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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor-phase migration of DiBP and DBP through barrier-coated paperboard: Correlation between a permeation test method and simulated migration

Authors: Skillington, P; Cronje, JC; Wewers, F; Hartmann, PC (2015) Tappi Journal 14:247-256. HERO ID: 2854970

[Less] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates . . . [More] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates the migration of organic vapors and the actual migration of chemical contaminants from barrier-coated paperboard packaging. A correlation of this nature would enable manufacturers of barrier-coated paperboard to estimate the barrier properties of paperboard on a quality control level. A direct correlation was not plausible because the migration mechanisms that apply to the permeation test method and the actual migration differ. However, an indirect correlation was established. The permeation test method gave an indication of film integrity, whereas the actual migration was found to be rather dependent on coating weight. The spiking method, testing temperature, and vapor pressure of the contaminants were found to be variables directly affecting the validity of the correlation between permeation and migration methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Isolation and characterization of an n-hexadecane degrading Acinetobacter baumannii KSS1060 from a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant

Authors: Shiri, Z; Kermanshahi, RK; Soudi, MR; Farajzadeh, D (2015) International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12:455-464. HERO ID: 2816202

[Less] Hydrocarbons are widespread in the environment, but because of the massive utilization of petroleum . . . [More] Hydrocarbons are widespread in the environment, but because of the massive utilization of petroleum products, they are nowadays strongly involved in environmental pollution. Bioremediation is the obliging technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Therefore, to investigate the potential of petrochemical hydrocarbon (HC)-degrading indigenous microorganisms in wastewater samples collected from Fajr petrochemical wastewater treatment plants, a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from this hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater and examined for its ability to utilize hexadecane. This strain was capable to grow on n-hexadecane as the sole source of carbon and energy. The ability of the isolate to degrade n-hexadecane was assessed by growth assays and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Using GC analysis, it was shown that the strain KSS1060 was able to degrade 62 % of n-hexadecane within 6 days, which mostly (51.6 %) occurred within the first 24 h. Identification of this hexadecane-degrader bacterium was carried out using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Additionally, characterization of chemical composition of wastewater samples by the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of Hexanal, Benzene methanol, Indanol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester, diisobutyl phthalate, and Phenol, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) in the major constituents of wastewater. In conclusion, this study can focus on more cost-efficient applications of native bacterial strains for the large-scale biodegradation of wastewater samples from petrochemical plant in industry, where it causes disturbing problems due to its harmful effects on different organisms and human beings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of a novel fourth-generation supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization: Relationship between catalyst structure and polymerization properties

Authors: Liu T; Li, WL; Xia, XZ Mao, BQ (2015) China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology 17:39-47. HERO ID: 2855036

[Less] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta . . . [More] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta catalyst for isotactic propylene polymerization, and researches on the relationship between catalyst structure and polymer properties. The spherical support with the chemical composition of CH3CH2OMgOCH(CH2Cl)(2) has been synthesized from a new dispersion system and is used as the supporting material to prepare Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The XRD analysis indicates that the catalyst is fully activated with delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. The far-IR spectrometric results confirm again the presence of delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. Textural property of the active catalyst exhibits high surface area coupled with high porosity. The high activity in propylene polymerization is mainly ascribed to the full activation and the porous structure of the catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer mapping results indicate a uniform titanium distribution throughout the catalyst particles. Particle size analysis shows that the catalyst has a narrow particle size distribution. The perfect spherical shape, uniform titanium distribution and narrow particle size distribution of the catalyst confirm the advantage of polymer particles production with less fines. The solid state C-13 NMR and mid-IR spectroscopic analyses indicate that there exists strong complexation between diisobutyl phthalate and MgCl2, which leads to the high isotacticity of polypropylene.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles

Authors: Al-Natsheh, M; Alawi, M; Fayyad, M; Tarawneh, I (2015) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 985C:103-109. HERO ID: 2807609

[Less] A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight . . . [More] A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for DnOP and 5-100μg/ml for DINP and DIDP. The coefficients of variation (precision) for the total PAEs method were in the range 0.55-12.10% and for the migration method were in the range 0.72-7.70%. Recovery values for total PAEs and for the migrated PAEs were ranged within 90.6-111.7% and 86.3-117.2%; respectively. Both developed methods were used to survey the Jordanian market, where twenty seven samples were collected and tested for plastic type, total PAEs and migrated PAEs. Seventeen of those samples were found to be polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and all of them containing total PAEs having concentrations in excess of the allowed limit of 0.1% (w/w). The rest of the samples were non-PVC and only one of them containing PAEs, but below the allowed limit. In contrast, all the migration results were found to be well within the allowed limits. It was also found that as the PAEs total concentration increase, the corresponding migrated value increase, while the opposite trend holds for in the PAEs molecular weight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites in Spanish pregnant women

Authors: Valvi, D; Monfort, N; Ventura, R; Casas, M; Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:220-231. HERO ID: 2804030

[Less] Developmental exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse health outcomes but information . . . [More] Developmental exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse health outcomes but information on the variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy is limited. We evaluated in Spanish pregnant women (n=391) the reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and predictors of exposure. We measured mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl) phthalate (7-OHMMeOP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-carboxyhexyl) phthalate (MCMHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in two spot urine samples collected in the first and third pregnancy trimesters. Questionnaires on predictors and food-frequency questionnaires were administered in the first and/or third pregnancy trimesters. Using creatinine-adjusted phthalate metabolite concentrations (log10-trasformed) we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Linear mixed and regression models assessed the associations between predictors and phthalate metabolites. The ICCs ranged from 0.24 to 0.07 and were higher for MBzP, MEP, MiBP, and lower for MEOHP and MEHHP. Overweight, lower education and social class, and less frequent consumption of organic food were associated with higher levels of some phthalate metabolites. The use of household cleaning products (bleach, ammonia, glass cleaners, oven cleaning sprays and degreasing products) at least once per week during pregnancy was associated with 10-44% higher urinary phthalate metabolites. Bottled-water consumption, consumption of food groups usually stored in plastic containers or cans, use of plastic containers for heating food and cosmetic use were not associated with increased concentrations of phthalate metabolites. This large study with repeated phthalate measurements suggests that, in this Spanish setting, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and household cleaning product use are better predictors of phthalate exposure levels in pregnant women than average water and food consumption and use of plastic containers and cosmetics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Analysis of phthalates in aromatic and deodorant aerosol products and evaluation of exposure risk]

Authors: Sato, Y; Sugaya, N; Nakagawa, T; Morita, M (2015) Yakugaku Zasshi 135:631-642. HERO ID: 2855034

[Less] We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl . . . [More] We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detected, and their concentrations ranged from 0.0085-0.23% DEP in nine samples, 0.012-0.045% DBP in four samples, and 0.012-0.033% DEHP in four samples. No other phthalate esters were detected. Furthermore, we estimated phthalate exposure via breathing in commonly used aromatic and deodorant aerosol products, then evaluated the associated risk. The estimated levels of phthalate exposure were lower than the tolerated daily limit, but the results indicated that aromatic and deodorant aerosol products could be a significant source of phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Feasibility of ultra-high performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for accurate determination of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples

Authors: Herrero, L; Calvarro, S; Fernández, MA; Quintanilla-López, JE; González, MJ; Gómara, B (2015) Analytica Chimica Acta 853:625-636. HERO ID: 2718046

[Less] Phthalates (PAEs) are ubiquitous toxic chemical compounds. During the last few years, some phthalate . . . [More] Phthalates (PAEs) are ubiquitous toxic chemical compounds. During the last few years, some phthalate metabolites (MPAEs) have been proposed as appropriate biomarkers in human urine samples to determine PAE human intake and exposure. So, it is necessary to have fast, easy, robust and validated analytical methods to determine selected MPAEs in urine human samples. Two different instrumental methods based on gas (GC) and ultra-high performance liquid (UHPLC) chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) have been optimized, characterized and validated for the simultaneous determination of nine primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples. Both instrumental methods have similar sensitivity (detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 8.89pgμL(-1) and from 0.06 to 0.49pgμL(-1) in GC-MS and UHPLC-MS(2), respectively), precision (repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, which was lower than 8.4% in both systems, except for 5OH-MEHP in the case of GC-MS) and accuracy. But some advantages of the UHPLC-MS(2) method, such as more selectivity and lower time in the chromatographic runs (6.8min vs. 28.5min), have caused the UHPLC-MS(2) method to be chosen to analyze the twenty one human urine samples from the general Spanish population. Regarding these samples, MEP showed the highest median concentration (68.6μgL(-1)), followed by MiBP (23.3μgL(-1)), 5cx-MEPP (22.5μgL(-1)) and MBP (19.3μgL(-1)). MMP (6.99μgL(-1)), 5oxo-MEHP (6.15μgL(-1)), 5OH-MEHP (5.30μgL(-1)) and MEHP (4.40μgL(-1)) showed intermediate levels. Finally, the lowest levels were found for MBzP (2.55μgL(-1)). These data are within the same order of magnitude as those found in other similar populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening for chemicals in paper and board packaging for food use: Chemometric approach and estimation of migration

Authors: Guazzotti, V; Giussani, B; Piergiovanni, L; Limbo, S (2015) Packaging Technology and Science 28:385-395. HERO ID: 2854964

[Less] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with . . . [More] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with the aim to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate into foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses (primary and secondary packaging and article for take away foods) were obtained from distributors. A screening approach was applied by means of solvent extraction with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A large number of analytes were detected, and a chemometric approach was used to explore the data. Principal component analysis was used to identify and select some compounds as markers for sample classification. In the corrugated and printed packaging, it is worth emphasizing the presence of residual solvents, probably coming from printing inks, as well as hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, mainly toluene and plasticizers linked also to the recycled pulp content such as diisobutyl phthalate or diisopropylnaphthalenes, whereas in the plastic-laminated samples, triacetin was identified as the prevailing compound. A literature search for safety data or legislative restrictions of the identified substances was performed. Additionally, the semi-quantification of the compounds in the packaging allowed a worst case estimation of food contamination by means of the infinite total migration model; occasionally, migration estimations overcame the specific migration limits. The chosen analytical methods coupled with a chemometric approach proved to be an effective way to describe the data; it may be concluded that only the simultaneous consideration of several chemicals with a multivariate approach allowed the investigated packaging materials to be distinguished. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A comparison of the migration of "spiked' and "intrinsic' substances from paper and board into raisins and into Tenax as a food simulant

Authors: Bradley, EL; Castle, L; Speck, DR (2015) Packaging Technology and Science 28:509-517. HERO ID: 2854996

[Less] Four samples of paper and board (P/B) of a type used for packaging dry foods were subjected to migration . . . [More] Four samples of paper and board (P/B) of a type used for packaging dry foods were subjected to migration experiments using raisins and the polymeric powder Tenax as a food simulant. The P/B samples contained only low levels of diisopropylnaphthalene (DiPN) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and so, experiments were also conducted after spiking the P/B with added model substances. These were o-xylene, acetophenone, dodecane, benzophenone, DiPN and DiBP. Migration experiments into raisins and Tenax were conducted for 10days at 40 degrees C. Migration levels depended strongly on the nature of the substance. Migration from spiked P/B samples was more extensive (as a percentage of that available) than migration of intrinsic migratable substances, and so, studying spiked samples tends to be conservative. It is considered likely that this is because of binding of substances, especially aromatics with pi-electrons such as DiPN and DiBP, to active sites on the surface of P/B fibres, resulting in non-linear absorption isotherms. However, further work would be needed to prove this conclusively. Considering the results overall and also that raisins packed in P/B can have a shelf life of up to 1year at ambient temperatures, the test results using Tenax as a food simulant are considered to be appropriate without application of a correction factor. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.