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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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293 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplementary material: Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (In Press) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3798891


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling - Supplementary material

Authors: Bui, TT; Alves, A; Palm-Cousins, A; Voorspoels, S; Covaci, A; Cousins, IT (2017) Environment International 100. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3798199


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites and associations with demographic characteristics in Korean adults

Authors: Lee, KM; Kho, Y; Kim, PG; Park, SH; Lee, JH (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:14669-14681. HERO ID: 3859032

[Less] The objective of this study is to assess human exposure to phthalates and its associations with demographic . . . [More] The objective of this study is to assess human exposure to phthalates and its associations with demographic characteristics of the subjects in the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey. The subjects aged between 18 and 69 were selected through nationwide stratified sampling. A total of 1874 urine samples were collected and stored at -20 °C until measurement for ten selected metabolites of phthalates (MnBP, MiBP, MBzP, MCHP, MnOP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MiNP, and MiDP) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The difference in the level of urinary phthalate metabolites by the characteristics of the subjects was tested for statistical significance using SAS Surveyreg procedure. The coefficients and standard errors from multiple linear regressions were exponentiated to estimate the adjusted proportional change (APC) and 95% CIs compared with a referent level. The proportion of data above LOQ was less than 20% for MCHP, MnOP, MiNP, and MiDP. Geometric means of creatinine-adjusted concentrations (unit: μg/g creatinine) of six other phthalate metabolites among Korean adults were 41.7 (95% CI 39.6-43.9) for MnBP, 17.1 (95% CI 16.1-18.1) for MiBP, 15.7 (95% CI 14.4-17.1) for MBzP, 8.65 (95% CI 8.10-9.22) for MEHP, 17.5 (95% CI 16.8-18.3) for MEOHP, and 38.1 (95% CI 36.2-40.2) for MEHHP. Urinary level of phthalates tended to be higher among subjects with older age, females, and those with vigorous daily physical activity and tended to be lower among drinkers and those with higher income. Our results suggest that the level of phthalate exposure is significant among Korean adults and thus warrants further studies to identify major source and route of exposure to phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland

Authors: Wowkonowicz, P; Kijeńska, M (2017) PLoS ONE 12:e0174986. HERO ID: 3859036

[Less] Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more . . . [More] Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites over the first 15 months of life and risk assessment - CHECK cohort study

Authors: Kim, S; Lee, J; Park, J; Kim, HJ; Cho, GJ; Kim, GH; Eun, SH; Lee, JJ; Choi, G; Suh, E; Choi, S; Kim, S; Kim, SK; Kim, YD; Kim, SY; Kim, S; Eom, S; Moon, HB; Kim, S; Choi, K (2017) Science of the Total Environment 607-608:881-887. HERO ID: 3859052

[Less] Phthalates are important group of endocrine disruptors. Infants and young children are susceptible to . . . [More] Phthalates are important group of endocrine disruptors. Infants and young children are susceptible to phthalate exposure. However, information on the phthalate exposure during the early stages of life is very limited. This study was conducted to understand the temporal trend of exposure to major phthalates among infants of Korea during the first 15months after birth, and to estimate associated risks. A total of 286 urine samples were collected from 171 children at 3, 9, 12, or 15 months of age, with 77 children sampled for two or more times. Four phthalates, i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were chosen, and their major metabolites were analyzed in the urine. The DEHP metabolites were detected in 100% of the urine samples at relatively higher levels compared to those reported in other countries. The levels of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) were generally lower. Urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites, especially DEHP metabolites, increased as children grew older. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) calculated for DEHP metabolites over time were high (0.7-0.8), suggesting persistence of consistent exposure sources during this sensitive period of life. Hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated from daily intake estimates divided by recommended toxicity thresholds. Among the study population, 4, 16, and 26% of the children showed HI >1 at 9, 12, and 15months of age, respectively. DEHP exposure explained most of the risk estimates. Considering vulnerability of young children to endocrine disruption, efforts to identify sources of exposure and to develop appropriate mitigation options are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) from 1988 to 2015 and a comparison with US NHANES data from 1999 to 2012

Authors: Koch, HM; Rüther, M; Schütze, A; Conrad, A; Pälmke, C; Apel, P; Brüning, T; Kolossa-Gehring, M (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:130-141. HERO ID: 3469204

[Less] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early . . . [More] The German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) continuously collects 24-h urine samples since the early 1980s in Germany. In this study we analyzed 300 urine samples from the years 2007 to 2015 for 21 phthalate metabolites (representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates) and combined the data with two previous retrospective measurement campaigns (1988 to 2003 and 2002 to 2008). The combined dataset comprised 1162 24-h urine samples spanning the years 1988 to 2015. With this detailed set of human biomonitoring data we describe the time course of phthalate exposure in Germany over a time frame of 27 years. For the metabolites of the endocrine disrupting phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) we observed a roughly ten-fold decline in median metabolite levels from their peak levels in the late 1980s/early 1990s compared to most recent levels from 2015. Probably, bans (first enacted in 1999) and classifications/labelings (enacted in 2001 and 2004) in the European Union lead to this drop. A decline in di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) metabolite levels set in only quite recently, possibly due to its later classification as a reproductive toxicant in the EU in 2009. In a considerable number of samples collected before 2002 health based guidance values (BE, HBM I) have been exceeded for DnBP (27.2%) and DEHP (2.3%) but also in recent samples some individual exceedances can still be observed (DEHP 1.0%). A decrease in concentration for all low molecular weight phthalates, labelled or not, was seen in the most recent years of sampling. For the high molecular weight phthalates, DEHP seems to have been substituted in part by di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), but DiNP metabolite levels have also been declining in the last years. Probably, non-phthalate alternatives increasingly take over for the phthalates in Germany. A comparison with NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data from the United States covering the years 1999 to 2012 revealed both similarities and differences in phthalate exposure between Germany and the US. Exposure to critical phthalates has decreased in both countries with metabolite levels more and more aligning with each other, but high molecular weight phthalates substituting DEHP (such as DiNP) seem to become more important in the US than in Germany.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure of children to phthalates and the impact of consumer practices in Slovakia

Authors: Šidlovská, M; Petrovičová, I; Kolena, B; Pilka, T; Šovčíková, E; Trnovec, T (2017) Reviews on Environmental Health 32:211-214. HERO ID: 3859080

[Less] Phthalates are environmental pollutants that can enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation and dermal . . . [More] Phthalates are environmental pollutants that can enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption. Food constitutes the most important source of human exposure to these chemicals. The aim of our study was the biological monitoring of exposure to eight phthalate metabolites in children (n=107), 10-12 years of age, living in eastern Slovakia. Additionally, we analysed some associations between anthropometric measures, questionnaire data (i.e. eating and drinking habits, practice of personal care products) and concentrations of phthalate metabolites. Because of the short half-life of phthalates, within 24-48 h, we used 24-h recalls to assess dietary intakes. We used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of spot urine samples to determine concentrations of phthalate metabolites mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-iso-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-carboxy pentyl and mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). We found statistically significant association between consumer practices and concentration of some phthalate metabolites, concretely consumption of milk and dairy products with MBzP and margarine with MEP (p<0.01 in both cases) and margarine with 5oxo-MEHP, hot beverages with 5OH-MEHP, baguettes and semifinished products with MEP (p<0.05 in all cases). Further, we found relationship between use of cosmetic products and phthalate concentrations, nail polish application and MEP and use of body lotion and MEHP (p<0.05 in both cases). We concluded that consumer practices (including eating and drinking habits and personal care) represent the substantial source of phthalate exposure in Slovak children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure sources and their relative contributions to urinary phthalate metabolites among children in Taiwan

Authors: Chen, CC; Wang, YH; Wang, SL; Huang, PC; Chuang, SC; Chen, MH; Chen, BH; Sun, CW; Fu, HC; Lee, CC; Wu, MT; Chen, ML; Hsiung, CA (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:869-879. HERO ID: 3859066

[Less] Phthalate exposure is omnipresent and known to have developmental and reproductive effects in children. . . . [More] Phthalate exposure is omnipresent and known to have developmental and reproductive effects in children. The aim of this study was to determine the phthalate exposure sources and their relative contributions among children in Taiwan. During the first wave of the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT), in 2012, we measured 8 urinary phthalate metabolites in 226 children aged 1-11 years old and in 181 children from the same cohort for the wave 2 study in 2014. A two-stage statistical analysis approach was adopted. First, a stepwise regression model was used to screen 80 questions that explored the exposure frequency and lifestyle for potential associations. Second, the remaining questions with positive regression coefficients were grouped into the following 6 exposure categories: plastic container/packaging, food, indoor environment, personal care products, toys, and eating out. A mixed model was then applied to assess the relative contributions of these categories for each metabolite. The use of plastic container or food packaging were dominant exposure sources for mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). The indoor environment was a major exposure source of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). The consumption of seafood showed a significant correlation with MEHP. The children's modified dietary behavior and improved living environment in the second study wave were associated with lower phthalate metabolite levels, showing that phthalate exposures can be effectively reduced.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toxicoanthropology: Phthalate exposure in relation to market access in a remote forager-horticulturalist population

Authors: Sobolewski, M; Weiss, B; Martin, M; Gurven, M; Barrett, E (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:799-809. HERO ID: 3859047

[Less] Phthalates are a class of plasticizing chemicals produced in high volume and widely found in consumer . . . [More] Phthalates are a class of plasticizing chemicals produced in high volume and widely found in consumer products. Evidence suggests that phthalates may have non-monotonic effects on reproductive hormone activity. With exposure to phthalates virtually ubiquitous among industrialized populations, identifying unexposed and/or minimally exposed human populations is essential for understanding the effects of low level exposures. Our primary objective was to quantify urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in the Tsimane', a remote population of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists. Our secondary objectives were to determine if phthalate metabolite concentrations vary in relation to access to market goods; and to explore relationships between phthalate and reproductive hormone metabolite concentrations. Given that phthalate exposure is of particular concern during fetal development, we focused on reproductive age women in the current analyses. Phthalate metabolites were assayed in urine samples from 59 naturally cycling, reproductive age Tsimane' women. Market access was assessed as: (1) distance from residence to the largest nearby town (San Borja, Bolivia) and (2) Spanish fluency. Urinary reproductive hormone metabolite concentrations were quantified using enzyme immunoassays. We fit linear models to examine: (1) predictors of phthalate exposure; and (2) relationships between urinary phthalate and reproductive hormone metabolite concentrations. Eight phthalate metabolites were detectable in at least 75% of samples. Median concentrations were up to an order of magnitude lower than industrialized populations. Proximity to San Borja and Spanish fluency were strong predictors of exposure. In exploratory analyses, the sum of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (∑DEHP) and Mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were significantly associated with altered concentrations of urinary reproductive hormone metabolites. Remote, subsistence populations, like the Tsimane', offer a unique window into the health effects of endocrine active compounds because: (1) exposures are low and likely to be first generation; (2) a natural fertility lifestyle allows for exploration of reproductive effects; and (3) ever-increasing globalization will result in increasing exposure in the next decade.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling

Authors: Bui, TT; Alves, A; Palm-Cousins, A; Voorspoels, S; Covaci, A; Cousins, IT (2017) Environment International 100:148–155. HERO ID: 3483277

[Less] There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the . . . [More] There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring long-term exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Instead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.