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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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  • 1.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Preparation of bimodal polypropylene in two-step polymerization

    Authors: Abedi, S; Hassanpour, N
    (2006) Journal of Applied Polymer Science 101:1456-1462.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Polymerization of propylene was carried out by using MgCl2.EtOH.TiCl4.DIBP.TEA.cHMDMS catalyst system . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Polymerization of propylene was carried out by using MgCl2.EtOH.TiCl4.DIBP.TEA.cHMDMS catalyst system in n-heptane, where MgCI2, EtOH, TiCl4, DIBP (di-isobutyl phthalate), TEA (triethyl aluminum), and cHMDMS (cyclohexyl methyl dimethoxy silane) were support, ethanol for alcoholation, catalyst, external donor, cocatalyst (activator), and internal donor, respectively. The catalyst activity and polymer isotacticity were studied by measuring the produced polymer and its solubility in boiling n-heptane, respectively. The molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the polymers were evaluated by gel permeation chromatography. Hydrogen was used for controlling the molecular weight. For producing the bimodal polypropylene, the polymerization was carried out in two steps (i.e., in the presence and absence of hydrogen). It was found that the catalyst showed high activity and stereoselectivity, on the other hand, bimodal polymer could simply be produced in two-step polymerization by using MgCl2.EtOH.TiCl4.DIBP.TEA.cHMDMS catalyst system. Meanwhile, the effect of the step of the hydrogen adding on propylene polymerization was investigated. It was shown that the addition of hydrogen in the second step was more suitable. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, March 2014 Database Search, Web of Science, September 2014 update, Web of Science, June 2015 Update, Web of Science, December 2015 Update, WOS, January 2017 Update, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Not chemical specific
  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
    Journal
    Article
    Effect of polymerization time on the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of polypropylene

    Authors: Abedi, S; Hosseinzadeh, M; Kazemzadeh, MA; Daftari-Besheli, M
    (2006) Journal of Applied Polymer Science 100:368-371.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. GPC studies showed that increasing the polymerisation time increased the number-average molecular weight, . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. GPC studies showed that increasing the polymerisation time increased the number-average molecular weight, the weight-average molecular weight, molecular weight distribution (MWD) and relative MWD (the ratio of two MWDs in two consecutive periods of the polymerisation time) of PP in propylene polymerisation carried out using a magnesium diethoxide/diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP)/titanium tetrachloride/phenyl triethoxy silane (PTES)/triethylaluminium (TEA) catalyst system in the slurry phase. Magnesium diethoxide was the support, DIBP the internal donor, titanium tetrachloride the catalyst, PTES the external donor and TEA the cocatalyst. 20 refs.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, March 2014 Database Search, Web of Science, September 2014 update, Web of Science, June 2015 Update, Web of Science, December 2015 Update, WOS, January 2017 Update, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Manufacture/use
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys]

    Authors: Abe, Y; Yamaguchi, M; Mutsuga, M; Hirahara, Y; Kawamura, Y
    (2012) Shokohin Eiseigaku Zasshi / Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 53:19-27.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, March 2014 Database Search, Pubmed, WOS, PubMed, PubMed, PubMed, Web of Science, Web of Science, WOS, September 2014 update, Web of Science, June 2015 Update, Web of Science, December 2015 Update, Pubmed, WOS, WOS, January 2017 Update, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Exposure levels
  • 4.
    Journal Article
    Journal
    Article
    Effects of Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administrations on Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Apoptosis and Gene Quantification in Mouse Model

    Authors: Absalan, F; Saremy, S; Mansori, E; Taheri Moghadam, M; Eftekhari Moghadam, AR; Ghanavati, R
    (2017) 18:503-513.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups. Control group oocytes were retrieved from mice that received only normal saline. The experimental groups I, II or III oocytes were retrieved from mice treated with 50, 100 or 200 µl DEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. The experimental groups IV, V or VI oocytes were retrieved from mouse exposed to 50, 100 or 200 µl MEHP (2.56 µM) solution, respectively. Fertilization and embryonic development were carried out in OMM and T6 medium. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit, with PI staining. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pou5f1, Ccna1 and Asah1 were examined in oocytes. Finally, mouse embryo at early blastocyst stage was stained with acridine-orange (AO) and ethidium-bromide (EB), in order to access their viability.

    RESULTS: The proportion of oocytes that progressed up to metaphase II (MII) and 2-cells embryo formation stage was significantly decreased by exposure to MEHP or DEHP, in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and PI positive oocytes showed greater quantity in the treated mice than control. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that expression levels of Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 were significantly lower in the treated mouse oocytes than control. The total cell count for blastocyst developed from the treated mouse oocytes was lower than the controls.

    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that oral administration of MEHP and DEHP could negatively affect mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and development in vivo, suggesting that phthalates could be risk factors for mammalians' reproductive health. Additionally, phthalate-induced changes in Pou5f1, Asah1 and Ccna1 transcription level could explain in part, the reduced developmental ability of mouse-treated oocytes.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Toxnet, Pubmed, WOS, Pubmed, Pubmed, Toxnet
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    The descriptive epidemiology of congenital and acquired cryptorchidism in a UK infant cohort

    Authors: Acerini, C; Miles, H; Dunger, D; Ong, K; Hughes, I
    (2009) Archives of Disease in Childhood 94:868-872.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Recent studies in other European countries suggest that the prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Recent studies in other European countries suggest that the prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism continues to increase. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and natural history of congenital cryptorchidism in a UK centre.

    Between October 2001 and July 2008, 784 male infants were born in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study. 742 infants were examined by trained research nurses at birth; testicular position was assessed using standard techniques. Follow-up assessments were completed at ages 3, 12, 18 and 24 months in 615, 462, 393 and 326 infants, respectively.

    The prevalence of cryptorchidism at birth was 5.9% (95% CI 4.4% to 7.9%). Congenital cryptorchidism was associated with earlier gestational age (p<0.001), lower birth weight (p<0.001), birth length (p<0.001) and shorter penile length at birth (p<0.0001) compared with other infants, but normal size after age 3 months. The prevalence of cryptorchidism declined to 2.4% at 3 months, but unexpectedly rose again to 6.7% at 12 months as a result of new cases. The cumulative incidence of "acquired cryptorchidism" by age 24 months was 7.0% and these cases had shorter penile length during infancy than other infants (p = 0.003).

    The prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism was higher than earlier estimates in UK populations. Furthermore, this study for the first time describes acquired cryptorchidism or "ascending testis" as a common entity in male infants, which is possibly associated with reduced early postnatal androgen activity.
    Tagged With: Additional Search Strategies, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Not chemical specific
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
    Reviewed
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    Article
    Maternal urinary phthalates and sex-specific placental mRNA levels in an urban birth cohort

    Authors: Adibi, JJ; Buckley, JP; Lee, MK; Williams, PL; Just, AC; Zhao, Y; Bhat, HK; Whyatt, RM
    (2017) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 16:35.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates in women participants in . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalates in women participants in an urban birth cohort were associated with outcomes in their children related to neurodevelopment, autoimmune disease risk, and fat mass at 3,5,7, and 8 years of life. Placental biomarkers and outcomes at birth may offer biologic insight into these associations. This is the first study to address these associations with candidate genes from the phthalate and placenta literature, accounting for sex differences, and using absolute quantitation methods for mRNA levels.

    METHODS: We measured candidate mRNAs in 180 placentas sampled at birth (HSD17B1, AHR, CGA, CYP19A1, SLC27A4, PTGS2, PPARG, CYP11A1) by quantitative PCR and an absolute standard curve. We estimated associations of loge mRNA with quartiles of urinary phthalate monoesters using linear mixed models. Phthalate metabolites (N = 358) and mRNAs (N = 180) were transformed to a z-score and modeled as independent, correlated vectors in relation to large for gestational age (LGA) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    RESULTS: CGA was associated with 4 out of 6 urinary phthalates. CGA was 2.0 loge units lower at the 3(rd) vs. 1(st) quartile of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5, -0.5) in male placentas, but 0.6 loge units higher (95% CI: -0.8, 1.9) in female placentas (sex interaction p = 0.01). There was an inverse association of MnBP with PPARG in male placentas (-1.1 loge units at highest vs. lowest quartile, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.1). CY19A1, CYP11A1, CGA were associated with one or more of the following in a sex-specific manner: monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MnBP, mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP). These 3 mRNAs were lower by 1.4-fold (95% CI: -2.4, -1.0) in male GDM placentas vs. female and non-GDM placentas (p-value for interaction = 0.04). The metabolites MnBP/MiBP were 16% higher (95% CI: 0, 22) in GDM pregnancies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal concentrations of certain phthalates and outcomes at birth were modestly associated with molecular changes in fetal placental tissue during pregnancy. Associations were stronger in male vs. female placentas, and associations with MnBP and MiBP were stronger than other metabolites. Placental mRNAs are being pursued further as potential mediators of exposure-induced risks to the health of the child.
    Tagged With: Database Searches, Database Searches, Pubmed, WOS, Toxnet, January 2017 Update, New for this search, Studies with Supporting Data, Mechanistic and genotoxicity studies, Pubmed, WOS, Toxnet, Pubmed
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
    Peer
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    Article
    Maternal urinary metabolites of Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate in relation to the timing of labor in a US multicenter pregnancy cohort study

    Authors: Adibi, JJ; Hauser, R; Williams, PL; Whyatt, RM; Calafat, AM; Nelson, H; Herrick, R; Swan, SH
    (2009) American Journal of Epidemiology 169:1015-1024.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in consumer and medical products that can cross . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in consumer and medical products that can cross the placenta, disrupt steroid hormone synthesis, and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The authors examined DEHP exposure in relation to the timing of labor in a pregnancy cohort study of 283 women recruited in 4 US states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri) between 2000 and 2004. The authors estimated associations between concentrations of DEHP metabolites and gestational age at delivery using linear regression models and associations between DEHP metabolites and clinical outcomes using logistic regression models. After covariate adjustment, women at the 75th percentile of DEHP metabolite concentrations had a 2-day-longer mean length of gestation than women at the 25th percentile (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.3). Log-unit increases in mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate concentrations were associated with increased odds of cesarean section delivery (30% and 50% increased odds, respectively), increased odds of delivering at 41 weeks or later (100% and 120% increased odds), and reduced odds of preterm delivery (50% and 60% decreased odds). These data suggest that DEHP may interfere with signaling related to the timing of parturition.
    Tagged With: Pubmed, WOS, PubMed, Pubmed, WOS, WOS, Toxnet, Pubmed, WOS, ToxNet, Cited in September 2014 DIBP Preliminary Materials
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Prenatal exposures to phthalates among women in New York City and Krakow, Poland

    Authors: Adibi, JJ; Perera, FP; Jedrychowski, W; Camann, DE; Barr, D; Jacek, R; Whyatt, RM
    (2003) Environmental Health Perspectives 111:1719-1722.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Experimental evidence has shown that certain phthalates can disrupt endocrine function and induce reproductive . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Experimental evidence has shown that certain phthalates can disrupt endocrine function and induce reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, few data are available on the extent of human exposure to phthalates during pregnancy. As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, we have measured levels of phthalates in 48-hr personal air samples collected from parallel cohorts of pregnant women in New York, New York, (n = 30) and in Krakow, Poland (n = 30). Spot urine samples were collected during the same 48-hr period from the New York women (n = 25). The following four phthalates or their metabolites were measured in both personal air and urine: diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP). All were present in 100% of the air and urine samples. Ranges in personal air samples were as follows: DEP (0.26-7.12 microg/m3), DBP (0.11-14.76 microg/m3), DEHP (0.05-1.08 microg/m3), and BBzP (0.00-0.63 microg/m3). The mean personal air concentrations of DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate, and DEHP are higher in Krakow, whereas the mean personal air concentration of DEP is higher in New York. Statistically significant correlations between personal air and urinary levels were found for DEP and monoethyl phthalate (r = 0.42, p < 0.05), DBP and monobutyl phthalate (r = 0.58, p < 0.01), and BBzP and monobenzyl phthalate (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). These results demonstrate considerable phthalate exposures during pregnancy among women in these two cohorts and indicate that inhalation is an important route of exposure.
    Tagged With: Pubmed, WOS, Database Searches, Database Searches, PubMed, March 2014 Database Search, Pubmed, Pubmed, WOS, PubMed, Web of Science, PubMed, WOS, Toxnet, Toxline, WOS, Web of Science, September 2014 update, Toxline, Web of Science, June 2015 Update, Web of Science, December 2015 Update, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Pubmed, WOS, WOS, ToxNet, PubMed, Exposure levels, WOS, January 2017 Update, WOS, Exposure levels, WOS, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Exposure levels, Exposure levels
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Transcriptional biomarkers of steroidogenesis and trophoblast differentiation in the placenta in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure

    Authors: Adibi, JJ; Whyatt, RM; Hauser, R; Bhat, HK; Davis, BJ; Calafat, AM; Hoepner, LA; Perera, FP; Tang, D; Williams, PL
    (2010) Environmental Health Perspectives 118:291-296.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Background: Phthalates can alter steroidogenesis and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Background: Phthalates can alter steroidogenesis and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)mediated transcription in rodent tissues. The placenta offers a rich source of biomarkers to study these relationships in humans. Objective: We evaluated whether gestational phthalate exposures in humans were associated with altered human placental steroidogenesis and trophoblast differentiation as measured by markers of mRNA transcription. Methods: We measured seven target genes in placentas collected from 54 Dominican and African-American women at delivery in New York City using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), normalized to 18S rRNA. qPCR results for the target genes were log-transformed, converted to Z-scores, and grouped into two functional pathways: steroidogenesis (aromatase, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and cytochrome P450 1B1) and trophoblast differentiation (PPARgamma, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and human chorionic gonadotropin). Repeated measures models were used to evaluate the association of phthalate metabolites measured in third-trimester urine samples with each group of target genes, accounting for correlation among the genes within a pathway. Results: Higher urinary concentrations of five phthalate metabolites were associated with lower expression of the target genes reflecting trophoblast differentiation. Results were less consistent for genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and suggested a nonlinear dose-response pattern for some phthalate metabolites. Conclusions: We observed a significant association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and placental gene expression within two pathways. Further studies are warranted to understand the significance of this association with respect to fetal development and placental function.
    Tagged With: WOS, Database Searches, Pubmed, Web of Science, WOS, WOS, Toxnet, Pubmed, WOS, ToxNet, WOS, Additional Search Strategies, Background check, Primary Source of Health Effects Studies, Human health effects studies, Studies with Supporting Data, Mechanistic and genotoxicity studies, Studies with Supporting Data, Mechanistic and genotoxicity studies, Studies with Supporting Data, Mechanistic and genotoxicity studies, Pubmed
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Characterization of phthalate exposure among pregnant women assessed by repeat air and urine samples

    Authors: Adibi, JJ; Whyatt, RM; Williams, PL; Calafat, AM; Camann, D; Herrick, R; Nelson, H; Bhat, HK; Perera, FP; Silva, MJ; Hauser, R
    (2008) Environmental Health Perspectives 116:467-473.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. BACKGROUND: Although urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are frequently used as biomarkers . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. BACKGROUND: Although urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites are frequently used as biomarkers in epidemiologic studies, variability during pregnancy has not been characterized. METHODS: We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples collected from 246 pregnant Dominican and African-American women. Twenty-eight women had repeat urine samples collected over a 6-week period. We also analyzed 48-hr personal air samples (n = 96 women) and repeated indoor air samples (n = 32 homes) for five phthalate diesters. Mixed-effects models were fit to evaluate reproducibility via intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of using a single specimen versus repeat samples to classify a woman's exposure in the low or high category. RESULTS: Phthalates were detected in 85-100% of air and urine samples. ICCs for the unadjusted urinary metabolite concentrations ranged from 0.30 for mono-ethyl phthalate to 0.66 for monobenzyl phthalate. For indoor air, ICCs ranged from 0.48 [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)] to 0.83 [butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP)]. Air levels of phthalate diesters correlated with their respective urinary metabolite concentrations for BBzP (r = 0.71), di-isobutyl phthalate (r = 0.44), and diethyl phthalate (DEP; r = 0.39). In women sampled late in pregnancy, specific gravity appeared to be more effective than creatinine in adjusting for urine dilution. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary concentrations of DEP and DEHP metabolites in pregnant women showed lower reproducibility than metabolites for di-n-butyl phthalate and BBzP. A single indoor air sample may be sufficient to characterize phthalate exposure in the home, whereas urinary phthalate biomarkers should be sampled longitudinally during pregnancy to minimize exposure misclassification.
    Tagged With: Pubmed, WOS, PubMed, Database Searches, Database Searches, March 2014 Database Search, Pubmed, Pubmed, Web of Science, WOS, PubMed, PubMed, WOS, Toxnet, Toxline, WOS, September 2014 update, Toxline, PubMed, June 2015 Update, Toxline, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Pubmed, WOS, June 2016 Update, ToxNet, PubMed, Exposure levels, Toxnet, WOS, Exposure levels, No Primary Data on Toxic Effects, Exposure levels, Cited in September 2014 DIBP Preliminary Materials
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