Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
285 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary

Authors: Zhou, L; Lei, Y; Zhang, D; Ahmed, S; Chen, S (2016) Science of the Total Environment 541:570-578. HERO ID: 3045466

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were <0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0-50ngmL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)=0.994) was achieved. The observed IC50 (7.34ngmL(-1)) and LOD (0.06ngmL(-1)) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00ngmL(-1). Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8-114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93-11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p<0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening tool to detect DBP in urinary samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment

Authors: Gao, CJ; Liu, LY; Ma, WL; Ren, NQ; Guo, Y; Zhu, NZ; Jiang, L; Li, YF; Kannan, K (2016) Science of the Total Environment 543:19-27. HERO ID: 3045442

[Less] Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to . . . [More] Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women: A repeated measures analysis

Authors: Ferguson, KK; Mcelrath, TF; Chen, YH; Mukherjee, B; Meeker, JD (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123:210-216. HERO ID: 2718064

[Less] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure occurs readily in the environment and has been associated with an array of health endpoints, including adverse birth outcomes. Some of these may be mediated by oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism for phthalate action.

OBJECTIVES: In the present study we explore the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress measured in urine samples from multiple time points during pregnancy.

METHODS: Women were participants in a nested case-control study of preterm birth (N=130 cases, N=352 controls). Each was recruited early in pregnancy and followed until delivery, providing urine samples at up to 4 visits. Nine phthalate metabolites were measured to assess exposure, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane were also measured in urine as markers of oxidative stress. Associations were assessed using linear mixed models to account for intra-individual correlation, with inverse selection probability weightings based on case status to allow for greater generalizability.

RESULTS: Interquartile range increases in phthalate metabolites were associated with significantly higher concentrations of both biomarkers. Estimated differences were greater in association with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), compared with di-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP) metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with increased oxidative stress biomarkers in our study population of pregnant women. These relationships may be particularly relevant to the study of birth outcomes linked to phthalate exposure. Although replication is necessary in other populations, these results may also be of great importance for a range of other health outcomes associated with phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels

Authors: Chang, WH; Li, SS; Wu, MH; Pan, HA; Lee, CC (2015) Human Reproduction 30:2658-2670. HERO ID: 3045474

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum fT (P = 0.028, 0.017, 0.045 and 0.027, respectively); between urinary levels of MMP, MEHP, MEHP% and the TT : LH ratio (P = 0.004, 0.029 and 0.039, respectively); between urinary levels of MMP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP and the FAI (P = 0.002, 0.008, 0.037, 0.028, 0.042 and 0.016, respectively). Urinary MBzP and MEHP% were negatively associated with a decrease in serum INSL3 (P = 0.049 and <0.001). We also observed a strong inverse relationship between MEHP% quartiles and serum TT, fT, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 (Ptrend = 0.003, 0.080, 0.002 and 0.012, respectively). Serum INSL3, TT, fT and the TT : LH ratio were lower for men in the highest MEHP% quartile than in the reference group (P = 0.007, 0.002, 0.090 and 0.001, respectively).

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: A potential limitation is using a single urine and blood sample to predict urinary phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormone status over long periods. However, there is evidence that a single measure provides a reliable result in population studies.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Non-occupational exposure to phthalates, including di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, might lead to adverse effects on testicular/Leydig cell function and be of concern owing to the ubiquitous multisource exposure to phthalates among the general population. Although our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data, more studies are required to draw firm conclusions on the relation of INSL3 to phthalate exposure or testicular/Leydig cell function.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was supported by grants NSC 100-2314-B-006-054 and NSC 101-2314-B-006-052-MY2 from the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of plasticiser migration to meat roasted in plastic bags by SPME-GC/MS

Authors: Moreira, MA; André, LC; Cardeal, Z (2015) Food Chemistry 178:195-200. HERO ID: 2816859

[Less] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some . . . [More] Plasticisers are compounds used in the polymer industry to increase the flexibility of plastics. Some of these compounds cause endocrine dysfunction in humans and animals by interfering with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding or elimination of natural hormones in the body and are therefore recognised as endocrine disruptors. This paper describes cold-fibre solid-phase microextraction as a sampling technique to analyse eight plasticisers in spices and roasted chicken meat stored in plastic bags by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for this method ranged from 0.01 to 0.18μgkg(-)(1). Diisobutyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were found in the samples of spices and roasted chicken meat. The highest concentrations of plasticisers were found in the spices used to cook the chicken meat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Properties of a newly identified esterase from Bacillus sp. K91 and its novel function in diisobutyl phthalate degradation

Authors: Ding, J; Wang, C; Xie, Z; Li, J; Yang, Y; Mu, Y; Tang, X; Xu, B; Zhou, J; Huang, Z (2015) PLoS ONE 10:e0119216. HERO ID: 2854987

[Less] The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects . . . [More] The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects on environmental contamination and toxicity on mammals. However, the biodegradation of PAEs, especially diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), remains poorly understood. In particular, genes involved in the hydrolysis of these compounds were not conclusively identified. In this study, the CarEW gene, which encodes an enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing ρ-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids, was cloned from a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus sp. K91 and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pEASY-E2 expression system. The enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of approximately 53.76 kDa and pI of 4.88. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 45 °C, with ρ-NP butyrate as the best substrate. The enzyme was fairly stable within the pH range from 7.0 to 8.5. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were employed to detect the catabolic pathway of DiBP. Two intermediate products were identified, and a potential biodegradation pathway was proposed. Altogether, our findings present a novel DiBP degradation enzyme and indicate that the purified enzyme may be a promising candidate for DiBP detoxification and for environmental protection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure-dependent activity of phthalate esters and phthalate monoesters binding to human constitutive androstane receptor

Authors: Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; Nakanishi, T; Wan, Y; Hiromori, Y; Nagase, H; Hu, J (2015) Chemical Research in Toxicology 28:1196-1204. HERO ID: 2914668

[Less] The present study investigated the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding activities of . . . [More] The present study investigated the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding activities of 23 phthalate esters and 10 phthalate monoesters using a fast and sensitive human CAR yeast two-hybrid assay. Of 23 phthalate esters, 16 were evaluated as positive, and the 10% relative effective concentrations (REC10) ranged from 0.28 (BBP) to 29.51 μM (DEHP), whereas no obvious binding activities were found for the phthalate esters having alkyl chains more than six carbons in length. Of 10 phthalate monoesters, only monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MIBP), and mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) elicited human CAR binding activities. The REC10 values of MEP and MIBP were 4.27 and 14.13 μM, respectively, higher than those of their corresponding phthalate esters (1.45 μM for DEP and 0.83 μM for DIBP), whereas TBMEHP (0.66 μM) was much lower than TBHP (>10(2) μM). A molecular docking method was performed to simulate the interaction modes between phthalates and human CAR, and active phthalates were found to lie at almost the same site in the human CAR pocket. The docking results suggest that the strong binding of phthalates to human CAR arises primarily from hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and steric effects and that weak hydrogen bonds and weak halogen bonds greatly contribute to the high binding activity of TBMEHP. In conclusion, the current study clarified that an extensive array of phthalates are activators of human CAR.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to select phthalates and phenols through use of personal care products among Californian adults and their children

Authors: Philippat, C; Bennett, D; Calafat, AM; Picciotto, IH (2015) Environmental Research 140:369-376. HERO ID: 2915548

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Certain phenols and phthalates are used in many consumer products including . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Certain phenols and phthalates are used in many consumer products including personal care products (PCPs).

AIMS: We aimed to study the associations between the use of PCPs and urinary concentrations of biomarkers of select phenols and phthalates among Californian adults and their children. As an additional aim we compared phenols and phthalate metabolites concentrations measured in adults and children urine samples collected the same day.

METHODS: Our study relied on a subsample of 90 adult-child pairs participating in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behavior (SUPERB). Each adult and child provided one to two urine samples in which we measured concentrations of selected phenols and phthalate metabolites. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients to compare concentrations measured in adults and children urine samples collected the same day. We used adjusted linear and Tobit regression models to study the associations between the use of PCPs in the past 24h and biomarker concentrations.

RESULTS: Benzophenone-3 and parabens concentrations were higher in adults compared to their children. Conversely children had higher mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-isobutyl phthalate concentrations. No significant difference was observed for the other compounds. The total number of different PCPs used was positively associated with urinary concentrations of methyl, propyl and butyl parabens and the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate in adults. Among children, the use of a few specific products including liquid soap, hair care products and sunscreen was positively associated with urinary concentrations of some phenols or phthalate metabolites.

DISCUSSION: These results strengthen the body of evidence suggesting that use of PCPs is an important source of exposure to parabens and diethyl phthalate in adults and provide data on exposure to selected phenols and phthalates through use of PCPs in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of prenatal exposure to phthalates on food allergy and early eczema in inner-city children

Authors: Stelmach, I; Majak, P; Jerzynska, J; Podlecka, D; Stelmach, W; Polańska, K; Ligocka, D; Hanke, W (2015) Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 36:72-78. HERO ID: 2919070

[Less] BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that maternal prenatal and children urine . . . [More] BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that maternal prenatal and children urine metabolite concentration of phthalates would be associated with food allergy and early eczema among inner-city children. The study was based on data from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort.

METHODS: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to the following phthalates: diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl-benzyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-octyl phthalate were determined by measuring phthalate metabolites in the urine collected from the mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy and from their children at age 2 years. Pre- and postnatal observations limited the response rate and final sample size; data from 147 participants were included in the analysis. Children's health status was assessed at 24 months of age by using a questionnaire administered to the mothers. We studied associations between the urine level of phthalates and the presence of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in logistic regression analysis. All associations were adjusted for independent risk factors of dependent variables. Associations with atopic dermatitis were adjusted for the effect of atopy in the family, the father's education, frequency of house cleaning, and breastfeeding; associations with food allergy were adjusted for the presence of pets at home during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

RESULTS: The prevalence of the outcomes were as follows: atopic dermatitis, 12.2%, and food allergy, 48.9%. We showed that higher urine concentrations of monobenzyl phthalate in mothers during pregnancy increased the risk of food allergy in children during the first 2 years of life (odds ratio 4.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-17.89]). There were no associations with children's urine and allergic symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study indicated awareness of environmental factors that may affect children's health because the phthalates were shown to be risk factors for food allergy in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

Authors: Robledo, CA; Peck, JD; Stoner, J; Calafat, AM; Carabin, H; Cowan, L; Goodman, JR (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:324-330. HERO ID: 2816868

[Less] PURPOSE: To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations . . . [More] PURPOSE: To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

METHODS: Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n=110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n=72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression.

RESULTS: Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3μg/l, β=-18.3, 95% CI: -35.4, -1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3μg/l, β=-17.3, 95% CI: -34.1, -0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates.

CONCLUSION: Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously.