastocyst developed from the treated mouse oocytes was lower than the controls.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that oral administration of MEHP and DEHP could negatively affect mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and development in vivo, suggesting that phthalates could be risk factors for mammalians' reproductive health. Additionally, phthalate-induced changes in Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 transcription level could explain in part, the reduced developmental ability of mouse-treated oocytes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture on cultured mouse antral follicles

Authors: Zhou, C; Flaws, JA (2017) Toxicological Sciences 156:217-229. HERO ID: 3466573

[Less] Phthalates are used in building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most studies . . . [More] Phthalates are used in building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most studies on phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is important to study mixtures of phthalates because humans are exposed to such mixtures daily. We tested the hypothesis that phthalate mixture exposure decreases antral follicle growth, compromises steroidogenic capacity, and induces atresia. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or phthalate mixture (1–500 µg/ml) for 96 h. The mixture was made of 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. During culture, antral follicle diameters were measured every 24 h to monitor growth. After culture, media were subjected to measurements of sex steroid hormones and follicles were subjected to evaluation of gene expression and atresia. The phthalate mixture (100 and 500 µg/ml) decreased antral follicle growth starting at 24 h compared to controls. The mixture at 10, 100, and 500 µg/ml also decreased androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels compared to control. The mixture (10, 100, and 500 µg/ml) reduced atresia rating, but it induced more oocyte fragmentation compared to control. The phthalate mixture at different doses adversely affected cell cycle regulators, antioxidant enzymes, apoptotic factors, steroidogenic enzymes, and receptors. Collectively, these data indicate that exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture reduces antral follicle growth, induces oocyte fragmentation, and decreases hormone production by adversely affecting the expression of cell cycle regulators, apoptotic factors, steroidogenic enzymes, and receptors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Female exposure to phthalates and time to pregnancy: a first pregnancy planner study

Authors: Thomsen, AM; Riis, AH; Olsen, J; Jönsson, BA; Lindh, CH; Hjollund, NH; Jensen, TK; Bonde, JP; Toft, G (2017) Human Reproduction 32:232-238. HERO ID: 3469242

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was associated with a longer TTP.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Male exposure to phthalates is potentially associated with adverse effects on human fecundity in epidemiological studies, but little is known about the potential effects on female reproduction.

STUDY DESIGN SIZE AND DURATION: A cohort study with prospective data based on 229 women from a Danish cohort of 430 first pregnancy planning couples enrolled in 1992-1994. In 2009, urinary analyses of phthalate metabolites were performed on stored urine samples from this cohort.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS: We analyzed MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP in female morning spot urine samples collected daily during the first 10 days of menstrual cycles after discontinuation of contraception. The exposure assessment was based on the mean of two measurements from each woman collected in a period of 6 menstrual cycles. We used Cox regression with discrete time to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CI in relation to the average urine metabolite concentration exposure level, controlled for age and BMI, and the time-varying variables smoking and alcohol.

MAIN RESULT AND ROLE OF CHANCE: Urinary concentration of MEP was associated with a decreased fecundity (adjusted FR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63; 0.99) corresponding to a 21% decreased probability of conception for each natural log (ln) unit increase in MEP. No significant association with TTP was found for MBP, MBzP and MEHP.

LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: Subfertile women were overrepresented in the study population due to exclusion of 77 high fertile women who became pregnant in the first cycle when urine collection began.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results suggest that female exposure to MEP may have an adverse effect on female fecundity, but these findings need to be replicated in a larger and newer cohort study with sufficient exposure contrast if the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and thereby MEP in the future potentially should be regulated in cosmetics and industrial consumer products.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The original data collected were founded by Aarhus University Research Foundation, the Danish Medical Research Council and the Danish Medical Health Insurance Foundation. There are no conflicts of interest to be declared.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies

Authors: Hu, W; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Teng, Y (2017) Chemosphere 170:183-195. HERO ID: 3466582

[Less] Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption . . . [More] Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program

Authors: Zidek, A; Macey, K; Mackinnon, L; Patel, M; Poddalgoda, D; Zhang, Y (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:167-178. [Review] HERO ID: 3469257

[Less] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and . . . [More] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.