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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contamination of Polyvinyl Chloride Cling Films from Cardboard Packaging

Authors: Guazzotti, V; Piergiovanni, L; Vestrucci, G; Limbo, S (2014) Packaging Technology and Science 27:17-27. HERO ID: 2242992

[Less] An analytical screening was undertaken with the aim of investigating the occurrence of di-isobutylphthalate . . . [More] An analytical screening was undertaken with the aim of investigating the occurrence of di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling films for food contact applications and its source of contamination throughout a converting process. Although raw plastic materials used by producers are free from phthalates and analytical evidences confirm their absence after the extrusion process, DIBP can be found in final rolls packaged into cardboard packaging during storage. A solvent extraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was applied on several intermediate products and at different stages taken from the converting process, with the aim of identifying the source of contamination. Different cardboard cores and folding cardboards made of recycled fibres were analyzed, and some of them resulted highly contaminated by DIBP. The storage of final cling films with these materials increased DIBP transfer into PVC. To investigate the possible DIBP transfer mechanism from contaminated paper and adsorption by plastic materials through the gas phase, kinetic experiments were performed in a model system. Results obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C showed a considerable uptake of DIBP into PVC; Weibull model parameters estimated from the experimental data suggested an initial rate of the process dependent on temperature. In addition, to evaluate the partitioning behaviour, adsorption isotherms of DIBP into paper, PVC and low low density polyethylene (LLDPE) cling film were obtained at 40 degrees C. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal

Authors: Santana, J; Giraudi, C; Marengo, E; Robotti, E; Pires, S; Nunes, I; Gaspar, EM (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:1380-1390. HERO ID: 2000822

[Less] This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water . . . [More] This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contaminate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was analyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester (DIBP)) in water samples were quantified (PET and glass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L(-1), good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L(-1), and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L(-1). Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L(-1) for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L(-1) for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L(-1) for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L(-1)) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the cities showed concentration of all three phthalates in their water below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L(-1), the maximum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations measured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data

Authors: Völkel, W; Kiranoglu, M; Schuster, R; Fromme, H; HBMnet (2014) Toxicology Letters 225:222-229. HERO ID: 2219808

[Less] Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites . . . [More] Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

Authors: Cantonwine, DE; Cordero, JF; Rivera-González, LO; Anzalota Del Toro, LV; Ferguson, KK; Mukherjee, B; Calafat, AM; Crespo, N; Jiménez-Vélez, B; Padilla, IY; Alshawabkeh, AN; Meeker, JD (2014) Environment International 62:1-11. HERO ID: 2215404

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate contamination exists in the North Coast karst aquifer system . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate contamination exists in the North Coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico.

METHODS: We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2weeks, 22±2weeks, and 26±2weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP).

RESULTS: Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP).

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations, temporal variability, and predictors of phthalate biomarkers among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Preliminary results suggest several potentially important exposure sources to phthalates in this population and future analysis from this ongoing prospective cohort will help to inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and correlations with phthalates in dust samples from their homes and daycare centers

Authors: Langer, S; Bekö, G; Weschler, CJ; Brive, LM; Toftum, J; Callesen, M; Clausen, G (2014) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 217:78-87. HERO ID: 1600114

[Less] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these . . . [More] Around the world humans use products that contain phthalates, and human exposure to certain of these phthalates has been associated with various adverse health effects. The aim of the present study has been to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(iso-butyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine samples from 441 Danish children (3-6 years old). These children were subjects in the Danish Indoor Environment and Children's Health study. As part of each child's medical examination, a sample from his or her first morning urination was collected. These samples were subsequently analyzed for metabolites of the targeted phthalates. The measured concentrations of each metabolite were approximately log-normally distributed, and the metabolite concentrations significantly correlated with one another. Additionally, the mass fractions of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP in dust collected from the children's bedrooms and daycare centers significantly correlated with the concentrations of these phthalates' metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), respectively) in the children's urine. Such correlations indicate that indoor exposures meaningfully contributed to the Danish children's intake of DEP, DnBP, DiBP and BBzP. This was not the case for DEHP. The urine concentrations of the phthalate metabolites measured in the present study were remarkably similar to those measured in urine samples from children living in countries distributed over four continents. These similarities reflect the globalization of children's exposure to phthalate containing products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men

Authors: Kranich, SK; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, AM; Jørgensen, N (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:706-712. HERO ID: 2215391

[Less] Because of wide exposure to phthalates we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates . . . [More] Because of wide exposure to phthalates we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse anti-androgenic effects. 33 healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-hour urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e. the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e. below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11-0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men two men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level which may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals which also may contribute to a cumulative anti-androgenic exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

UV-induced formation of bromophenols from polybrominated diphenyl ethers

Authors: Bendig, P; Vetter, W (2013) Environmental Science and Technology 47:3665-3670. HERO ID: 2241702

[Less] Bromophenols (BPs) are both man-made industrial compounds and naturally produced secondary metabolites . . . [More] Bromophenols (BPs) are both man-made industrial compounds and naturally produced secondary metabolites of algae and sponges. This study explored the formation of BPs by UV irradiation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Simulated sunlight (10-80 min) and natural sunlight irradiations (5 days) of BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, BDE-196, and technical octabromodiphenyl ether (DE-79) generated hydrodebrominated PBDEs along with up to 0.7-4 mass % BPs. UV absorption spectra were recorded to show that the para-substituted PBDEs and BPs are those predominately transformed because this structural feature causes a significant bathochromic shift of λmax to higher wavelength. A decrease of higher brominated BPs in favor of lower brominated BPs was observed with time. All possible substitution patterns on the BPs formed by the cleavage of the parent PBDEs and respective hydrodebromination products were observed. The main di- and tribromophenols detected were 2,4-diBP > 2,5-diBP and 2,4,6-triBP > 2,4,5-triBP on average. The irradiation conditions were similar to real-world scenarios and emphasized the environmental relevance of these photolysis products of PBDEs. The meta-substituted BPs can be used as markers to distinguish photolytic PBDE transformation products from naturally produced BPs, which exclusively feature bromo-substitutents in ortho- and para-positions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation and properties of isotactic polypropylene obtained from MgCl2-supported TiCl4 catalyst bearing bifunctional internal donor

Authors: Chen, Bin; Zhang, QF; Zhao, LiP; Zhang, X; Zhang, H (2013) Polymer Bulletin 70:2793-2800. HERO ID: 2242927

[Less] In this research, a novel MgCl2-supported TiCl4 catalyst in conjunction with bifunctional internal donor . . . [More] In this research, a novel MgCl2-supported TiCl4 catalyst in conjunction with bifunctional internal donor was synthesized. The effects of internal donor on propylene polymerization behaviors and polymer properties (morphology, M (w) and MWD) were investigated. It was found that the activity of novel catalyst was higher than that of the traditional DIBP-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst, while the catalyst activity was less influenced by the ether group length of the bifunctional internal donor. It was also observed that the MWD of PP obtained by bifunctional internal donor-based catalyst was broader than that of PP made by DIBP-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYSTS WITH INTERNAL ELECTRON DONORS

Authors: Yang, Y; Dang, X; Yao, J; Li, H; Hu, Y (2013) Gaofenzi Xuebao 511-517. HERO ID: 2243504

[Less] Several diesters were developed as internal donors of the Ziegler-Natta catalysts, the molecular structures . . . [More] Several diesters were developed as internal donors of the Ziegler-Natta catalysts, the molecular structures of the diesters are close to that of diisobutyl phthalate. Furthermore,the effects on the performance of the catalysts were studied. Results showed that the catalysts prepared by different preparation processes have the same MgCl2 lattice style (delta). The changing of diesters have notable influences on the porosity and the specific surface areas of the catalysts, and the polymerization performance and the PP isotactic index vary with different addition ways of the diesters in the preparation processes of the catalysts. When the internal donor is diisobutyl cis-cyclohexane dicarboxylate, the polymerization activity of the catalyst and the PP index are the highest,reaching the level of the industry catalyst. In the polymerization of CAT-2A, using CMMS as the external electron donor, the ratio of Si to Ti is 10 and the ratio of Al to Ti is 100, the polymerization activity and PP isotactic index reach the highest level.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ru(phen)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip for rapid quantitative detection of β-agonist residues in swine urine

Authors: Xu, W; Chen, X; Huang, X; Yang, W; Liu, C; Lai, W; Xu, H; Xiong, Y (2013) Talanta 114:160-166. HERO ID: 2241695

[Less] A Ru(phen)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip was developed for the rapid . . . [More] A Ru(phen)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of five common β-agonist (salbutamol (SAL), cimbuterol, terbutaline, clenbuterol, and brombuterol) residues in swine urine. The broad spectrum monoclonal antibodies generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with salbutamol conjugated cationic bovine serum albumin. The fluorescence intensities (FIs) of the strip on the test line (FIT) and control line (FIC) were determined using a strip reader. Parameters that influenced the antibody and antigen interaction on the test strip were investigated by recording FIT and FIC values, and the concept of FIT/FIC ratio was used to offset the inherent heterogeneity of the test strips and the effect of the sample matrix. Under optimal conditions, the linear range for the quantitative detection of SAL was 0.6-5.0 ng/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 1.78 ng/ml. The limit of detection for real swine urine was 0.43 ng/ml. The recovery rates of the intraassay for spiked urine at SAL concentrations of 0.8, 1.5, and 3.5 ng/mL were 88.06%±3.75%, 95.77%±5.33%, and 94.06%±7.43%, whereas those for the interassay were 84.69%±5.0%, 95.06%±9.3%, and 88.34%±7.71%, respectively. The developed quantitative method exhibited excellent agreement with a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for SAL-spiked urine samples, with a correlation of coefficient of 0.95 and a slope of 0.99 (n=36). The results indicated that the developed test strip enables sensitive, reproducible, and easily implementable screening for the rapid and quantitative detection of β-agonist residues in swine urine.