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Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final

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285 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure

Authors: Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 1311703

[Less] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of . . . [More] Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment

Authors: Gao, CJ; Liu, LY; Ma, WL; Ren, NQ; Guo, Y; Zhu, NZ; Jiang, L; Li, YF; Kannan, K (2016) Science of the Total Environment 543:19-27. HERO ID: 3045442

[Less] Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to . . . [More] Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary

Authors: Zhou, L; Lei, Y; Zhang, D; Ahmed, S; Chen, S (2016) Science of the Total Environment 541:570-578. HERO ID: 3045466

[Less] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is . . . [More] Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were <0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0-50ngmL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)=0.994) was achieved. The observed IC50 (7.34ngmL(-1)) and LOD (0.06ngmL(-1)) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00ngmL(-1). Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8-114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93-11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p<0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening tool to detect DBP in urinary samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites in Spanish pregnant women

Authors: Valvi, D; Monfort, N; Ventura, R; Casas, M; Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:220-231. HERO ID: 2804030

[Less] Developmental exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse health outcomes but information . . . [More] Developmental exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse health outcomes but information on the variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy is limited. We evaluated in Spanish pregnant women (n=391) the reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and predictors of exposure. We measured mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl) phthalate (7-OHMMeOP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-carboxyhexyl) phthalate (MCMHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in two spot urine samples collected in the first and third pregnancy trimesters. Questionnaires on predictors and food-frequency questionnaires were administered in the first and/or third pregnancy trimesters. Using creatinine-adjusted phthalate metabolite concentrations (log10-trasformed) we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Linear mixed and regression models assessed the associations between predictors and phthalate metabolites. The ICCs ranged from 0.24 to 0.07 and were higher for MBzP, MEP, MiBP, and lower for MEOHP and MEHHP. Overweight, lower education and social class, and less frequent consumption of organic food were associated with higher levels of some phthalate metabolites. The use of household cleaning products (bleach, ammonia, glass cleaners, oven cleaning sprays and degreasing products) at least once per week during pregnancy was associated with 10-44% higher urinary phthalate metabolites. Bottled-water consumption, consumption of food groups usually stored in plastic containers or cans, use of plastic containers for heating food and cosmetic use were not associated with increased concentrations of phthalate metabolites. This large study with repeated phthalate measurements suggests that, in this Spanish setting, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and household cleaning product use are better predictors of phthalate exposure levels in pregnant women than average water and food consumption and use of plastic containers and cosmetics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA

Authors: Bi, X; Yuan, S; Pan, X; Winstead, C; Wang, Q (2015) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 50:1428-1439. HERO ID: 3019857

[Less] This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this . . . [More] This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this study, 44 floor dust samples from different indoor environments in Delaware, USA were collected and analyzed for 14 phthalates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phthalates were detected in all dust samples with the total concentration ranging from 84 to 7117 mg kg(-1). DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), and DiBP (di-isobutyl phthalate) were both the most frequently and abundantly detected phthalates. The average concentration of total phthalates in dust from offices, student dorms, gyms, stores, and daycare centers was found to be significantly or insignificantly (P = 0.05) higher than that in dust from houses and apartments. Plastic flooring materials and the application of floor care chemical products were positively associated with total phthalate concentration in floor dust. Toxicological risk assessment indicated that an investigated daycare center in this study was the only indoor environment that may cause the intake amount of DEHP of infants, toddlers, and children via dust ingestion to exceed the reference dose established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Regular monitoring on phthalate contamination in sensitive indoor environments is recommended.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dose addition models based on biologically relevant reductions in fetal testosterone accurately predict postnatal reproductive tract alterations by a phthalate mixture in rats

Authors: Howdeshell, KL; Rider, CV; Wilson, VS; Furr, JR; Lambright, CR; Gray, LE (2015) Toxicological Sciences 148:488-502. HERO ID: 3052883

