Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
537 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor-phase migration of DiBP and DBP through barrier-coated paperboard: Correlation between a permeation test method and simulated migration

Authors: Skillington, P; Cronje, JC; Wewers, F; Hartmann, PC (2015) Tappi Journal 14:247-256. HERO ID: 2854970

[Less] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates . . . [More] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates the migration of organic vapors and the actual migration of chemical contaminants from barrier-coated paperboard packaging. A correlation of this nature would enable manufacturers of barrier-coated paperboard to estimate the barrier properties of paperboard on a quality control level. A direct correlation was not plausible because the migration mechanisms that apply to the permeation test method and the actual migration differ. However, an indirect correlation was established. The permeation test method gave an indication of film integrity, whereas the actual migration was found to be rather dependent on coating weight. The spiking method, testing temperature, and vapor pressure of the contaminants were found to be variables directly affecting the validity of the correlation between permeation and migration methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of a novel fourth-generation supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization: Relationship between catalyst structure and polymerization properties

Authors: Liu T; Li, WL; Xia, XZ Mao, BQ (2015) China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology 17:39-47. HERO ID: 2855036

[Less] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta . . . [More] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta catalyst for isotactic propylene polymerization, and researches on the relationship between catalyst structure and polymer properties. The spherical support with the chemical composition of CH3CH2OMgOCH(CH2Cl)(2) has been synthesized from a new dispersion system and is used as the supporting material to prepare Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The XRD analysis indicates that the catalyst is fully activated with delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. The far-IR spectrometric results confirm again the presence of delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. Textural property of the active catalyst exhibits high surface area coupled with high porosity. The high activity in propylene polymerization is mainly ascribed to the full activation and the porous structure of the catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer mapping results indicate a uniform titanium distribution throughout the catalyst particles. Particle size analysis shows that the catalyst has a narrow particle size distribution. The perfect spherical shape, uniform titanium distribution and narrow particle size distribution of the catalyst confirm the advantage of polymer particles production with less fines. The solid state C-13 NMR and mid-IR spectroscopic analyses indicate that there exists strong complexation between diisobutyl phthalate and MgCl2, which leads to the high isotacticity of polypropylene.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women: A repeated measures analysis

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Mcelrath, TF; Chen, YH; Mukherjee, B; Meeker, JD (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:210-216. HERO ID: 2718064

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated with an array of health endpoints, including adverse birth outcomes. Some of these may be mediated by oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism for phthalate action.

OBJECTIVES: In the present study we explore the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress measured in urine samples from multiple time points during pregnancy.

METHODS: Women were participants in a nested case-control study of preterm birth (N=130 cases, N=352 controls). Each was recruited early in pregnancy and followed until delivery, providing urine samples at up to 4 visits. Nine phthalate metabolites were measured to assess exposure, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane were also measured in urine as markers of oxidative stress. Associations were assessed using linear mixed models to account for intra-individual correlation, with inverse selection probability weightings based on case status to allow for greater generalizability.

RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in phthalate metabolites were associated with significantly higher concentrations of both biomarkers. Estimated differences were greater in association with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), compared with di-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP) metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with increased oxidative stress biomarkers in our study population of pregnant women. These relationships may be particularly relevant to the study of birth outcomes linked to phthalate exposure. Although replication is necessary in other populations, these results may also be of great importance for a range of other health outcomes associated with phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of plasticiser migration to meat roasted in plastic bags by SPME-GC/MS

Authors: Moreira, MA; André, LC; Cardeal, Z (2015) Food Chemistry 178:195-200. HERO ID: 2816859

[Less] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some . . . [More] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some of these compounds cause endocrine dysfunction in humans and animals by interfering with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding or elimination of natural hormones in the body and are therefore recognised as endocrine disruptors. This paper describes cold-fibre solid-phase microextraction as a sampling technique to analyse eight plasticisers in spices and roasted chicken meat stored in plastic bags by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.01 to 0.18μgkg(-)(1). Diisobutyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were found in the samples of spices and roasted chicken meat. The highest concentrations of plasticisers were found in the spices used to cook the chicken meat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparisons of urinary phthalate metabolites and daily phthalate intakes among Japanese families

Authors: Ait Bamai, Y; Araki, A; Kawai, T; Tsuboi, T; Yoshioka, E; Kanazawa, A; Cong, S; Kishi, R (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:461-470. HERO ID: 2854924

[Less] We measured urinary phthalate metabolites, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate, . . . [More] We measured urinary phthalate metabolites, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from 178 school-aged children and their 284 family members using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and we calculated daily phthalate intakes. The highest median levels of phthalate metabolites were for mono-isobutyl phthalate in all participants except schoolchildren, where the highest levels were for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Comparing the schoolchildren with their parents, the schoolchildren had significantly higher urinary metabolites for MEOHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, and ΣDEHP. Regarding daily intakes, the schoolchildren had significantly higher daily intakes of DnBP, BBzP, and ΣDEHP. All phthalate metabolite and sums of metabolite levels in the schoolchildren were positively correlated with their mothers' levels, except for MEHP, whereas fathers were less correlated with their children. The DEHP intake in this study was higher than that of most other studies. Moreover, 10% of the children and 3% of the adults exceeded the Reference Dose (RfD) value (20μg/kg/day) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which indicates that it is important to focus on children's DEHP exposure because the children exceeded the RfD more than adults among the same families who shared similar exposure sources. Our results will contribute to considerations of the regulations for some phthalates and the actual phthalate exposure levels in the Japanese population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Properties of a newly identified esterase from Bacillus sp. K91 and its novel function in diisobutyl phthalate degradation

Authors: Ding, J; Wang, C; Xie, Z; Li, J; Yang, Y; Mu, Y; Tang, X; Xu, B; Zhou, J; Huang, Z (2015) PLoS ONE 10:e0119216. HERO ID: 2854987

[Less] The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects . . . [More] The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects on environmental contamination and toxicity on mammals. However, the biodegradation of PAEs, especially diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), remains poorly understood. In particular, genes involved in the hydrolysis of these compounds were not conclusively identified. In this study, the CarEW gene, which encodes an enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing ρ-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids, was cloned from a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus sp. K91 and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pEASY-E2 expression system. The enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of approximately 53.76 kDa and pI of 4.88. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 45 °C, with ρ-NP butyrate as the best substrate. The enzyme was fairly stable within the pH range from 7.0 to 8.5. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were employed to detect the catabolic pathway of DiBP. Two intermediate products were identified, and a potential biodegradation pathway was proposed. Altogether, our findings present a novel DiBP degradation enzyme and indicate that the purified enzyme may be a promising candidate for DiBP detoxification and for environmental protection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles

Authors: Al-Natsheh, M; Alawi, M; Fayyad, M; Tarawneh, I (2015) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 985C:103-109. HERO ID: 2807609

[Less] A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight . . . [More] A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for DnOP and 5-100μg/ml for DINP and DIDP. The coefficients of variation (precision) for the total PAEs method were in the range 0.55-12.10% and for the migration method were in the range 0.72-7.70%. Recovery values for total PAEs and for the migrated PAEs were ranged within 90.6-111.7% and 86.3-117.2%; respectively. Both developed methods were used to survey the Jordanian market, where twenty seven samples were collected and tested for plastic type, total PAEs and migrated PAEs. Seventeen of those samples were found to be polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and all of them containing total PAEs having concentrations in excess of the allowed limit of 0.1% (w/w). The rest of the samples were non-PVC and only one of them containing PAEs, but below the allowed limit. In contrast, all the migration results were found to be well within the allowed limits. It was also found that as the PAEs total concentration increase, the corresponding migrated value increase, while the opposite trend holds for in the PAEs molecular weight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and distribution of phthalic acid esters and phenols in Hun River Watersheds

Authors: Li, B; Hu, X; Liu, R; Zeng, P; Song, Y (2015) Environmental Earth Sciences 73:5095-5106. HERO ID: 2855033

[Less] The Xi River (XR) and Pu River (PR) are the tributaries of Hun River Watersheds (HRW), located in Liao . . . [More] The Xi River (XR) and Pu River (PR) are the tributaries of Hun River Watersheds (HRW), located in Liao River Basin (LRB), northeast China. These riverine waters are historically polluted by effluents from printing and dyeing enterprises, and pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), e.g., dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as well as phenols including phenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,3-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 3,5-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol in surface water of the XR and PR were determined by gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS), respectively, during spring (dry), summer (wet) and autumn (normal) seasons. DMP, DIBP, DBP, phenol, 4-methylphenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol were identified as the dominant pollutants in the XR, and DBP, DIBP, DEHP and phenol were the main pollutants in the PR. Seasonal variations of the geometric mean concentrations in the XR ranged from 6.88 to 19.5 mu g/L for Sigma(6)PAEs and 24.5-1195 mu g/L for Sigma(8)phenols with the highest level in summer. The temporal distribution of Sigma(6)PAEs or Sigma(8)-phenols in the PR was similar to that in the XR, i.e. the highest levels were observed in summer (24.1 mu g/L for Sigma(6)PAEs and 26.8 mu g/L for Sigma(8)phenols). The concentrations of pollutants were highly variable across sampling sites. The geographic concentrations of Sigma(6)PAEs were in the range of 9.92-17.9 mu g/L in the XR and 7.42-37.6 mu g/L in the PR. As for Sigma(8)phenols, the greater spatial variations were observed, ranging from 14.0-2008 mu g/L in the XR and from 4.00 to 80.5 mu g/L in the PR. Cluster analysis (CA) showed that the 19 sampling stations were divided into three clusters: cluster A was made up of the majority of sampling sites in the PR, slightly polluted by PAEs and phenols; cluster B consisted of the sites from both the XR and PR; cluster C included the sampling sites in the XR, where was heavily polluted by PAEs and phenols.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

Authors: Robledo, CA; Peck, JD; Stoner, J; Calafat, AM; Carabin, H; Cowan, L; Goodman, JR (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:324-330. HERO ID: 2816868

[Less] PURPOSE: To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations . . . [More] PURPOSE: To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

METHODS: Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n=110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n=72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression.

RESULTS: Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3μg/l, β=-18.3, 95% CI: -35.4, -1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3μg/l, β=-17.3, 95% CI: -34.1, -0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates.

CONCLUSION: Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants

Authors: Kim, S; Lee, J; Park, J; Kim, HJ; Cho, G; Kim, GH; Eun, SH; Lee, JJ; Choi, G; Suh, E; Choi, S; Kim, S; Kim, YD; Kim, SK; Kim, SY; Kim, S; Eom, S; Moon, HB; Kim, S; Choi, K (2015) Science of the Total Environment 508:13-19. HERO ID: 2816863

[Less] Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental . . . [More] Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted.