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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Single dose ivabradine versus intravenous metoprolol for heart rate reduction before coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients receiving long-term calcium channel-blocker therapy

Authors: Celik, O; Atasoy, M; Ertürk, M; Yalçin, A; Aksu, H; Diker, M; Aktürk, I; Atasoy, I (2014) Acta Radiologica. HERO ID: 2241694

[Less] BACKGROUND: In patients with contraindication for beta-blockers who are also under . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In patients with contraindication for beta-blockers who are also under long-term calcium channel-blocker therapy for any reason, ivabradine may be used as an alternative treatment to achieve the target heart rate.

PURPOSE: To assess whether single dose oral ivabradine in patients referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is safe and can significantly decrease heart rate compared to intravenous (i.v.) metoprolol in patients receiving long-term calcium channel-blocker therapy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: One-hundred and twenty patients who were under calcium channel-blocker therapy referred for CCTA were randomized to premedication with single dose (15 mg) ivabradine (n = 63) or i.v. metoprolol (5-10 mg) (n = 62). Hearth rate (HR) was assessed at admission (HR1), prescan (HR2), and during CCTA scan (HR3) for all patients. Blood pressure (BP) was measured before medication (BP1) and immediately before CCTA scan (BP2).

RESULTS: Although the HR averages of two groups were not significantly different before medication (HRIv1 = 80 ± 7 bpm vs. HRβ1 = 81 ± 7 bpm; P = 0.42), significant HR reduction was observed in the ivabradine group (HRIv3 = 62 ± 7 bpm) when compared to the metoprolol group (HRβ3 = 66 ± 6 bpm; P = 0.001). Decreases in HR forivabradine (18 ± 6 bpm) was significantly higher than for metoprolol (15 ± 4 bpm; P = 0.003) without relevant side-effects. Ivabradine showed no significant effect on either systolic BP or diastolic BP (siBPIv1, 139 ± 10; siBPIv2, 138 ± 10; P = 0.260; diBPIv1, 81 ± 7; diBPIv2, 81 ± 6; P = 0.59). Nevertheless, metoprolol group demonstrated significant reduction in both SiBP and DiBP (siBPβ1, 136 ± 11; siBPβ2 130 ± 11; P < 0.001; diBPβ1, 81 ± 6; diBPβ2, 78 ± 6; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Single dose ivabradine is safe and significantly more effective than i.v. metoprolol in decreasing HR in patients under calcium channel-blocker therapy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contamination of Polyvinyl Chloride Cling Films from Cardboard Packaging

Authors: Guazzotti, V; Piergiovanni, L; Vestrucci, G; Limbo, S (2014) Packaging Technology and Science 27:17-27. HERO ID: 2242992

[Less] An analytical screening was undertaken with the aim of investigating the occurrence of di-isobutylphthalate . . . [More] An analytical screening was undertaken with the aim of investigating the occurrence of di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cling films for food contact applications and its source of contamination throughout a converting process. Although raw plastic materials used by producers are free from phthalates and analytical evidences confirm their absence after the extrusion process, DIBP can be found in final rolls packaged into cardboard packaging during storage. A solvent extraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was applied on several intermediate products and at different stages taken from the converting process, with the aim of identifying the source of contamination. Different cardboard cores and folding cardboards made of recycled fibres were analyzed, and some of them resulted highly contaminated by DIBP. The storage of final cling films with these materials increased DIBP transfer into PVC. To investigate the possible DIBP transfer mechanism from contaminated paper and adsorption by plastic materials through the gas phase, kinetic experiments were performed in a model system. Results obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C showed a considerable uptake of DIBP into PVC; Weibull model parameters estimated from the experimental data suggested an initial rate of the process dependent on temperature. In addition, to evaluate the partitioning behaviour, adsorption isotherms of DIBP into paper, PVC and low low density polyethylene (LLDPE) cling film were obtained at 40 degrees C. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Role of Two Different Internal Donors (Phthalate and 1,3-Diether) on the Formation of Surface Structure in MgCl2-Supported Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Their Catalytic Performance of Propylene Polymerization

Authors: Song, BoG; Ihm, S (2014) Journal of Applied Polymer Science 131. HERO ID: 2347852

[Less] The role of two different internal donors [a phthalate (diisobutylphthalate) and a 1,3-diether (2,2-diisobutyl-1,3-dimethoxypropane)] . . . [More] The role of two different internal donors [a phthalate (diisobutylphthalate) and a 1,3-diether (2,2-diisobutyl-1,3-dimethoxypropane)] on the formation of surface structure in MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts and their catalytic performance of propylene polymerization was investigated by comparing and correlating the catalyst structures and the polymerization characteristics. In the catalyst formation, the 1,3-diether had better affinity for the MgCl2 surface than the phthalate and the 1,3-diether generated the (110) surface more than the (104) surface while the phthalate generated both the (110) and (104) surfaces of MgCl2. With both donors introduced, the (110) and (104) surfaces were generated simultaneously, although the (110) surface was dominant due to the higher affinity via the 1,3-diether. In addition, it seemed probable that the active sites formed on the (110) plane showed isospecific characteristics in the presence of a donor while those formed on the (104) plane could be isospecific regardless of a donor. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40536.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optimisation of an analytical method and results from the inter-laboratory comparison of the migration of regulated substances from food packaging into the new mandatory European Union simulant for dry foodstuffs

Authors: Jakubowska, N; Beldì, G; Peychès Bach, A; Simoneau, C (2014) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. HERO ID: 2241690

[Less] This paper presents the outcome of the development, optimisation and validation at European Union level . . . [More] This paper presents the outcome of the development, optimisation and validation at European Union level of an analytical method for using poly(2,6-diphenyl phenylene oxide - PPPO), which is stipulated in Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011, as food simulant E for testing specific migration from plastics into dry foodstuffs. Two methods for fortifying respectively PPPO and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film with surrogate substances that are relevant to food contact were developed. A protocol for cleaning the PPPO and an efficient analytical method were developed for the quantification of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), benzophenone (BP), diisobutylphthalate (DiBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) from PPPO. A protocol for a migration test from plastics using small migration cells was also developed. The method was validated by an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) with 16 national reference laboratories for food contact materials in the European Union. This allowed for the first time data to be obtained on the precision and laboratory performance of both migration and quantification. The results showed that the validation ILC was successful even when taking into account the complexity of the exercise. The results showed that the method performance was 7-9% repeatability standard deviation (rSD) for most substances (regardless of concentration), with 12% rSD for the high level of BHT and for DiBP at very low levels. The reproducibility standard deviation results for the 16 European Union laboratories were in the range of 20-30% for the quantification from PPPO (for the three levels of concentrations of the five substances) and 15-40% from migration experiments from the fortified plastic at 60°C for 10 days and subsequent quantification. Considering the lack of data previously available in the literature, this work has demonstrated that the validation of a method is possible both for migration from a film and for quantification into a corresponding simulant for specific migration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Unraveling the Relative Importance of Oral and Dermal Contaminant Exposure in Reptiles: Insights from Studies Using the Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

Authors: Weir, SM; Talent, LG; Anderson, TA; Salice, CJ (2014) PLoS ONE 9:e99666. HERO ID: 2345947

[Less] Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied . . . [More] Despite widespread recognition of significant data deficiencies, reptiles remain a relatively understudied taxon in ecotoxicology. To conduct ecological risk assessments on reptiles frequently requires using surrogate taxa such as birds, but recent research suggests that reptiles have significantly different exposure profiles and toxicant sensitivity. We exposed western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis, to the same quantities of three model chemicals via oral (gavage) and dermal (ventral skin application) exposure for either 24 or 48 hours. Three phthalate esters (di-methyl phthalate [DMP], di-iso-butyl phthalate [DIBP], and di-n-octyl phthalate [DNOP]) were chosen as model chemicals because they represent a gradient of lipophilicity but are otherwise structurally similar. Overall, the more lipophilic phthalates (DIBP and DNOP) were found to have higher concentrations in tissues than the less lipophilic DMP. Significant differences in tissue concentrations between DIBP and DNOP were tissue-dependent, suggesting that delivery to a site of action following exposure is not only a simple function of lipophilicity. In dermal treatments, DMP usually had fewer detections (except in ventral skin samples), suggesting that lipophilicity (log Kow>2) is a requirement for uptake across the skin. In general, tissue residues were greater in oral treatments than dermal treatments (significant in adipose and liver tissue), but differences were driven strongly by differences in DMP which did not appear to be absorbed well across skin. When differences in tissue residue concentrations between oral and dermal exposure did occur, the difference was not drastic. Taken together these results suggest that dermal exposure should be considered in risk assessments for reptilian receptors. Dermal exposure may be an especially important route for reptiles as their ectothermic physiology translates to lower energetic demands and dietary exposure compared to birds and mammals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

MgCl2-Supported Ziegler-Natta Catalyst Containing Dibenzoyl Sulfide Donor for Propylene Polymerization

Authors: Kim, G; Um, BH; Son, KiC; Oh, K; Koh, H (2014) Journal of Applied Polymer Science 131. HERO ID: 2347887

