Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


MSA-Multipollutant Exposure Metric Review


387 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City - The second largest city of North India

Authors: Lawrence, A; Fatima, N (2014) Science of the Total Environment 488:449-457. HERO ID: 2214247

[Less] Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of . . . [More] Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76μg/m(3)) and 226μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mass balance source apportionment modeling of indoor air pollution exposures during the ethiopian coffee ceremony

Authors: Keil, C; Coleman, Q; Brown, A; Kassa, H (2014) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 11:40-46. HERO ID: 2214249

[Less] Mass balance modeling was used to apportion previously measured carbon monoxide and respirable particle . . . [More] Mass balance modeling was used to apportion previously measured carbon monoxide and respirable particle exposures of women preparing coffee during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies. The coffee ceremony generates smoke indoors from the use of charcoal and incense. This creates inhalation exposures, particularly for the women preparing the coffee. Understanding the health risks associated with this practice will be improved with knowledge of the relative contribution to combustion byproduct exposures from the different sources. Source fingerprints were developed in the laboratory for carbon monoxide and respirable particle emissions from charcoal and incense. A mass balance model determined that the majority of the carbon monoxide exposures were from charcoal use and that the respirable particle exposures were approximately half from incense and half from charcoal. Efforts to decrease health risks from these exposures must be directed by Ethiopian cultural stakeholders who understand the exposure conditions, the health risks, and the societal context.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

CAQI Common Air Quality Index - Update with PM2.5 and sensitivity analysis

Authors: van den Elshout, S; Léger, K; Heich, H (2014) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 2214252

[Less] The CAQI or Common Air Quality Index was proposed to facilitate the comparison of air quality in European . . . [More] The CAQI or Common Air Quality Index was proposed to facilitate the comparison of air quality in European cities in real-time. There are many air quality indices in use in the world. All are somewhat different in concept and presentation and comparing air quality presentations of cities on the internet was virtually impossible. The CAQI and the accompanying website www.airqualitynow.eu and app were proposed to overcome this problem in Europe. This paper describes the logic of making an index, in particular the CAQI and its update with a grid for PM2.5. To assure a smooth transition to the new calculation scheme we studied the behaviour of the index before and after the changes. We used 2006 Airbase data from 31 urban background and 27 street stations all across Europe (that were monitoring PM2.5 in 2006). The CAQI characterises a city by a roadside and urban background situation. It also insists on a minimum number of pollutants to be included in the calculation. Both were deemed necessary to improve the basis for comparing one city to another. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the comparative behaviour of the street and urban background stations and presents the sensitivity of the CAQI outcome to the pollutants included in its calculation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

First measurements of source apportionment of organic aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere

Authors: Crilley, LR; Ayoko, GA; Morawska, L (2014) Environmental Pollution 184:81-88. HERO ID: 2214266

[Less] An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was deployed at five urban schools to examine spatial and temporal . . . [More] An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was deployed at five urban schools to examine spatial and temporal variability of organic aerosols (OA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) used for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere to apportion the sources of the OA across an urban area. The sources identified included hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA). At all sites, the main source was OOA, which accounted for 62-73% of the total OA mass and was generally more oxidized compared to those reported in the Northern Hemisphere. This suggests that there are differences in aging processes or regional sources in the two hemispheres. Unlike HOA and BBOA, OOA demonstrated instructive temporal variations but not spatial variation across the urban area. Application of cluster analysis to the PMF-derived sources offered a simple and effective method for qualitative comparison of PMF sources that can be used in other studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of haze and air pollution-related hazards on hospital admissions in Guangzhou, China

Authors: Zhang, Z; Wang, J; Chen, L; Chen, X; Sun, G; Zhong, N; Kan, H; Lu, W (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:4236-4244. HERO ID: 2214248

[Less] Guangzhou is a metropolitan in south China with unique pollutants and geographic location. Unlike those . . . [More] Guangzhou is a metropolitan in south China with unique pollutants and geographic location. Unlike those in western countries and the rest of China, the appearance of haze in Guangzhou is often (about 278 days per year on average of 4 years). Little is known about the influence of these hazes on health. In this study, we investigated whether short-term exposures to haze and air pollution are associated with hospital admissions in Guangzhou. The relationships between haze, air pollution, and daily hospital admissions during 2008-2011 were assessed using generalized additive model. Studies were categorized by gender, age, season, lag, and disease category. In haze episodes, an increase in air pollutant emissions corresponded to 3.46 (95 % CI, 1.67, 5.27) increase in excessive risk (ER) of total hospital admissions at lag 1, 11.42 (95 % CI, 4.32, 18.99) and 11.57 (95 % CI, 4.38, 19.26) increases in ERs of cardiovascular illnesses at lags 2 and 4 days, respectively. As to total hospital admissions, an increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.73 (95 % CI, 0.11, 1.35) and a 0.28 (95 % CI, 0.11, 0.46) increases in ERs at lag 5 and lag 05, respectively. For respiratory illnesses, increases in NO2 was associated with a 1.94 (95 % CI, 0.50, 3.40) increase in ER at lag 0, especially among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Haze (at lag1) and air pollution (for NO2 at lag 5 and for SO2 at lag3) both presented more drastic effects on the 19 to 64 years old and in the females. Together, we demonstrated that haze pollution was associated with total and cardiovascular illnesses. NO2 was the sole pollutant with the largest risk of hospital admissions for total and respiratory diseases in both single- and multi-pollutant models.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluating Multipollutant Exposure and Urban Air Quality: Pollutant Interrelationships, Neighborhood Variability, and Nitrogen Dioxide as a Proxy Pollutant

Authors: Levy, I; Mihele, C; Lu, G; Narayan, J; Brook, JR (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122:65-72. HERO ID: 2214254

[Less] BACKGROUND: Although urban air pollution is a complex mix containing multiple constituents, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Although urban air pollution is a complex mix containing multiple constituents, studies of the health effects of long-term exposure often focus on a single pollutant as a proxy for the entire mixture.

OBJECTIVES: We examined air pollutant concentrations and interrelationships at the intra-urban scale to obtain insight into the nature of the urban mixture of air pollutants. This will assist epidemiological studies that exploit spatial differences in exposure by clarifying the extent to which measures of individual pollutants, particularly NO2, represent spatial patterns in the multipollutant mixture.

METHODS: Mobile measurements of 23 air pollutants were taken systematically at high resolution in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, spread among 34 days in the summer, winter and autumn of 2009.

RESULTS: We observed variability in pollution levels and in the statistical correlations between different pollutants according to season and neighborhood. Nitrogen oxide species (NO, NO2, NOx, and NOy) had the highest overall spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured. Ultrafine particles (UFP) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) concentration, a derived measure used as a specific indicator of traffic particles also had very high correlations.

CONCLUSIONS: The multipollutant mix varies considerably throughout the city, both in time and in space, and thus, no single pollutant would be a perfect proxy measure for the entire mix under all circumstances. However, based on overall average spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured, nitrogen oxide species appeared to be the best available indicators of spatial variation in exposure to the outdoor urban air pollutant mixture.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urban PM source apportionment mapping using microscopic chemical imaging

Authors: Gertler, AW; Moshe, D; Rudich, Y (2014) Science of the Total Environment 488-489:456-460. HERO ID: 2214256

[Less] To evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter and develop effective pollutant abatement strategies, . . . [More] To evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter and develop effective pollutant abatement strategies, one needs to know the source contributions to the observed concentrations. The most common approach involves the collection of ambient air samples on filters, laboratory analyses to quantify the chemical composition, and application of receptor modeling methods. This approach is expensive and time consuming and limits the ability to monitor the temporal and spatial impacts from different pollutant sources. An alternative method for apportioning the sources of ambient PM is the application of microscopic chemical imaging (MCI). The MCI method involves measuring individual particle's fluorescence and source attribution is based on the individual particle analysis coupled with identification from a source library. Using this approach, the apportionment of ambient PM can be performed in near real time, which allows for the generation of temporal and spatial maps of pollutant source impacts in an urban area.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Independent association between air pollutants and vitamin D deficiency in young children in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Kelishadi, R; Moeini, R; Poursafa, P; Farajian, S; Yousefy, H; Okhovat-Souraki, AA (2014) 34:50-55. HERO ID: 2214263

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between air pollution and vitamin D status . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between air pollution and vitamin D status in young children living in a sunny region.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 100 children aged 4?10 years in Isfahan was conducted during 2011?2012. This industrial city has an arid climate and is the second most air-polluted city in Iran. Children were selected by random cluster sampling from various areas with different levels of air pollution. The air quality index (AQI) was recorded and demographic variables, dietary habits and levels of physical activity were determined by validated questionnaires. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were measured. The P for trend for median (interquartile range) of variables was assessed across the AQI quartiles. The associations between AQI and biochemical values were assessed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, diet and pattern of physical activity.

RESULTS: Ninety-seven children (46.4% boys) completed the study. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of serum 25(OH) D was 37.4 (22.5, 81.6) nmol/L. Median dietary vitamin D intake was 11.7 µg/day, i.e. 78% of the required daily amount. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were detected in 37.9% and 46.3% of children, respectively. Median (IQR) exposure to ultraviolet B radiation in the AQI Quartile 4 area was significantly lower than in the Quartile 1 area [0.36 (0.35?0.38) watts per square metre (W/m(2)) vs 0.41 (0.39?0.44) W/m(2), respectively, P=0.04]. Likewise, the corresponding figure for serum 25(OH)D was 35.2 (22.5?45.2) vs 52.7 (44.9?81.6) nmol/L, respectively, P=0.04. AQI was inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D, which remained significant after adjustment for the above-mentioned confounding factors (β=0.61, P=0.01).

CONCLUSION: The independent inverse association of AQI with 25(OH)D explains the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children in Isfahan. Dietary intake of vitamin D was not sufficiently low to explain the very low level of serum 25(OH)D. In regions with plenty of sunlight, air pollution should be considered to be a factor in the causation of hypovitaminosis D.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases-a case-crossover study]

Authors: Wang, XY; Dong, FM; Jin, MH; Pan, XC (2013) Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Zazhi 34:331-335. HERO ID: 1935331

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular diseases.

METHODS: Data including meteorological factors, air pollutants (NO2, SO2 and PM10) and cerebrovascular disease mortality in one district of Beijing from 2004 to 2008 were collected and both symmetric bidirectional case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression model were used to analyze the associations among them.

RESULTS: After adjusting the influence of meteorological factors as daily average temperature and relative humidity, the single pollutant model showed that there was no significant lag effect. In the multi-pollutant model, the effect of the every 105.43 µg/m(3) increase of ambient PM10 had a larger impact on the daily death of the cerebrovascular diseases with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The effect of ambient PM10 pollution on daily death of cerebrovascular diseases was significant for females, 65 year-olds and in winter season.

CONCLUSION: Our data showed that elevated levels of ambient PM10 was positively associated with the increase of cerebrovascular disease mortality. The elevated levels of ambient PM10 could lead to the increase of the daily mortality on cerebrovascular diseases for females, elderly who were 65 or older and in winter seasons.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles

Authors: Johnston, MV; Klems, JP; Zordan, CA; Pennington, MR; Smith, JN; HEI Health Review Committee (2013) Research report (Health Effects Institute) 3-45. HERO ID: 2214277

[Less] Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart . . . [More] Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. These spikes have been linked to motor vehicle activity and have the potential to increase exposure dramatically. Characterizing both the contribution and composition of these spikes is critical in developing exposure models and abatement strategies. To determine the contribution of the particle spikes to the ambient number concentration, we implemented wavelet-based algorithms to isolate the particle spikes from measurements taken during the summer and winter of 2009 in Wilmington, Delaware, adjacent to a roadway intersection that approximately 28,000 vehicles pass through daily. These measurements included both number concentration and size distributions recorded once every second by a condensation particle counter (CPC*; TSI, Inc., St. Paul, MN) and a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The high-frequency portion of the signal, consisting of a series of abrupt spikes in number concentration that varied in length from a few seconds to tens of seconds, accounted for 3% to 35% of the daily ambient number concentration, with spike contributions sometimes greater than 50% of hourly number concentrations. When the data were weighted by particle volume, this portion of the signal contributed an average of 10% to 20% to the daily concentration of particulate matter (PM) < or = 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM0.1). The preferred locations for observing particle concentration spikes were those surrounding the measurement site at which motor vehicles accelerated after a red traffic light turned green. As the distance or transit time from emission to sampling increased, the size distribution shifted to a larger particle size, which confirmed the source assignments. To determine the distribution of emissions from individual vehicles, we correlated camera images with the spike contribution to particle number concentration at each time point. A small percentage of motor vehicles were found to emit a disproportionally large concentration of nanoparticles, and these high emitters included both spark-ignition (SI) and heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles. In addition to characterizing the contribution of the spikes (local sources) to the ambient number concentration, we developed a method to determine the net contribution of motor vehicles (all sources) to the total mass concentration of ambient nanoparticles. To do this, we correlated the concentration of spikes with measurements of fast changes in the chemical composition of nanoparticles measured with the nano aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS; built by the Johnston group). The NAMS irradiates individual, size-selected nanoparticles with a high-energy laser pulse to generate a mass spectrum consisting of multiply charged atomic ions. The elemental composition of each particle was determined from the ion signal intensities of each element. However, overlapping mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) at 4 m/z (O(+4) and C(+3)) and at 8 m/z (O(+2) and S(+4)) needed to be separated into their component ions to obtain a representative composition. To do this, we developed a method to deconvolute these ion signals using sucrose and ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] as calibration standards. With this approach, the differences between the expected and measured elemental mole fractions of carbon (C), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) for a variety of test particles were generally much less than 10%. Ambient nanoparticles were found to consist mostly of C, O, N, and S. Many particles also contained silicon (Si). The elemental compositions were apportioned into molecular species that are commonly found in ambient aerosol: sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), carbonaceous matter, and when present, silicon dioxide (SiO2). Correlating NAMS chemical-composition measurements with spike contributions allowed for the development of a chemical profile representing motor vehicle emissions, which could be used to apportion their total contribution to the ambient nanoparticle mass. Particles originating from motor vehicles had compositions dominated by unoxidized carbonaceous matter, whereas non-motor vehicle particles consisted mostly of SO42-, NO3-, and oxidized carbonaceous matter. Motor vehicles were found to contribute up to 48% and 60% of the nanoparticle mass and number concentrations, respectively, in the winter measurement period, but only 16% and 49% of the nanoparticle mass and number concentrations, respectively, in the summer period. Chemical-composition profiles and contributions of SI versus HDD vehicles to the nanoparticle mass concentration were estimated by correlating still camera images, chemical composition, and spike contributions at each time point. The total mass contributions from SI and HDD vehicles were roughly equal, but the uncertainty in the split was large. The results of this study suggest that nanoparticle concentrations will be higher adjacent to an intersection than along the same roadway but further from an intersection. Possible ways to reduce the motor vehicle contribution to ambient nanoparticulate matter include minimizing stop-and-go activity at an intersection (i.e., vehicles accelerating after a red light turns green) and identifying the small fraction of motor vehicles that emit a disproportionally large number of nanoparticles.