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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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420 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor-phase migration of DiBP and DBP through barrier-coated paperboard: Correlation between a permeation test method and simulated migration

Authors: Skillington, P; Cronje, JC; Wewers, F; Hartmann, PC (2015) Tappi Journal 14:247-256. HERO ID: 2854970

[Less] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates . . . [More] The aim of the study was to construct a correlation between a permeation test method that simulates the migration of organic vapors and the actual migration of chemical contaminants from barrier-coated paperboard packaging. A correlation of this nature would enable manufacturers of barrier-coated paperboard to estimate the barrier properties of paperboard on a quality control level. A direct correlation was not plausible because the migration mechanisms that apply to the permeation test method and the actual migration differ. However, an indirect correlation was established. The permeation test method gave an indication of film integrity, whereas the actual migration was found to be rather dependent on coating weight. The spiking method, testing temperature, and vapor pressure of the contaminants were found to be variables directly affecting the validity of the correlation between permeation and migration methods.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a Highly Specific Fluorescence Immunoassay for Detection of Diisobutyl Phthalate in Edible Oil Samples

Authors: Cui, X; Wu, P; Lai, Dan; Zheng, S; Chen, Y; Eremin, SA; Peng, Wei; Zhao, S (2015) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63:9372-9378. HERO ID: 3045603

[Less] The diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) hapten containing an amino group was synthesized successfully, and the . . . [More] The diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) hapten containing an amino group was synthesized successfully, and the polyclonal antibody against 4-amino phthalate-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed. On the basis of the polyclonal antibody, a rapid and sensitive indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay (icFIA) has been established to detect DiBP in edible oil samples for the first time. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative working range of the icFIA was from 10.47 to 357.06 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.991), exhibiting a detection limit of 5.82 ng/mL. In this assay, the specific results showed that other similar phthalates did not significantly interfere with the analysis, with the cross-reactivity less than 1.5%, except for that of DiBAP. Thereafter, DiBP contamination in edible oil samples was detected by icFIA, with the recovery being from 79 to 103%. Furthermore, the reliability of icFIA was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Therefore, the developed icFIA is suitable for monitoring DiBP in some edible oil samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in school children of china: Implication for cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure

Authors: Wang, B; Wang, H; Zhou, W; Chen, Y; Zhou, Y; Jiang, Q (2015) Environmental Science and Technology 49:1120-1129. HERO ID: 2718058

[Less] We analyzed 13 metabolites of 9 phthalates in urine of 782 Chinese school children aged 8-11 years and . . . [More] We analyzed 13 metabolites of 9 phthalates in urine of 782 Chinese school children aged 8-11 years and estimated the daily intake for phthalates based on urinary metabolite levels. The daily intakes were compared with acceptable intake levels to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) for single phthalate. Finally, the cumulative risk for each child was assessed by means of a hazard index (HI) which is the sum of HQs. Overall, 11 metabolites were found in at least 85% of the urine samples with the highest median concentration of 47.1 ng/mL (93.4 μg/g creatinine) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). Monooctyl phthalate (MOP) and monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) were not detectable. The cumulative risk assessment covering di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) demonstrated that 19.8% (volume model-based) and 40.3% (creatinine model-based) of the children exceeded 1 for the HI based on tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (considered as potential adverse antiandrogenic effect). Furthermore, at least 36% of the children from the manufacturing-intensive region had a HI higher than 1. The results indicate that Chinese children are widely exposed to phthalates and those from manufacturing-intensive regions are probably at a high risk of cumulative phthalate exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Selected Phthalates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in Personal Perfumes

Authors: Orecchio, S; Indelicato, R; Barreca, S (2015) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 78:1008-1018. HERO ID: 3056880

[Less] A simple and fast method is proposed to analyze commercial personal perfumes. Our method includes measurement . . . [More] A simple and fast method is proposed to analyze commercial personal perfumes. Our method includes measurement of phthalates, known to be major sources of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC), which originate from the less volatile fraction of perfumes. The quantification of phthalates were carried out directly with no sample preparation required on 30 samples of commercial products using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a detector. The total concentrations of 15 investigated compounds ranged from 17 to 9650 mg/L with an average of 2643 mg/L. The highest total concentration was found in cologne. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were detected in appreciable concentrations. Further, it was found that the composition of counterfeit samples varied widely from that of authentic products. The composition of old products was different from that of recent perfumes, which contain less harmful chemicals, attributed to the ban on some phthalates in Europe due their toxicity. It should be noted that older and contaminated products are not equivalent to authentic products when considering quality, safety, and probably effectiveness. Older and nonapproved perfumes contain chemicals that are not allowed for commercial use and may contain toxic impurities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Study of a novel fourth-generation supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization: Relationship between catalyst structure and polymerization properties

Authors: Liu T; Li, WL; Xia, XZ Mao, BQ (2015) China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology 17:39-47. HERO ID: 2855036

[Less] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta . . . [More] This article presents a detailed structural study of a new spherical MgCl2-supported TiCl4 Ziegler-Natta catalyst for isotactic propylene polymerization, and researches on the relationship between catalyst structure and polymer properties. The spherical support with the chemical composition of CH3CH2OMgOCH(CH2Cl)(2) has been synthesized from a new dispersion system and is used as the supporting material to prepare Ziegler-Natta catalyst. The XRD analysis indicates that the catalyst is fully activated with delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. The far-IR spectrometric results confirm again the presence of delta-MgCl2 in the active catalyst. Textural property of the active catalyst exhibits high surface area coupled with high porosity. The high activity in propylene polymerization is mainly ascribed to the full activation and the porous structure of the catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer mapping results indicate a uniform titanium distribution throughout the catalyst particles. Particle size analysis shows that the catalyst has a narrow particle size distribution. The perfect spherical shape, uniform titanium distribution and narrow particle size distribution of the catalyst confirm the advantage of polymer particles production with less fines. The solid state C-13 NMR and mid-IR spectroscopic analyses indicate that there exists strong complexation between diisobutyl phthalate and MgCl2, which leads to the high isotacticity of polypropylene.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women: A repeated measures analysis

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Mcelrath, TF; Chen, YH; Mukherjee, B; Meeker, JD (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:210-216. HERO ID: 2718064

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated with an array of health endpoints, including adverse birth outcomes. Some of these may be mediated by oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism for phthalate action.

OBJECTIVES: In the present study we explore the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress measured in urine samples from multiple time points during pregnancy.

METHODS: Women were participants in a nested case-control study of preterm birth (N=130 cases, N=352 controls). Each was recruited early in pregnancy and followed until delivery, providing urine samples at up to 4 visits. Nine phthalate metabolites were measured to assess exposure, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane were also measured in urine as markers of oxidative stress. Associations were assessed using linear mixed models to account for intra-individual correlation, with inverse selection probability weightings based on case status to allow for greater generalizability.

RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in phthalate metabolites were associated with significantly higher concentrations of both biomarkers. Estimated differences were greater in association with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), compared with di-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP) metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with increased oxidative stress biomarkers in our study population of pregnant women. These relationships may be particularly relevant to the study of birth outcomes linked to phthalate exposure. Although replication is necessary in other populations, these results may also be of great importance for a range of other health outcomes associated with phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Beijing children and correlations with phthalate levels in their handwipes

Authors: Gong, M; Weschler, CJ; Liu, L; Shen, H; Huang, L; Sundell, J; Zhang, Y (2015) Indoor Air 25:572-581. HERO ID: 2823304

[Less] Little attention has been paid to dermal absorption of phthalates even though modeling suggests that . . . [More] Little attention has been paid to dermal absorption of phthalates even though modeling suggests that this pathway may contribute meaningfully to total uptake. We have concurrently collected handwipe and urine samples from 39 Beijing children (5-9 years) for the purpose of measuring levels of five phthalates in handwipes, corresponding concentrations of eight of their metabolites in urine, and to subsequently assess the contribution of dermal absorption to total uptake. In summer sampling, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in handwipes (median: 1130 μg/m(2) ), while MnBP was the most abundant metabolite in urine (median: 232 ng/ml). We found significant associations between the parent phthalate in handwipes and its monoester metabolite in urine for DiBP (r = 0.41, P = 0.01), DnBP (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), BBzP (r = 0.48, P = 0.003), and DEHP (r = 0.36, P = 0.03). Assuming that no dermal uptake occurred under clothing-covered skin, we estimate that dermal absorption of DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, and DEHP contributed 6.9%, 4.6%, 6.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, to total uptake. Assuming that somewhat attenuated dermal uptake occurred under clothing-covered skin, these estimates increase to 19%, 14%, 17%, and 10%. The results indicate that absorption from skin surfaces makes a meaningful contribution to total phthalate uptake for children and should be considered in future risk assessments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA

Authors: Bi, X; Yuan, S; Pan, X; Winstead, C; Wang, Q (2015) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 50:1428-1439. HERO ID: 3019857

[Less] This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this . . . [More] This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this study, 44 floor dust samples from different indoor environments in Delaware, USA were collected and analyzed for 14 phthalates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phthalates were detected in all dust samples with the total concentration ranging from 84 to 7117 mg kg(-1). DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), and DiBP (di-isobutyl phthalate) were both the most frequently and abundantly detected phthalates. The average concentration of total phthalates in dust from offices, student dorms, gyms, stores, and daycare centers was found to be significantly or insignificantly (P = 0.05) higher than that in dust from houses and apartments. Plastic flooring materials and the application of floor care chemical products were positively associated with total phthalate concentration in floor dust. Toxicological risk assessment indicated that an investigated daycare center in this study was the only indoor environment that may cause the intake amount of DEHP of infants, toddlers, and children via dust ingestion to exceed the reference dose established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Regular monitoring on phthalate contamination in sensitive indoor environments is recommended.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening for chemicals in paper and board packaging for food use: Chemometric approach and estimation of migration

Authors: Guazzotti, V; Giussani, B; Piergiovanni, L; Limbo, S (2015) Packaging Technology and Science 28:385-395. HERO ID: 2854964

[Less] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with . . . [More] An analytical survey of 20 paper and board (P&B) materials intended for food use was carried out with the aim to identify chemicals with a potential to migrate into foods. Representative materials covering a range of uses (primary and secondary packaging and article for take away foods) were obtained from distributors. A screening approach was applied by means of solvent extraction with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A large number of analytes were detected, and a chemometric approach was used to explore the data. Principal component analysis was used to identify and select some compounds as markers for sample classification. In the corrugated and printed packaging, it is worth emphasizing the presence of residual solvents, probably coming from printing inks, as well as hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, mainly toluene and plasticizers linked also to the recycled pulp content such as diisobutyl phthalate or diisopropylnaphthalenes, whereas in the plastic-laminated samples, triacetin was identified as the prevailing compound. A literature search for safety data or legislative restrictions of the identified substances was performed. Additionally, the semi-quantification of the compounds in the packaging allowed a worst case estimation of food contamination by means of the infinite total migration model; occasionally, migration estimations overcame the specific migration limits. The chosen analytical methods coupled with a chemometric approach proved to be an effective way to describe the data; it may be concluded that only the simultaneous consideration of several chemicals with a multivariate approach allowed the investigated packaging materials to be distinguished. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.