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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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Journal Article
Journal Article

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

Authors: Shaaban, M; Abd-Alla, HI; Hassan, AZ; Aly, HF; Ghani, MA (In Press) . HERO ID: 1292151

[Less] ABSTRACT: The present research was performed to investigate the effects of the extracts of four marine . . . [More] ABSTRACT: The present research was performed to investigate the effects of the extracts of four marine sponges on some biochemical parameters including antioxidant and three different carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes: alpha-Amylase, beta-galactosidase and alpha-glucosidase. The sponges were collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically belonged to the genus of Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3) and Stylissa (SP4), respectively. The sponges extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1 and 2) showed, respectively, potent reducing power. Chemical characterization of sponge 1 recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-nbutyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), beta-sitosterol (4) and cholesterol (5), while sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis Toward Innovative Herbal Antibacterial & Antifungal Drugs

Authors: Dhankhar, S; Dhankhar, S; Kumar, M; Ruhil, S; Balhara, M; Chhillar, AK (In Press) Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery. HERO ID: 1311693

[Less] The antimicrobial activities of four medicinal plants Argemona mexicana, Achyranthes aspera, Catharanthus . . . [More] The antimicrobial activities of four medicinal plants Argemona mexicana, Achyranthes aspera, Catharanthus roseus, and Syzygium cumini were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and three Aspergillus species. Extracts from Achyranthes aspera and Catharanthus roseus showed the highest antimicrobial potential (MIC 0.375-0.750 mg/ml) while extract from Argemona mexicana and Syzygium cumini, showed less activity. In disc diffusion assay, only eight out of twenty extracts showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 25.0 µg/ disc. The GCMS investigation reveals the existence of 2-bornanone; 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester; hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and hexatriacontane in water extract fraction of C. roseus. The present research article provides a review of some medicinal plants incorporating antimicrobial drugs, together with recent advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related patents for exploitation of herbal medicine.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of cooking at home on the levels of eight phthalates in foods

Authors: Fierens, T; Vanermen, G; Van Holderbeke, M; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology 4428-4435. HERO ID: 1311695

[Less] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food . . . [More] Food products can be contaminated with toxic compounds via the environment. Another possibility of food contamination is that toxicants are generated in foods or that chemicals migrate from food contact materials into foods during processing. In this study, the effect of cooking at home on the levels of phthalates - world's most used group of plasticisers - in various food types (starchy products, vegetables and meat and fish) was examined. Eight compounds were considered, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Food products were analysed before as well as after cooking (boiling, steaming, (deep-)frying or grilling). In general, phthalate concentrations in foods declined after cooking, except in vegetables, where almost no effect was seen. Several factors influenced the degree of this decline (e.g. weight difference, fat uptake, etc.). Of all phthalates, DEHP, DiBP and BBP were affected the most. In conclusion, cooking at home definitely affected phthalate concentrations in foods and thus needs to be considered in order to correctly assess humans' dietary exposure to these contaminants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplementary material: Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3798891


Archival Material
Archival Material

Quick question about your DIBP studies (Howdeshell et al. 2008, Hannas et al. 2011, Hannas et al. 2012, Furr et al. 2014)

Authors: Yost, E; Gray, E (2018) [Personal Communication] HERO ID: 4241061


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program

Authors: Zidek, A; Macey, K; Mackinnon, L; Patel, M; Poddalgoda, D; Zhang, Y (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:167-178. [Review] HERO ID: 3469257

[Less] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and . . . [More] As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal phthalate biomarker concentrations and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II in a population of young urban children

Authors: Doherty, BT; Engel, SM; Buckley, JP; Silva, MJ; Calafat, AM; Wolff, MS (2017) Environmental Research 152:51-58. HERO ID: 3469358

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests prenatal phthalate exposures may have neurodevelopmental . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Evidence suggests prenatal phthalate exposures may have neurodevelopmental consequences. Our objective was to investigate prenatal exposure to phthalates and cognitive development in a cohort of young urban children.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited pregnant women in New York City from 1998 to 2002 and measured concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites in urine collected in late pregnancy. We administered a neurodevelopmental screening instrument, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), to children who returned for follow-up at approximately 24 months (n=276). We estimated associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal urine and BSID-II indices (Mental Development Index (MDI), Psychomotor Development Index (PDI)).

RESULTS: We observed no associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and performance on the MDI or PDI in boys and girls combined. We did, however, observe evidence of effect measure modification by sex. We observed several negative associations between metabolite concentrations and both MDI and PDI scores among girls, suggesting poorer performance across multiple metabolites, with estimates equal to a 2-3 point decrease in score per ln-unit increase in creatinine-standardized metabolite concentration. Conversely, we observed multiple weakly positive associations among boys, equal to a 1-2 point increase in score per ln-unit increase in metabolite concentration. The strongest associations were for the metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate, and mono(3-carboxylpropyl) phthalate (MCPP).

CONCLUSIONS: Girls of mothers with higher urinary concentrations of MCPP and metabolites of dibutyl phthalates had lower MDI scores on the BSID-II. These same biomarker concentrations were often associated with improved scores among boys. We observed similar results for MnBP, MCPP, and MBzP on the PDI. Given the prevalence of phthalate exposures in reproductive aged women, the implications of potential neurotoxicity warrant further investigation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A molecular imprinting-based multifunctional chemosensor for phthalate esters

Authors: Gong, CB; Ou, XX; Liu, S; Jin, YL; Huang, HR; Tang, Q; Lam, MHW; Chow, CF; Tang, Q (2017) Dyes and Pigments 137:499-506. HERO ID: 3479969

[Less] This paper reports a molecular imprinting-based fluorescent and solvatochromic multifunctional chemosensor . . . [More] This paper reports a molecular imprinting-based fluorescent and solvatochromic multifunctional chemosensor for phthalate esters (PAEs). The multifunctional chemosensor was fabricated through precipitation polymerization using 4-[(1E)-4-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethenyl]-1-allylpyridinium bromide (HPEAPB) as the functional monomer and phthalamide-4,4′-dibutyl dimethyl ester (PDDB) as the mimic template. The molecular imprinting-based chemosensor shows specific affinity toward PDDB and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in ethanol. Of note is that the molecular imprinting-based chemosensor shows turn-off fluorescent response toward PAEs in an ethanol solution with a limit of detection of 2.0 × 10−6 mol L-1 (0.7 ppm) when HPEAPB is in the protonated form (chemosensor 1), and shows solvatochromic properties, fluorescent enhancement and a colorimetric (from orange to bright yellow) response toward PAEs in an ethanol solution with a limit of detection of 4.0 × 10−5 mol L-1 by the naked eye when HPEAPB is in the deprotonated form (chemosensor 2). This multifunctional chemosensor is promising for the simple, accurate and low-cost detection of trace PAEs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.