[Less] Polypropylene (PP) was synthesized in the presence of Ziegler-Natta catalysts composed of MgCl2-TiCl4-internal . . . [More] Polypropylene (PP) was synthesized in the presence of Ziegler-Natta catalysts composed of MgCl2-TiCl4-internal donor/AlR3-external donor. Diisobutyl phthalate is a well-known internal donor in current PP production. Nevertheless, phthalates are often blamed as endocrine disruptors. The objective is to find an ecofriendly internal donor producing PP with maintaining its physical properties. When using dibenzoyl sulfide, synthesized PP shows the superiority to diisobutyl phthalate in the activity of catalyst (40 vs. 22 kg PP/g catalyst), the isotacticity of polymer (99.5 vs. 98.0 wt % of heptane insolubles), and the molecular weight distribution of PP product (M-w/M-n = 4.8 vs. 4). (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal

Authors: Santana, J; Giraudi, C; Marengo, E; Robotti, E; Pires, S; Nunes, I; Gaspar, EM (2014) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21:1380-1390. HERO ID: 2000822

[Less] This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water . . . [More] This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contaminate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was analyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester (DIBP)) in water samples were quantified (PET and glass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L(-1), good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L(-1), and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L(-1). Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L(-1) for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L(-1) for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L(-1) for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6.5 μg L(-1)) than in PET bottled water. These concentrations do not represent direct risk to human health. Regarding potable tap water, only DIBP and DEHP were detected. Two of the cities showed concentration of all three phthalates in their water below the limits of detection of the method. All the samples showed phthalate concentrations below 6 μg L(-1), the maximum admissible concentration in water established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations measured in Portuguese bottled waters do not represent any risk for adult's health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasticizer residues by HRGC-MS in espresso coffees from capsules, pods and moka pots

Authors: Di Bella, G; Potorti, AG; Lo Turco, V; Saitta, M; Dugo, G (2014) Food Control 41:185-192. HERO ID: 2346096

[Less] Plasticizer residues in espresso coffee made from three capsule typologies, pods and moka pots were . . . [More] Plasticizer residues in espresso coffee made from three capsule typologies, pods and moka pots were determined by GC-MS. The plasticizer migration from the coffee powder into espresso coffee as a result of brewing was evaluated. Among 27 investigated plasticizers, only DMP, DiBP, and DEHP were found in all analyzed samples. DEA and DEHS were found in capsules made from polystyrene with lid of aluminum and a heat seal layer of polyethylene. DEHA residues were determined in moka pots, in pods and in capsules made from polypropylene and in polypropylene with a micro-perforated film of low-density polyethylene lids. The migration assessment showed that DMP amounts were significantly higher in all capsule types, pods and moka pots, probably due to transfer from the plastic components of coffee machines, capsules and rubber sealing rings. In comparison with current values proposed by European agencies for food safety, the daily intake of plasticizers from espresso coffee was very low. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal phthalate exposures and neurobehavioral development scores in boys and girls at 6-10 years of age

Authors: Kobrosly, RW; Evans, S; Miodovnik, A; Barrett, ES; Thurston, SW; Calafat, AM; Swan, SH (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122:521-528. HERO ID: 2241684

[Less] BACKGROUND: There is concern over potential neurobehavioral effects of prenatal phthalate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: There is concern over potential neurobehavioral effects of prenatal phthalate exposures, but available data are inconsistent.

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and neurobehavioral scores among children.

METHODS: We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine samples from 153 pregnant participants in the Study for Future Families, a multicenter cohort study. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the children were 6-10 years of age. We estimated overall and sex-specific associations between phthalate concentrations and behavior using adjusted multiple regression interaction models.

RESULTS: In boys concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate were associated with higher scores for inattention (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.50), rule-breaking behavior (β = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.38), aggression (β = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.59), and conduct problems (β = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.58), while the molar sum of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites was associated with higher scores for somatic problems (β = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.28). Higher monobenzyl phthalate concentrations were associated with higher scores for oppositional behavior (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.32) and conduct problems (β = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.37) in boys, but with reduced anxiety scores in girls (β = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01). In general, the associations reported above were close to the null among girls. Model coefficients represent the difference in the square-root transformed outcome score associated with a 1-unit increase in log-transformed metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest associations between exposure to certain phthalates in late pregnancy and behavioral problems in boys. Given the few studies on this topic and methodological and population differences among studies, additional research is warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate intake by infants calculated from biomonitoring data

Authors: Völkel, W; Kiranoglu, M; Schuster, R; Fromme, H; HBMnet (2014) Toxicology Letters 225:222-229. HERO ID: 2219808

[Less] Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites . . . [More] Urine samples (n=207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1μg/kg b.w. and 8.5μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates.