Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
397 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor-phase migration of DiBP and DBP through barrier-coated paperboard: Correlation between a permeation test method and simulated migration

Authors: Skillington, P; Cronje, JC; Wewers, F; Hartmann, PC (2015) Tappi Journal 14:247-256. HERO ID: 2854970

[Less] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates . . . [More] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates the migration of organic vapors and the actual migration of chemical contaminants from barrier-coated paperboard packaging. A correlation of this nature would enable manufacturers of barrier-coated paperboard to estimate the barrier properties of paperboard on a quality control level. A direct correlation was not plausible because the migration mechanisms that apply to the permeation test method and the actual migration differ. However, an indirect correlation was established. The permeation test method gave an indication of film integrity, whereas the actual migration was found to be rather dependent on coating weight. The spiking method, testing temperature, and vapor pressure of the contaminants were found to be variables directly affecting the validity of the correlation between permeation and migration methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in school children of china: Implication for cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure

Authors: Wang, B; Wang, H; Zhou, W; Chen, Y; Zhou, Y; Jiang, Q (2015) Environmental Science and Technology 49:1120-1129. HERO ID: 2718058

[Less] We analyzed 13 metabolites of 9 phthalates in urine of 782 Chinese school children aged 8-11 years and . . . [More] We analyzed 13 metabolites of 9 phthalates in urine of 782 Chinese school children aged 8-11 years and estimated the daily intake for phthalates based on urinary metabolite levels. The daily intakes were compared with acceptable intake levels to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) for single phthalate. Finally, the cumulative risk for each child was assessed by means of a hazard index (HI) which is the sum of HQs. Overall, 11 metabolites were found in at least 85% of the urine samples with the highest median concentration of 47.1 ng/mL (93.4 μg/g creatinine) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). Monooctyl phthalate (MOP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were not detectable. The cumulative risk assessment covering di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) demonstrated that 19.8% (volume model-based) and 40.3% (creatinine model-based) of the children exceeded 1 for the HI based on tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (considered as potential adverse antiandrogenic effect). Furthermore, at least 36% of the children from the manufacturing-intensive region had a HI higher than 1. The results indicate that Chinese children are widely exposed to phthalates and those from manufacturing-intensive regions are probably at a high risk of cumulative phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of a novel fourth-generation supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization: Relationship between catalyst structure and polymerization properties

Authors: Liu T; Li, WL; Xia, XZ Mao, BQ (2015) China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology 17:39-47. HERO ID: 2855036

[Less] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta . . . [More] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta catalyst for isotactic propylene polymerization, and researches on the relationship between catalyst structure and polymer properties. The spherical support with the chemical composition of CH3CH2OMgOCH(CH2Cl)(2) has been synthesized from a new dispersion system and is used as the supporting material to prepare Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The XRD analysis indicates that the catalyst is fully activated with delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. The far-IR spectrometric results confirm again the presence of delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. Textural property of the active catalyst exhibits high surface area coupled with high porosity. The high activity in propylene polymerization is mainly ascribed to the full activation and the porous structure of the catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer mapping results indicate a uniform titanium distribution throughout the catalyst particles. Particle size analysis shows that the catalyst has a narrow particle size distribution. The perfect spherical shape, uniform titanium distribution and narrow particle size distribution of the catalyst confirm the advantage of polymer particles production with less fines. The solid state C-13 NMR and mid-IR spectroscopic analyses indicate that there exists strong complexation between diisobutyl phthalate and MgCl2, which leads to the high isotacticity of polypropylene.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women: A repeated measures analysis

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Mcelrath, TF; Chen, YH; Mukherjee, B; Meeker, JD (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:210-216. HERO ID: 2718064

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated with an array of health endpoints, including adverse birth outcomes. Some of these may be mediated by oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism for phthalate action.

OBJECTIVES: In the present study we explore the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress measured in urine samples from multiple time points during pregnancy.

METHODS: Women were participants in a nested case-control study of preterm birth (N=130 cases, N=352 controls). Each was recruited early in pregnancy and followed until delivery, providing urine samples at up to 4 visits. Nine phthalate metabolites were measured to assess exposure, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane were also measured in urine as markers of oxidative stress. Associations were assessed using linear mixed models to account for intra-individual correlation, with inverse selection probability weightings based on case status to allow for greater generalizability.

RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in phthalate metabolites were associated with significantly higher concentrations of both biomarkers. Estimated differences were greater in association with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), compared with di-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP) metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with increased oxidative stress biomarkers in our study population of pregnant women. These relationships may be particularly relevant to the study of birth outcomes linked to phthalate exposure. Although replication is necessary in other populations, these results may also be of great importance for a range of other health outcomes associated with phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening for chemicals in paper and board packaging for food use: Chemometric approach and estimation of migration

Authors: Guazzotti, V; Giussani, B; Piergiovanni, L; Limbo, S (2015) Packaging Technology and Science 28:385-395. HERO ID: 2854964

[Less] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with . . . [More] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with the aim to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate into foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses (primary and secondary packaging and article for take away foods) were obtained from distributors. A screening approach was applied by means of solvent extraction with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A large number of analytes were detected, and a chemometric approach was used to explore the data. Principal component analysis was used to identify and select some compounds as markers for sample classification. In the corrugated and printed packaging, it is worth emphasizing the presence of residual solvents, probably coming from printing inks, as well as hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, mainly toluene and plasticizers linked also to the recycled pulp content such as diisobutyl phthalate or diisopropylnaphthalenes, whereas in the plastic-laminated samples, triacetin was identified as the prevailing compound. A literature search for safety data or legislative restrictions of the identified substances was performed. Additionally, the semi-quantification of the compounds in the packaging allowed a worst case estimation of food contamination by means of the infinite total migration model; occasionally, migration estimations overcame the specific migration limits. The chosen analytical methods coupled with a chemometric approach proved to be an effective way to describe the data; it may be concluded that only the simultaneous consideration of several chemicals with a multivariate approach allowed the investigated packaging materials to be distinguished. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A comparison of the migration of "spiked' and "intrinsic' substances from paper and board into raisins and into Tenax as a food simulant

Authors: Bradley, EL; Castle, L; Speck, DR (2015) Packaging Technology and Science 28:509-517. HERO ID: 2854996

[Less] Four samples of paper and board (P/B) of a type used for packaging dry foods were subjected to migration . . . [More] Four samples of paper and board (P/B) of a type used for packaging dry foods were subjected to migration experiments using raisins and the polymeric powder Tenax as a food simulant. The P/B samples contained only low levels of diisopropylnaphthalene (DiPN) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and so, experiments were also conducted after spiking the P/B with added model substances. These were o-xylene, acetophenone, dodecane, benzophenone, DiPN and DiBP. Migration experiments into raisins and Tenax were conducted for 10days at 40 degrees C. Migration levels depended strongly on the nature of the substance. Migration from spiked P/B samples was more extensive (as a percentage of that available) than migration of intrinsic migratable substances, and so, studying spiked samples tends to be conservative. It is considered likely that this is because of binding of substances, especially aromatics with pi-electrons such as DiPN and DiBP, to active sites on the surface of P/B fibres, resulting in non-linear absorption isotherms. However, further work would be needed to prove this conclusively. Considering the results overall and also that raisins packed in P/B can have a shelf life of up to 1year at ambient temperatures, the test results using Tenax as a food simulant are considered to be appropriate without application of a correction factor. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Couples' urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolite concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

Authors: Bae, J; Kim, S; Kannan, K; Buck Louis, GM (2015) Environmental Research 137C:450-457. HERO ID: 2816865

[Less] With limited research focusing on non-persistent chemicals as exogenous factors affecting human sex . . . [More] With limited research focusing on non-persistent chemicals as exogenous factors affecting human sex selection, this study aimed to evaluate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate metabolite concentrations with the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of male to female live births. The current analysis is limited to singleton live births (n=220, 43.9%) from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study, in which couples discontinuing contraception with the intention of becoming pregnant were enrolled and followed while trying for pregnancy and through delivery for those achieving pregnancy. Using modified Poisson regression models accounting for potential confounders, we estimated the relative risks (RRs) of a male birth per standard deviation change in the log-transformed maternal, paternal, and couple urinary BPA and 14 phthalate metabolite concentrations (ng/mL) measured upon enrollment. When maternal and paternal chemical concentrations were modeled jointly, paternal BPA (RR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.95) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.00) were significantly associated with a female excess. Contrarily, maternal BPA (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), mono-isobutyl phthalate (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.54), mono-benzyl phthalate (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.51) were significantly associated with a male excess. These findings underscore varying patterns for the SSR in relation to parental exposures. Given the absence of previous investigation, these partner-specific associations of non-persistent chemicals with the SSR need future corroboration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Authors: Qian, H; Chen, M; Kransler, KM; Zaleski, RT (2015) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 25:249-255. HERO ID: 2345931

[Less] As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical . . . [More] As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 23 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.24.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of plasticiser migration to meat roasted in plastic bags by SPME-GC/MS

Authors: Moreira, MA; André, LC; Cardeal, Z (2015) Food Chemistry 178:195-200. HERO ID: 2816859

[Less] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some . . . [More] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some of these compounds cause endocrine dysfunction in humans and animals by interfering with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding or elimination of natural hormones in the body and are therefore recognised as endocrine disruptors. This paper describes cold-fibre solid-phase microextraction as a sampling technique to analyse eight plasticisers in spices and roasted chicken meat stored in plastic bags by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.01 to 0.18μgkg(-)(1). Diisobutyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were found in the samples of spices and roasted chicken meat. The highest concentrations of plasticisers were found in the spices used to cook the chicken meat.