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ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA

Authors: Lefcheck, JS; Wilcox, DJ; Murphy, RR; Marion, SR; Orth, RJ (In Press) Global Change Biology. HERO ID: 3841164

[Less] Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but . . . [More] Interactions among global change stressors and their effects at large scales are often proposed, but seldom evaluated. This situation is primarily due to lack of comprehensive, sufficiently long-term, and spatially extensive datasets. Seagrasses, which provide nursery habitat, improve water quality, and constitute a globally important carbon sink, are among the most vulnerable habitats on the planet. Here, we unite 31 years of high-resolution aerial monitoring and water quality data to elucidate the patterns and drivers of eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA, one of the largest and most valuable estuaries in the world, with an unparalleled history of regulatory efforts. We show that eelgrass area has declined 29% in total since 1991, with wide-ranging and severe ecological and economic consequences. We go on to identify an interaction between decreasing water clarity and warming temperatures as the primary drivers of this trend. Declining clarity has gradually reduced eelgrass cover the past two decades, primarily in deeper beds where light is already limiting. In shallow beds, however, reduced visibility exacerbates the physiological stress of acute warming, leading to recent instances of decline approaching 80%. While degraded water quality has long been known to influence underwater grasses worldwide, we demonstrate a clear and rapidly emerging interaction with climate change. We highlight the urgent need to integrate a broader perspective into local water quality management, in the Chesapeake Bay and in the many other coastal systems facing similar stressors.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Assessing Ecological Risks from Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen and Sulfur to US Forests Using Epiphytic Macrolichens

Authors: Geiser, LH; Nelson, PR; Jovan, SE; Root, HT; Clark, CM (2019) 11. HERO ID: 5882510

[Less] Critical loads of atmospheric deposition help decision-makers identify levels of air pollution harmful . . . [More] Critical loads of atmospheric deposition help decision-makers identify levels of air pollution harmful to ecosystem components. But when critical loads are exceeded, how can the accompanying ecological risk be quantified? We use a 90% quantile regression to model relationships between nitrogen and sulfur deposition and epiphytic macrolichens, focusing on responses of concern to managers of US forests: Species richness and abundance and diversity of functional groups with integral ecological roles. Analyses utilized national-scale lichen survey data, sensitivity ratings, and modeled deposition and climate data. We propose 20, 50, and 80% declines in these responses as cut-offs for low, moderate, and high ecological risk from deposition. Critical loads (low risk cut-off) for total species richness, sensitive species richness, forage lichen abundance and cyanolichen abundance, respectively, were 3.5, 3.1, 1.9, and 1.3 kg N and 6.0, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.3 kg S ha−1 yr−1. High environmental risk (80% decline), excluding total species richness, occurred at 14.8, 10.4, and 6.6 kg N and 14.1, 13, and 11 kg S ha−1 yr−1. These risks were further characterized in relation to geography, species of conservation concern, number of species affected, recovery timeframes, climate, and effects on interdependent biota, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem services.

Technical Report
Technical Report

2014 National Emissions Inventory Report

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4795870


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantifying metabolically driven pH and oxygen fluctuations in us nearshore habitats at diel to interannual time scales

Authors: Baumann, H; Smith, EM (2018) Estuaries and Coasts 41:1102-1117. HERO ID: 6543800

[Less] We compiled and examined 15 years (2002–2016) of high-frequency monitoring data from the National Estuarine . . . [More] We compiled and examined 15 years (2002–2016) of high-frequency monitoring data from the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) to characterize diel to interannual variability of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO, % saturation) across 16 diverse, shallow-water habitats along the US Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Pacific coasts. We asked whether these systems exhibit a common pH/DO relationship, whether there were detectable interannual trends in temperature, pH, and DO within and across systems, and how pH/DO dynamics would relate to measured levels of nutrients and chlorophyll. Our analyses confirmed that large, metabolically driven, and thus concurrent fluctuations of pH and DO are a unifying feature of nearshore habitats. Moreover, we derived well-constrained relationships that predict (i) monthly mean pH or (ii) mean diel pH fluctuations across systems based on habitat mean salinity and (i) mean DO or (ii) mean diel DO fluctuations. This suggests that common metabolic principles drive diel to seasonal pH/DO variations within as well as across a diversity of estuarine environments. Yearly pH and DO anomalies did not show monotonous trends over the study period and differed considerably between sites and regions. However, weekly anomalies of means, diel minima, and diel ranges of pH and DO changed significantly over time and were strongly correlated to temperature anomalies. These general patterns lend strong empirical support to the notion that coastal acidification—in addition to being driven by eutrophication and atmospheric CO2 increases—is exacerbated simply by warming, likely via increasing community respiration. Nutrient and chlorophyll dynamics were inversely related in these shallow, well-mixed systems, but higher nutrient levels were still associated with lower pH and lower DO levels in most, but not all, systems. Our analyses emphasize the particular dynamics of nearshore habitats and the critical importance of NERRS and its system-wide monitoring program.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and particulate matter—ecological criteria (2nd external review draft)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (EPA/600/R-18/097). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. HERO ID: 4591704

[Less] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the . . . [More] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 since the prior release of the final assessment. The draft ISA was prepared as part of the review of the secondary (welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter. The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards.

Oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter are three of six criteria pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS. Periodically, EPA reviews the scientific basis for these standards by preparing an ISA (formerly called an Air Quality Criteria Document). The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards. The intent of the ISA, as described in the Clean Air Act, is to 'accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air.' It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels).

Key information and judgments formerly found in the AQCDs for oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; appendices provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and appendices serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

Additionally, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) is an independent science advisory committee whose review and advisory functions are mandated by Section 109(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, and charged (among other things) with performing an independent scientific review of all the EPA’s air quality criteria.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Feasibility of coupled empirical and dynamic modeling to assess climate change and air pollution impacts on temperate forest vegetation of the eastern United States

Authors: Mcdonnell, TC; Reinds, GJ; Sullivan, TJ; Clark, CM; Bonten, LTC; Mol-Dijkstra, JP; Wamelink, GWW; Dovciak, M (2018) Environmental Pollution 234:902-914. HERO ID: 4167086

[Less] Changes in climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition caused pronounced changes in soil conditions . . . [More] Changes in climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition caused pronounced changes in soil conditions and habitat suitability for many plant species over the latter half of the previous century. Such changes are expected to continue in the future with anticipated further changing air temperature and precipitation that will likely influence the effects of N deposition. To investigate the potential long-term impacts of atmospheric N deposition on hardwood forest ecosystems in the eastern United States in the context of climate change, application of the coupled biogeochemical and vegetation community model VSD+PROPS was explored at three sites in New Hampshire, Virginia, and Tennessee. This represents the first application of VSD+PROPS to forest ecosystems in the United States. Climate change and elevated (above mid-19th century) N deposition were simulated to be important factors for determining habitat suitability. Although simulation results suggested that the suitability of these forests to support the continued presence of their characteristic understory plant species might decline by the year 2100, low data availability for building vegetation response models with PROPS resulted in uncertain results at the extremes of simulated N deposition. Future PROPS model development in the United States should focus on inclusion of additional foundational data or alternate candidate predictor variables to reduce these uncertainties.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Global peak in atmospheric radiocarbon provides a potential definition for the onset of the anthropocene epoch in 1965

Authors: Turney, CSM; Palmer, J; Maslin, MA; Hogg, A; Fogwill, CJ; Southon, J; Fenwick, P; Helle, G; Wilmshurst, JM; Mcglone, M; Bronk Ramsey, C; Thomas, Z; Lipson, M; Beaven, B; Jones, RT; Andrews, O; Hua, Q (2018) Scientific Reports 8:3293. HERO ID: 4270947

[Less] Anthropogenic activity is now recognised as having profoundly and permanently altered the Earth system, . . . [More] Anthropogenic activity is now recognised as having profoundly and permanently altered the Earth system, suggesting we have entered a human-dominated geological epoch, the 'Anthropocene'. To formally define the onset of the Anthropocene, a synchronous global signature within geological-forming materials is required. Here we report a series of precisely-dated tree-ring records from Campbell Island (Southern Ocean) that capture peak atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) resulting from Northern Hemisphere-dominated thermonuclear bomb tests during the 1950s and 1960s. The only alien tree on the island, a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), allows us to seasonally-resolve Southern Hemisphere atmospheric14C, demonstrating the 'bomb peak' in this remote and pristine location occurred in the last-quarter of 1965 (October-December), coincident with the broader changes associated with the post-World War II 'Great Acceleration' in industrial capacity and consumption. Our findings provide a precisely-resolved potential Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) or 'golden spike', marking the onset of the Anthropocene Epoch.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Investigation on level and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province]

Authors: Qiu, Y; Li, YY; Li, TG; Chen, YG; Kong, JJ; Pan, J (2018) Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi / West China Journal of Dentistry 36:199-203. HERO ID: 4442453

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the cognition degree and influencing factors . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the cognition degree and influencing factors of first aid knowledge among dentists in Sichuan province, and to provide suggestions for the training of oral clinician.

METHODS: A questionnaire was designed for this study. It included the basic situation of population, first aid knowledge level, emergency situation often encountered in stomatology clinic, first aid training situation, learning approach and attitude of first aid knowledge, etc. This questionnaire was used to investigate the dentists of medical institutions in various cities in Sichuan province. The survey results was statistical analyzed.

RESULTS: There were 245 valid questionnaires. 1) The level of first aid knowledge of dentists was generally lower in Sichuan province. Work department and other departments work experience were the influencing factors of knowledge level of first aid knowledge among dentists. 2) 87.3% of dentists believed that it was very necessary to master the knowledge of first aid, but in the event of an emergency situation, 73.5% of dentists only can find other doctors to guide themselves to help. 3) The most common way to learn first aid knowledge was through work experience and medical school's first aid course.

CONCLUSIONS: Dentists should strengthen the learning and training to improve the first aid skill.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimating base cation weathering rates in the USA: challenges of uncertain soil mineralogy and specific surface area with applications of the profile model

Author: Whitfield, C.J., Phelan, J.N., Buckley, J., CLark, C.M., Guthrie, S., Lynch, J.A. (2018) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 229:61. HERO ID: 4288664


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vegetation dynamics associated with changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate in hardwood forests of Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA

Authors: Mcdonnell, TC; Belyazid, S; Sullivan, TJ; Bell, M; Clark, C; Blett, T; Evans, T; Cass, W; Hyduke, A; Sverdrup, H (2018) Environmental Pollution 237:662-674. HERO ID: 4304224

[Less] Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on two hardwood forest sites . . . [More] Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on two hardwood forest sites in the eastern United States were simulated in the context of a changing climate using the dynamic coupled biogeochemical/ecological model chain ForSAFE-Veg. The sites are a mixed oak forest in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (Piney River) and a mixed oak-sugar maple forest in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (Cosby Creek). The sites have received relatively high levels of both S and N deposition and the climate has warmed over the past half century or longer. The model was used to evaluate the composition of the understory plant communities, the alignment between plant species niche preferences and ambient conditions, and estimate changes in relative species abundances as reflected by plant cover under various scenarios of future atmospheric N and S deposition and climate change. The main driver of ecological effects was soil solution N concentration. Results of this research suggested that future climate change might compromise the capacity for the forests to sustain habitat suitability. However, vegetation results should be considered preliminary until further model validation can be performed. With expected future climate change, preliminary estimates suggest that sustained future N deposition above 7.4 and 5.0 kg N/ha/yr is expected to decrease contemporary habitat suitability for indicator plant species located at Piney River and Cosby Creek, respectively.