[Less] Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data . . . [More] Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold: (1) to test whether a mixture model of dose addition based on the fetal T production data of individual phthalates would predict the effects of a 5 phthalate mixture on androgen-sensitive postnatal male reproductive tract development, and (2) to determine the biological relevance of the reductions in fetal T to induce abnormal postnatal reproductive tract development using data from the mixture study. We administered a dose range of the mixture (60, 40, 20, 10, and 5% of the top dose used in the previous fetal T production study consisting of 300 mg/kg per chemical of benzyl butyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and 100 mg dipentyl (DPP) phthalate/kg; the individual phthalates were present in equipotent doses based on their ability to reduce fetal T production) via gavage to Sprague Dawley rat dams on GD8-postnatal day 3. We compared observed mixture responses to predictions of dose addition based on the previously published potencies of the individual phthalates to reduce fetal T production relative to a reference chemical and published postnatal data for the reference chemical (called DAref). In addition, we predicted DA (called DAall) and response addition (RA) based on logistic regression analysis of all 5 individual phthalates when complete data were available. DA ref and DA all accurately predicted the observed mixture effect for 11 of 14 endpoints. Furthermore, reproductive tract malformations were seen in 17-100% of F1 males when fetal T production was reduced by about 25-72%, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure-dependent activity of phthalate esters and phthalate monoesters binding to human constitutive androstane receptor

Authors: Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; Nakanishi, T; Wan, Y; Hiromori, Y; Nagase, H; Hu, J (2015) Chemical Research in Toxicology 28:1196-1204. HERO ID: 2914668

[Less] The present study investigated the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding activities of . . . [More] The present study investigated the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding activities of 23 phthalate esters and 10 phthalate monoesters using a fast and sensitive human CAR yeast two-hybrid assay. Of 23 phthalate esters, 16 were evaluated as positive, and the 10% relative effective concentrations (REC10) ranged from 0.28 (BBP) to 29.51 μM (DEHP), whereas no obvious binding activities were found for the phthalate esters having alkyl chains more than six carbons in length. Of 10 phthalate monoesters, only monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MIBP), and mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) elicited human CAR binding activities. The REC10 values of MEP and MIBP were 4.27 and 14.13 μM, respectively, higher than those of their corresponding phthalate esters (1.45 μM for DEP and 0.83 μM for DIBP), whereas TBMEHP (0.66 μM) was much lower than TBHP (>10(2) μM). A molecular docking method was performed to simulate the interaction modes between phthalates and human CAR, and active phthalates were found to lie at almost the same site in the human CAR pocket. The docking results suggest that the strong binding of phthalates to human CAR arises primarily from hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and steric effects and that weak hydrogen bonds and weak halogen bonds greatly contribute to the high binding activity of TBMEHP. In conclusion, the current study clarified that an extensive array of phthalates are activators of human CAR.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels

Authors: Chang, WH; Li, SS; Wu, MH; Pan, HA; Lee, CC (2015) Human Reproduction 30:2658-2670. HERO ID: 3045474

[Less] STUDY QUESTION: Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating . . . [More] STUDY QUESTION: Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum fT (P = 0.028, 0.017, 0.045 and 0.027, respectively); between urinary levels of MMP, MEHP, MEHP% and the TT : LH ratio (P = 0.004, 0.029 and 0.039, respectively); between urinary levels of MMP, MiBP, MnBP, MBzP, MEHP and the FAI (P = 0.002, 0.008, 0.037, 0.028, 0.042 and 0.016, respectively). Urinary MBzP and MEHP% were negatively associated with a decrease in serum INSL3 (P = 0.049 and <0.001). We also observed a strong inverse relationship between MEHP% quartiles and serum TT, fT, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 (Ptrend = 0.003, 0.080, 0.002 and 0.012, respectively). Serum INSL3, TT, fT and the TT : LH ratio were lower for men in the highest MEHP% quartile than in the reference group (P = 0.007, 0.002, 0.090 and 0.001, respectively).

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: A potential limitation is using a single urine and blood sample to predict urinary phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormone status over long periods. However, there is evidence that a single measure provides a reliable result in population studies.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Non-occupational exposure to phthalates, including di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, might lead to adverse effects on testicular/Leydig cell function and be of concern owing to the ubiquitous multisource exposure to phthalates among the general population. Although our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data, more studies are required to draw firm conclusions on the relation of INSL3 to phthalate exposure or testicular/Leydig cell function.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was supported by grants NSC 100-2314-B-006-054 and NSC 101-2314-B-006-052-MY2 from the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in breast milk in Korea: estimating exposure to phthalates and potential risks among breast-fed infants

Authors: Kim, S; Lee, J; Park, J; Kim, HJ; Cho, G; Kim, GH; Eun, SH; Lee, JJ; Choi, G; Suh, E; Choi, S; Kim, S; Kim, YD; Kim, SK; Kim, SY; Kim, S; Eom, S; Moon, HB; Kim, S; Choi, K (2015) Science of the Total Environment 508:13-19. HERO ID: 2816863

[Less] Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental . . . [More] Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental effects in many experimental and epidemiological studies. Developing infants are among the most susceptible populations to endocrine disruption. However, limited information is available on phthalate exposure and its associated risks among breast-fed newborn infants. In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 62 lactating mothers at 1 month post-partum from four cities of Korea in 2012 and were evaluated for six phthalate metabolites (mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP)). MEP was detected in all breast milk samples, with a median concentration of 0.37 μg/L, and MiBP, MnBP and MEHP were detected in 79-89% of samples, with median concentrations of 1.10, 1.70, and 2.08 μg/L, respectively. However, MEHHP and MEOHP, the oxidized forms of di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were detected in only one sample. For exposure assessment, the levels of phthalate diesters were estimated based on the parent:metabolite ratios in the breast milk that are reported elsewhere. For risk assessment, the endocrine-related toxicity of the monoester was assumed to be the same as that of its diester form. Median daily intake estimates of phthalates, including both monoester and diester forms, through breast milk consumption ranged between 0.91 and 6.52 μg/kg body weight (bw) for DEHP and between 0.38 and 1.43 μg/kg bw for di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). Based on the estimated daily intake, up to 8% of infants exceeded the reference dose of anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) for DEHP, and 6% of infants exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DnBP. Breast milk MiBP and MnBP concentrations showed significant positive associations with maternal consumption of whipped cream or purified water. Considering vulnerability of young infants, efforts to mitigate phthalate exposure among lactating women are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to select phthalates and phenols through use of personal care products among Californian adults and their children

Authors: Philippat, C; Bennett, D; Calafat, AM; Picciotto, IH (2015) Environmental Research 140:369-376. HERO ID: 2915548

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Certain phenols and phthalates are used in many consumer products including . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Certain phenols and phthalates are used in many consumer products including personal care products (PCPs).

AIMS: We aimed to study the associations between the use of PCPs and urinary concentrations of biomarkers of select phenols and phthalates among Californian adults and their children. As an additional aim we compared phenols and phthalate metabolites concentrations measured in adults and children urine samples collected the same day.

METHODS: Our study relied on a subsample of 90 adult-child pairs participating in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behavior (SUPERB). Each adult and child provided one to two urine samples in which we measured concentrations of selected phenols and phthalate metabolites. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients to compare concentrations measured in adults and children urine samples collected the same day. We used adjusted linear and Tobit regression models to study the associations between the use of PCPs in the past 24h and biomarker concentrations.

RESULTS: Benzophenone-3 and parabens concentrations were higher in adults compared to their children. Conversely children had higher mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-isobutyl phthalate concentrations. No significant difference was observed for the other compounds. The total number of different PCPs used was positively associated with urinary concentrations of methyl, propyl and butyl parabens and the main metabolite of diethyl phthalate in adults. Among children, the use of a few specific products including liquid soap, hair care products and sunscreen was positively associated with urinary concentrations of some phenols or phthalate metabolites.

DISCUSSION: These results strengthen the body of evidence suggesting that use of PCPs is an important source of exposure to parabens and diethyl phthalate in adults and provide data on exposure to selected phenols and phthalates through use of PCPs in children.