Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


MSA-Multipollutant Exposure Metric Review


827 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Computing least air pollution exposure routes

Authors: Sharker, MH; Karimi, HA (2014) International Journal of Geographical Information Science 28:343-362. HERO ID: 2214497

[Less] Personalized routing counts on traveler's preferences which are usually based on different criteria, . . . [More] Personalized routing counts on traveler's preferences which are usually based on different criteria, such as shortest, fastest, least traffic, or less expensive (e.g., less fuel cost, toll free). However, people are increasingly becoming concerned about the adverse health effects of exposure to air pollution in chosen routes. Exposures to elevated air pollution concentrations particularly endanger children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people with asthma and other respiratory conditions. Choosing routes with least air pollution exposure (APE) is seen as one approach to minimize the level of pollution exposed, which is a major public health issue. Routing algorithms use weights on segments of road networks to find optimum routes. While existing weights are commonly distance and time, among a few others, there is currently no weight based on APE to compute least APE routes. In this paper, we present a weight function that computes weight based on APE. Two different approaches, geostatistical and non-geostatistical, were used to compute APE weight. Each approach was evaluated, and the results indicate that the APE weight is suitable for computing least APE routes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient levels and temporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 at a residential site in the mega-city, Nanjing, in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

Authors: Shen, G; Yuan, SiY; Xie, YuN; Xia, SiJ; Li, Li; Yao, YuK; Qiao, Y; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Q; Ding, AiJ; Li, Bin; Wu, H (2014) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 49:171-178. HERO ID: 2214500

[Less] The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing . . . [More] The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing public concern. In this study, we measured the ambient PM10 and fine PM2.5 in the mega-city, Nanjing at four different times. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were 0.033-0.234 and 0.042-0.328 mg/m(3), respectively. The daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 2.9 (2.7-3.2, at 95% confidence interval) and 4.2 (3.8-4.6) times the WHO air quality guidelines of 0.025 mg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 0.050 mg/m(3) for PM10, respectively, which indicated serious air pollution in the city. There was no obvious weekend effect. The highest PM10 pollution occurred in the wintertime, with higher PM2.5 loadings in the winter and summer. PM2.5 was correlated significantly with PM10 and the average mass fraction of PM2.5 in PM10 was about 72.5%. This fraction varied during different sampling periods, with the lowest PM2.5 fraction in the spring but minor differences among the other three seasons.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sources of ultrafine particles and chemical species along a traffic corridor: comparison of the results from two receptor models

Authors: Friend, AJ; Ayoko, GA; Jager, D; Wust, M; Jayaratne, ER; Jamriska, M; Morawska, L (2013) Environmental Chemistry 10:54-63. HERO ID: 2094317

[Less] Particulate matter is common in our environment and has been linked to human health problems particularly . . . [More] Particulate matter is common in our environment and has been linked to human health problems particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this investigation, the sources of particles measured at two sites in Brisbane, Australia, were identified by analysing particle number size distribution data, chemical species concentrations and meteorological data with two source apportionment models. The source apportionment results obtained by positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and principal component analysis-absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS) were compared with information from the gaseous chemical composition analysis. Although PCA-APCS resolved more sources, the results of the PMF analysis appear to be more reliable. Six common sources were identified by both methods and these include: traffic 1, traffic 2, local traffic, biomass burning and two unassigned factors. Thus motor vehicle related activities had the greatest effect on the data with the average contribution from nearly all sources to the measured concentrations being higher during peak traffic hours and weekdays. Further analyses incorporated the meteorological measurements into the PMF results to determine the direction of the sources relative to the measurement sites, and this indicated that traffic on the nearby road and intersection was responsible for most of the factors. The described methodology that utilised a combination of three types of data related to particulate matter to determine the sources and combination of two receptor models could assist future development of particle emission control and reduction strategies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air Pollution Modeling from Remotely Sensed Data Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Mozumder, C; Reddy, KV; Pratap, D (2013) Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 41:269-277. HERO ID: 2214452

[Less] There is a need for timely information about changes in the air pollution levels in cities for adopting . . . [More] There is a need for timely information about changes in the air pollution levels in cities for adopting precautionary measures. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to develop a model which will be useful to obtain air quality information directly from remotely sensed data easily and quickly. For this study pixel values, vegetation indices and urbanization index from IRS P6 LISS IV and Landsat ETM+ images were used to develop regression based models with Air Pollution Index (API), which were calculated from in-situ air pollutant information. It was found that among the 12 parameters of IRS, highest correlation exists between pixel values in NIR (Near Infra-Red) band (Pearson correlation -0.77) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (Pearson correlation -0.68) and both have inverse relationship with API. In case of Landsat, the highest correlation was observed in SWIR (Short Wave Infra-Red) band (Pearson correlation -0.83) and NIR (Pearson correlation -0.78). Both single and multivariate regression models were calibrated from best correlated variables from IRS and Landsat. Among all the models, multivariate regression model from Landsat with four most correlated variables gave the most accurate air pollution image. On comparison between the API modeled and API interpolated images, 90.5 % accuracy was obtained.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Monitoring fugitive dust emission sources arising from construction: a remote-sensing approach

Authors: Pianalto, FS; Yool, SR (2013) GIScience and Remote Sensing 50:251-270. HERO ID: 2214466

[Less] Construction-related soil disturbance (e.g., road construction, trenching, land stripping, earthmoving, . . . [More] Construction-related soil disturbance (e.g., road construction, trenching, land stripping, earthmoving, and blasting) is a significant source of fugitive (airborne) dust in the atmosphere. Fugitive dust is a primary cause of decreased air quality and may carry airborne pathogens. We use Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) remote-sensing data spanning 1994 through 2009 over southern Arizona to identify source areas of construction-related activity likely to produce fugitive dust. We correlate temporal changes in the mid-infrared spectral response to dust sources from local construction. Image differencing of the TM band 5 (mid-infrared), with a change threshold of +/- 5 SD of the mean, suitably estimates the location and area affected by construction-related soil disturbance. Estimated dust-producing surface area ranges from 10.0 (1996-1997) to 28.3 km(2) (2004-2005), or 0.16-0.44% of the Pima County study area. Our methods aim to automate monitoring of fugitive dust sources by environmental and health agencies and to provide inputs to dust transport, air quality, and climate models.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantification of Carboxylic and Carbonyl Functional Groups in Organic Aerosol Infrared Absorbance Spectra

Authors: Takahama, S; Johnson, A; Russell, LM (2013) Aerosol Science and Technology 47:310-325. HERO ID: 2214534

[Less] Atmospheric aerosols are one of the least understood components of the climate system and incur adverse . . . [More] Atmospheric aerosols are one of the least understood components of the climate system and incur adverse health effects on susceptible populations. Organic aerosols can make up as much as 80% of atmospheric aerosols (Lim and Turpin <xref rid="CIT0041" ref-type="bibr">2002</xref>), and so its quantification and characterization plays an important role in reducing our uncertainty with regards to aerosol impacts on health and climate. As the number of organic molecules in the atmosphere are diverse in number (Hamilton etal. <xref rid="CIT0031" ref-type="bibr">2004</xref>), we advance a functional group representation of organic molecules as measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize the chemical composition of particle samples. This study describes and evaluates the algorithm introduced by Russell etal. (<xref rid="CIT0064" ref-type="bibr">2009</xref>) for apportionment and quantification of oxygenated (carbonyl and hydroxyl) functional groups from infrared absorption spectra. Molar absorptivities for carbonyl and hydroxyl bonds in carboxylic groups are obtained for several dicarboxylic compounds, and applied to a multifunctional compound and mixture to demonstrate the applicability of this method for more complex samples. Furthermore, functional group abundances of two aldehydic compounds, 2-deoxy-d-ribose and glyceraldehyde, atomized from aqueous solution are in quantitative agreement with number of bonds predicted after transformation of these compounds into diols. The procedure for spectra interpretation and quantitative analysis is described through the context of an algorithm in which contributions of background and analyte absorption to the infrared spectrum are apportioned by the superposition of lineshapes constrained by laboratory measurements. Copyright 2013 American Association for Aerosol Research

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimation of aerosol sources and aerosol transport pathways using AERONET clustering and backward trajectories: a case study of Hong Kong

Authors: Wong, M; Nichol, JE; Lee, KHo (2013) International Journal of Remote Sensing 34:938-955. HERO ID: 2214565

[Less] Hong Kong, located adjacent to the rapidly growing urban-industrial region of south China, provides . . . [More] Hong Kong, located adjacent to the rapidly growing urban-industrial region of south China, provides a case of mixed aerosol types (urban, industrial, marine, and long-distance, including dust) from diverse activities and has suffered many serious air pollution episodes over the last decade. However, the sources and transport pathways of aerosols measured and recorded in Hong Kong have not been well researched due to the lack of air quality monitoring stations in east Asia. Here, an integrated method combining Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, backward trajectories, and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) modelling is used to identify probable transport pathways and magnitudes of source contributions for four characteristic aerosol types. These types, which are dominant in Hong Kong during defined climatic and environmental conditions, are urban fine aerosols, urban mixed aerosols, dust, and heavy pollution. They were defined by clustering a total of 730 AERONET data sets between 2005 and 2008. Results show that aerosol types 1 and 2 (urban fine and urban mixed) are associated with regional fine particulate urban emissions and predominantly local urban emissions, respectively, suggesting that mitigating measures taken within Hong Kong itself would be partially effective. Heavy pollution and dust (types 4 and 3) are more associated with short-and long-distance sources, notably heavy industries in nearby southern Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta region, and desert dust from arid regions in north China. The PSCF map representing dust aerosol type shows a wide range of eastward and southeastward trajectories from northwest China to Hong Kong. Although the contribution of dust sources is small compared to anthropogenic aerosols, a serious recent dust outbreak observed in Hong Kong was associated with an elevation of the air pollution index to 500, compared with 50-100 on normal days. The combined use of clustered AERONET, backward trajectories, and PSCF model can help to resolve long-standing issues about source regions and characteristics of pollutants carried to Hong Kong.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sunshine dimming and brightening in Chinese cities (1955-2011) was driven by air pollution rather than clouds

Authors: Wang, Y; Yang, Y; Han, S; Wang, Q; Zhang, J (2013) Climate Research 56:11-20. HERO ID: 1604166

[Less] Superhydrophobic films fabricated on copper and aluminum surfaces have potential applications to solve . . . [More] Superhydrophobic films fabricated on copper and aluminum surfaces have potential applications to solve water condensation and frosting problems on chilled ceiling system. The rough surfaces of copper foils obtained by solution immersion method exhibit the existence of fractal structures. The hydrophobicity of copper surfaces is enhanced with fractal structures. The relationship between contact angles (CAs) and the fractal dimensions (FDs) for surface roughness of Cu samples with different etching time is investigated. Moisture condensation and frosting experiments on the two kinds of surfaces are conducted in natural environment under different chilling temperatures. During condensation, micro water condensate droplets drift down the surface like dust floating in the air. Several larger condensate droplets about 1-2 mm appear on the substrates after 3 h condensation. This continuous jumping motion of the condensate will be beneficial in delaying frosting. The results demonstrate that dense nanostructures on copper surfaces are superior to loose lattice-like microstructures on aluminum surfaces for preventing the formation of large droplets condensate and in delaying the icing. The large water droplets of 2-3 mm in diameter that would form on a common metal foil are sharply decreased to dozens of microns and small droplets are formed on a modified surface, which will then drift down like a fog.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal changes of particulate concentration in the ambient air over the city of Zahedan, Iran

Authors: Rashki, A; Rautenbach, C; Eriksson, PG; Kaskaoutis, DG; Gupta, P (2013) Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health 6:123-135. HERO ID: 2093799

[Less] Air pollution in developing countries has recently become a serious environmental problem, which needs . . . [More] Air pollution in developing countries has recently become a serious environmental problem, which needs more active air quality monitoring and analyses. To assess air quality characteristics over the city of Zahedan, southeast Iran, airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations with aerodynamic diameters of < 10, < 2.5, and < 1.0 mu m were measured during the period July 2008 to March 2010 using an Environmental Dust Monitor (EDM-180). The data were analyzed on a daily, monthly, and seasonal basis. The highest monthly mean PM10 levels (172 mu g m(-3)) were recorded during the summer period (June-August), presumably due to frequent dust storms from the nearby Sistan desert located to the north, while less PM10 concentrations are recorded in winter (December-February; 101 mu g m(-3)). Linear regression analysis between the PM2.5 and PM10 time series reveals high correlation coefficients (r > 0.82) for all seasons, implying that PM10 and PM2.5 may have the same source regions or that they are influenced by the same local conditions. In contrast, neutral correlation is found between PM10 and PM1.0 in autumn and winter. Taking into account that the annual variation of PM1.0 exhibits a clear pattern of peaking in winter and dropping in summer (in contrast to PM10), it is suspected that PM1.0 is of different origin than PM10 and mainly influenced by local anthropogenic emissions. The daily PM10 variation is strongly seasonally defined. The maximum PM10 concentrations occur in the morning hours during winter, autumn (September-November), and early spring (March), while in summer, PM10 concentrations increase significantly in the afternoon, closely associated with the intense northerly winds blowing from the desert. As far as the Air Quality Index (AQI) is concerned, its highest monthly values occur in summer, while they are reduced in winter. Desert dust aerosols are found to be the major component in determining the AQI in Zahedan. The analysis shows that 15.3% of the days are unhealthy for sensitive people, while 2% are considered as hazardous.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles

Authors: Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, SM; Freitas, MC; Pio, CA; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J (2013) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 76:240-251. HERO ID: 1850446

[Less] The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles . . . [More] The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.