Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


MSA-Multipollutant Exposure Metric Review


2,989 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Propiconazole Inhibits Steroidogenesis and Reproduction in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas)

Authors: Skolness, SY; Blanksma, CA; Cavallin, JE; Churchill, JJ; Durhan, EJ; Jensen, KM; Johnson, RD; Kahl, MD; Makynen, EA; Villeneuve, DL; Ankley, GT (In Press) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 1466840

[Less] Conazoles are designed to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 14-alpha-demethylase, an enzyme key to fungal . . . [More] Conazoles are designed to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 14-alpha-demethylase, an enzyme key to fungal cell wall formation. In vertebrates, conazoles may inhibit other CYPs, potentially disrupting processes like sex steroid synthesis. Propiconazole is a current-use pesticide that is among the first chemicals being tested in the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 0, 5, 50, 500, or 1000 µg propiconazole/L in a 21-d study that evaluated apical reproductive endpoints (fecundity, fertility, hatch), and measures of endocrine function and steroid synthesis, such as cholesterol, vitellogenin (VTG), and sex steroid (testosterone [T], 17β-estradiol [E2]) concentrations in the plasma, and changes in gonadal expression of steroidogenic genes. Plasma E2 and VTG concentrations in females were reduced by exposure to propiconazole, and egg production was decreased in the 500 and 1000 µg/L treatment groups. These in vivo effects coincided with inhibition of E2 synthesis by ovary explants exposed to propiconazole in vitro. We also observed a compensatory response in females exposed to propiconazole, manifested as increased gonad weight and up-regulation of genes coding for key steriodogenic proteins, including CYP19 (aromatase), CYP17 (hydroxylase/lyase), CYP11A (cholesterol side-chain-cleavage), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Other than an increase in relative testis weight, effects on endocrine function in males were less pronounced than in females. This study provides important data relative to the potential endocrine activity of propiconazole in fish and, more generally, to the further delineation of pathways for the reproductive effects of steroid synthesis inhibitors in fish.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of individual and binary-combined commercial insecticides endosulfan, temephos, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl on biomarker responses in earthworm Eisenia andrei

Authors: Stepić, S; Hackenberger, BK; Velki, M; Lončarić, Z; Hackenberger, DK (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1807718

[Less] Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and binary-combined . . . [More] Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and binary-combined commercial insecticides endosulfan, temephos, malathion and pirimiphos-methyl on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The effects of individual insecticides were determined by measuring the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). After exposure to studied insecticides, dose-dependent decrease in AChE activity and dose-dependent increase in CAT activity was recorded. The activity of GST was without consistent dose-response reaction, but generally the investigated insecticides caused the increase in GST activity. In order to determine the effects of binary-combined mixtures, and interactions between the components in the mixture, the relationship between effective concentration of AChE inhibition for mixture and effective concentration of AChE inhibition for each component in the mixture was investigated. The obtained results showed additive effect for mixtures endosulfan+malathion; endosulfan+pirimiphos-methyl; temephos+malathion and temephos+pirimiphos-methyl, synergistic effect for mixture endosulfan+temephos and in the case of mixture malathion+pirimiphos-methyl the antagonistic effect was indicated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Historical review on development of environmental quality standards and guideline values for air pollutants in Japan

Authors: Kawamoto, T; Pham, TT; Matsuda, T; Oyama, T; Tanaka, M; Yu, HS; Uchiyama, I (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. HERO ID: 755536

[Less] Environmental quality standards (EQSs) have been established as desirable levels to be maintained for . . . [More] Environmental quality standards (EQSs) have been established as desirable levels to be maintained for protection of human health and the conservation of the living environment by Basic Environment Law. EQSs in ambient air had been set for 10 substances (sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and photochemical oxidants (Ox), benzene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, dioxins and dichloromethane) and guideline values for 7 (acrylonitorile, vinyl chloride monomer, mercury, nickel compounds, 1,3-butadiene, chloroform and 1,2-dichloromethane) in Japan by 2009. EQSs for the classical (or traditional) air pollutants, SO(2), CO, SPM, NO(2) and Ox, were set according to the minimal requirement to protect human health, based on evidence from epidemiological studies conducted before the 1970s. In 1996, the Central Environment Council designated substances which may be hazardous air pollutants and substances requiring priority action, and adopted the concept of risk assessment to set EQSs and guideline values. A life-long risk level (virtually safe dose) of 10(-5) was used to set EQS for benzene, and guideline values for vinyl chloride monomer, nickel compounds, and 1,3-butadiene. EQSs for trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane, and guideline values for acrylonitorile and mercury were set using uncertain factors and lowest observed adverse effect (LOAEL)/no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). The results of animal experiments were utilized to set guideline values for chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The benchmark approach and human equivalent concentration (HEC) were adopted for 1,2-dichloroethane. The history of setting EQSs and guideline values for hazardous air pollutants is one of adopting new concepts into risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Computing least air pollution exposure routes

Authors: Sharker, MH; Karimi, HA (2014) International Journal of Geographical Information Science 28:343-362. HERO ID: 2214497

[Less] Personalized routing counts on traveler's preferences which are usually based on different criteria, . . . [More] Personalized routing counts on traveler's preferences which are usually based on different criteria, such as shortest, fastest, least traffic, or less expensive (e.g., less fuel cost, toll free). However, people are increasingly becoming concerned about the adverse health effects of exposure to air pollution in chosen routes. Exposures to elevated air pollution concentrations particularly endanger children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people with asthma and other respiratory conditions. Choosing routes with least air pollution exposure (APE) is seen as one approach to minimize the level of pollution exposed, which is a major public health issue. Routing algorithms use weights on segments of road networks to find optimum routes. While existing weights are commonly distance and time, among a few others, there is currently no weight based on APE to compute least APE routes. In this paper, we present a weight function that computes weight based on APE. Two different approaches, geostatistical and non-geostatistical, were used to compute APE weight. Each approach was evaluated, and the results indicate that the APE weight is suitable for computing least APE routes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City - The second largest city of North India

Authors: Lawrence, A; Fatima, N (2014) Science of the Total Environment 488:449-457. HERO ID: 2214247

[Less] Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of . . . [More] Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76μg/m(3)) and 226μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluating the application of multipollutant exposure metrics in air pollution health studies

Authors: Oakes, M; Baxter, L; Long, TC (2014) Environment International 69C:90-99. [Review] HERO ID: 2346851

[Less] BACKGROUND: Health effects associated with air pollution are typically evaluated using . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Health effects associated with air pollution are typically evaluated using a single pollutant approach, yet people are exposed to mixtures consisting of multiple pollutants that may have independent or combined effects on human health. Development of exposure metrics that represent the multipollutant environment is important to understand the impact of ambient air pollution on human health.

OBJECTIVES: We reviewed existing multipollutant exposure metrics to evaluate how they can be applied to understand associations between air pollution and health effects.

METHODS: We conducted a literature search using both targeted search terms and a relational search in Web of Science and PubMed in April and December 2013. We focused on exposure metrics that are constructed from ambient pollutant concentrations and can be broadly applied to evaluate air pollution health effects.

RESULTS: Multipollutant exposure metrics were identified in 57 eligible studies. Metrics reviewed can be categorized into broad pollutant grouping paradigms based on: 1) source emissions and atmospheric processes or 2) common health outcomes.

DISCUSSION: When comparing metrics, it is apparent that no universal exposure metric exists; each type of metric addresses different research questions and provides unique information on human health effects. Key limitations of these metrics include the balance between complexity and simplicity as well as the lack of an existing "gold standard" for multipollutant health effects and exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Future work on characterizing multipollutant exposure error and joint effects will inform development of improved multipollutant metrics to advance air pollution health effects research and human health risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluating Multipollutant Exposure and Urban Air Quality: Pollutant Interrelationships, Neighborhood Variability, and Nitrogen Dioxide as a Proxy Pollutant

Authors: Levy, I; Mihele, C; Lu, G; Narayan, J; Brook, JR (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122:65-72. HERO ID: 2214254

[Less] BACKGROUND: Although urban air pollution is a complex mix containing multiple constituents, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Although urban air pollution is a complex mix containing multiple constituents, studies of the health effects of long-term exposure often focus on a single pollutant as a proxy for the entire mixture.

OBJECTIVES: We examined air pollutant concentrations and interrelationships at the intra-urban scale to obtain insight into the nature of the urban mixture of air pollutants. This will assist epidemiological studies that exploit spatial differences in exposure by clarifying the extent to which measures of individual pollutants, particularly NO2, represent spatial patterns in the multipollutant mixture.

METHODS: Mobile measurements of 23 air pollutants were taken systematically at high resolution in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, spread among 34 days in the summer, winter and autumn of 2009.

RESULTS: We observed variability in pollution levels and in the statistical correlations between different pollutants according to season and neighborhood. Nitrogen oxide species (NO, NO2, NOx, and NOy) had the highest overall spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured. Ultrafine particles (UFP) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) concentration, a derived measure used as a specific indicator of traffic particles also had very high correlations.

CONCLUSIONS: The multipollutant mix varies considerably throughout the city, both in time and in space, and thus, no single pollutant would be a perfect proxy measure for the entire mix under all circumstances. However, based on overall average spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured, nitrogen oxide species appeared to be the best available indicators of spatial variation in exposure to the outdoor urban air pollutant mixture.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban PM source apportionment mapping using microscopic chemical imaging

Authors: Gertler, AW; Moshe, D; Rudich, Y (2014) Science of the Total Environment 488-489:456-460. HERO ID: 2214256

[Less] To evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter and develop effective pollutant abatement strategies, . . . [More] To evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter and develop effective pollutant abatement strategies, one needs to know the source contributions to the observed concentrations. The most common approach involves the collection of ambient air samples on filters, laboratory analyses to quantify the chemical composition, and application of receptor modeling methods. This approach is expensive and time consuming and limits the ability to monitor the temporal and spatial impacts from different pollutant sources. An alternative method for apportioning the sources of ambient PM is the application of microscopic chemical imaging (MCI). The MCI method involves measuring individual particle's fluorescence and source attribution is based on the individual particle analysis coupled with identification from a source library. Using this approach, the apportionment of ambient PM can be performed in near real time, which allows for the generation of temporal and spatial maps of pollutant source impacts in an urban area.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Independent association between air pollutants and vitamin D deficiency in young children in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Kelishadi, R; Moeini, R; Poursafa, P; Farajian, S; Yousefy, H; Okhovat-Souraki, AA (2014) 34:50-55. HERO ID: 2214263

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between air pollution and vitamin D status . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between air pollution and vitamin D status in young children living in a sunny region.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 100 children aged 4?10 years in Isfahan was conducted during 2011?2012. This industrial city has an arid climate and is the second most air-polluted city in Iran. Children were selected by random cluster sampling from various areas with different levels of air pollution. The air quality index (AQI) was recorded and demographic variables, dietary habits and levels of physical activity were determined by validated questionnaires. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were measured. The P for trend for median (interquartile range) of variables was assessed across the AQI quartiles. The associations between AQI and biochemical values were assessed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, diet and pattern of physical activity.

RESULTS: Ninety-seven children (46.4% boys) completed the study. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of serum 25(OH) D was 37.4 (22.5, 81.6) nmol/L. Median dietary vitamin D intake was 11.7 µg/day, i.e. 78% of the required daily amount. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were detected in 37.9% and 46.3% of children, respectively. Median (IQR) exposure to ultraviolet B radiation in the AQI Quartile 4 area was significantly lower than in the Quartile 1 area [0.36 (0.35?0.38) watts per square metre (W/m(2)) vs 0.41 (0.39?0.44) W/m(2), respectively, P=0.04]. Likewise, the corresponding figure for serum 25(OH)D was 35.2 (22.5?45.2) vs 52.7 (44.9?81.6) nmol/L, respectively, P=0.04. AQI was inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D, which remained significant after adjustment for the above-mentioned confounding factors (β=0.61, P=0.01).

CONCLUSION: The independent inverse association of AQI with 25(OH)D explains the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children in Isfahan. Dietary intake of vitamin D was not sufficiently low to explain the very low level of serum 25(OH)D. In regions with plenty of sunlight, air pollution should be considered to be a factor in the causation of hypovitaminosis D.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient levels and temporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 at a residential site in the mega-city, Nanjing, in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

Authors: Shen, G; Yuan, SiY; Xie, YuN; Xia, SiJ; Li, Li; Yao, YuK; Qiao, Y; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Q; Ding, AiJ; Li, Bin; Wu, H (2014) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 49:171-178. HERO ID: 2214500

[Less] The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing . . . [More] The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing public concern. In this study, we measured the ambient PM10 and fine PM2.5 in the mega-city, Nanjing at four different times. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were 0.033-0.234 and 0.042-0.328 mg/m(3), respectively. The daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 2.9 (2.7-3.2, at 95% confidence interval) and 4.2 (3.8-4.6) times the WHO air quality guidelines of 0.025 mg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 0.050 mg/m(3) for PM10, respectively, which indicated serious air pollution in the city. There was no obvious weekend effect. The highest PM10 pollution occurred in the wintertime, with higher PM2.5 loadings in the winter and summer. PM2.5 was correlated significantly with PM10 and the average mass fraction of PM2.5 in PM10 was about 72.5%. This fraction varied during different sampling periods, with the lowest PM2.5 fraction in the spring but minor differences among the other three seasons.