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Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP)

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1,078 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

How to solve the problem of co-elution between two compounds in liquid chromatography through the first UV derivative spectrum. A trial on alternative plasticizers to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Authors: Masse, M; Genay, S; Feutry, F; Simon, N; Barthélémy, C; Sautou, V; Décaudin, B; Odou, P; For The Armed Study Group, P (2017) Talanta 162:187-192. HERO ID: 3540857

[Less] To meet new regulations, alternative plasticizers to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are now commonly . . . [More] To meet new regulations, alternative plasticizers to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are now commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices. These are: acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), bis (2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), dioctyl terephtalate (DEHT), di-isononylphtalate (DINP), diisononylcyclohexane-1.2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) and trioctyltrimellilate (TOTM). An HPLC-UV analysis was previously developed to characterize four of them. However, two compounds were systematically co-eluated: DEHP with DEHA and DEHT with DINP. The first derivative of UV spectra and photodiode array detection allow the quantification of DEHA and DINP. Moreover, for each plasticizer, maximum wavelength absorbance was chosen to be as specific as possible. Quantification ranged from 0.3 to 750µg/mL according to the plasticizer. The assays were validated by analysis of variance. Our method was validated by determining the following parameters: specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification. The relative biases were inferior to 5% for ATBC, DEHP, DEHA and DINCH and inferior to 10% for DEHT, DINP and TOTM. Plasticizers were extracted with tetrahydrofuran and methanol. The developed method was then used to determine the composition of plasticizers in several medical devices used in clinical service. The major plasticizers were quantified from 19% to 40% w/w, traces of DEHT were found in six medical devices and DEHP in five.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification and quantification by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of seven plasticizers in PVC medical devices

Authors: Genay, S; Feutry, F; Masse, M; Barthélémy, C; Sautou, V; Odou, P; Décaudin, B; Azaroual, N; Armed Study Group (2017) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409:1271-1280. HERO ID: 3540860

[Less] Medical devices are generally made of polyvinyl chloride plasticized by six authorized plasticizers . . . [More] Medical devices are generally made of polyvinyl chloride plasticized by six authorized plasticizers as alternatives to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) classified as reprotoxic class 1b. These are acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC), di-(2-ethylhexy) adipate (DEHA), di-(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and tri-octyl trimellitate (TOTM). The main objective of this study was to propose a new method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy to determine and quantify these seven plasticizers in PVC sheets, standard infusion tubings, and commercially available medical devices. Two techniques were compared: dissolution in deuterated tetrahydrofuran and extraction by deuterated chloroform. Plasticizer (1)H NMR spectra were very similar in both deuterated solvents; dissolution and extraction provided similar results. The sensitivity of this method enabled us to detect and quantify the presence of minor plasticizers in PVC. In nine commercially available samples, the major plasticizer was identified and quantified by (1)H NMR. In six samples, one, two, or three minor plasticizers were identified and also quantified. DEHP was detected in only one tubing. NMR is therefore very convenient for studying plasticizers contained in medical devices. Only small quantities of solvents and sample are required. It is not necessary to dilute samples to enter a quantification range, and it is sufficiently sensitive to detect contaminants.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Human health tier II assessment for diisononyl phthalates and related compounds

Author: NICNAS (2017) HERO ID: 3687925


Technical Report
Technical Report

Diisononyl phthalate chemical sampling information

Author: OSHA (2017) HERO ID: 3688043


Technical Report
Technical Report

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to di-isononylphthalate (DINP) for use in food contact materials. Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-194. The EFSA Journal 244, 1-18

Author: OSHA (2017) HERO ID: 3688079


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence, spatial distribution, historical trend and ecological risk of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River, Southeast China

Authors: Li, R; Liang, J; Gong, Z; Zhang, N; Duan, H (2017) Science of the Total Environment 580:388-397. HERO ID: 3483279

[Less] The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast . . . [More] The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a 210Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future strategies of the pollutants control along the river network.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

Authors: Zhou, C; Gao, L; Flaws, JA (2017) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 318:49-57. HERO ID: 3494367

[Less] Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and . . . [More] Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200μg/kg/day, 200 and 500mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro cytotoxic effects of DEHP-alternative plasticizers and their primary metabolites on a L929 cell line

Authors: Eljezi, T; Pinta, P; Richard, D; Pinguet, J; Chezal, JM; Chagnon, MC; Sautou, V; Grimandi, G; Moreau, E (2017) Chemosphere 173:452-459. HERO ID: 3540853

[Less] Phthalic acid esters have been widely used to improve the plasticity of PVC medical devices. They carry . . . [More] Phthalic acid esters have been widely used to improve the plasticity of PVC medical devices. They carry a high exposure risk for both humans and the environment in clinical situations. Our study focuses on the cytotoxicity of alternative plasticizers. Postulated primary metabolites were synthesized, not being commercially available. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on L929 murine cells according to the ISO-EN 10993-5 standard design for the biocompatibility of medical devices. The tested concentrations of plasticizers (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/ml) covered the range likely to be found in biological fluids coming into direct contact with the medical devices. DEHP, DINP and DINCH were cytotoxic at the highest concentration (0.1 mg/ml) for 7 days of exposure. Their corresponding metabolites were found to be more cytotoxic, for the same concentration. By contrast, TOTM and its corresponding metabolite MOTM were not found to be cytotoxic. DEHA showed no cytotoxicity, but its corresponding monoester (MEHA) produced a cytotoxic effect at 0.05 mg/ml. In clinical situations, medical devices can release plasticizers, which can come into contact with patients. In vivo, the plasticizers are quickly transformed into primary metabolites. It is therefore important to measure the effects of both the plasticizers and their corresponding metabolites. Standard first-line cytotoxicity assays should be performed to ensure biocompatibility.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of estrogenic and androgenic activity of phthalates by the XenoScreen YES/YAS in vitro assay

Authors: Czernych, R; Chraniuk, M; Zagożdżon, P; Wolska, L (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 53:95-104. HERO ID: 3859051

[Less] The presented study investigates and compares the estrogenic and androgenic activities of commonly used . . . [More] The presented study investigates and compares the estrogenic and androgenic activities of commonly used diesters of phthalic acid (phthalates) using the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Phthalates are commonly used plasticizers in polymers dedicated for i.e. food and drug containers. Since phthalates are not chemically bonded to the polymer, they can leach or migrate from the polymer. Therefore, phthalates are identified as contaminants in a variety of consumer products. Investigation of estrogenic and androgenic activities of phthalates (DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DINP) showed no significant effect of tested substances either on hERα or hAR receptors. Phthalates exhibited strong anti-estrogenic (IC50 for BBP=8.66μM, IC50 for DEHP=3.61μM and IC50 for DINP=0.065μM) and anti-androgenic (IC50 for BBP=5.30μM, IC50 for DEHP=2.87μM and IC50 for DINP=0.068μM) activities.