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ISA NOxSOx Ecology/Welfare (2016)

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  • 1.
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    Lower detectable limit--(1) technical definition

    Author: U.S. EPA
    (2006)
    Tagged With: Cited in First Draft, Chapter 2

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  • 2.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    A generalized, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems

    Authors: Aber, JD; Federer, CA
    (1992) Oecologia 92:463-474.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. PnET is a simple, lumped-parameter, monthly- time-step model of carbon and water balances of forests . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. PnET is a simple, lumped-parameter, monthly- time-step model of carbon and water balances of forests built on two principal relationships: 1) maximum photosynthetic rate is a function of foliar nitrogen concentration, and 2) stomatal conductance is a function of realized photosynthetic rate. Monthly leaf area display and carbon and water balances are predicted by combining these with standard equations describing light attenuation in canopies and photosynthetic response to diminishing radiation intensity, along with effects of soil water stress and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). PnET has been validated against field data from 10 well-studied temperate and boreal forest ecosystems, supporting our central hypothesis that aggregation of climatic data to the monthly scale and biological data such as foliar characteristics to the ecosystem level does not cause a significant loss of information relative to long-term, mean ecosystem responses. Sensitivity analyses reveal a diversity of responses among systems to identical alterations in climatic drivers. This suggests that great care should be used in developing generalizations as to how forests will respond to a changing climate. Also critical is the degree to which the temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration might accli- mate to changes in mean temperatures at decadal time scales. An extreme climate change simulation (?30 C maximum temperature, -25% precipitation with no change in minimum temperature or radiation, direct effects of increased atmospheric CO2 ignored) suggests that major increases in water stress, and reductions in biomass production (net carbon gain) and water yield would follow such a change.
    Tagged With: Cited in First Draft, Chapter 4
  • 3.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests?

    Authors: Aber, JD; Goodale, CL; Ollinger, SV; Smith, ML; Magill, AH; Martin, ME; Hall, RA; Stoddard, JL
    (2003) BioScience 53:375-389.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Concern is resurfacing in the United States over the long-term effects of excess nitrogen (N) deposition . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Concern is resurfacing in the United States over the long-term effects of excess nitrogen (N) deposition and mobility in the environment.We present here a new synthesis of existing data sets for the northeastern United States, intended to answer a single question: Is N deposition altering the N status of forest ecosystems in this region? Surface water data suggest a significant increase in nitrate losses with N deposition. Soil data show an increase in nitrification with decreasing ratio of soil carbon to nitrogen (C:N) but weaker relationships between N deposition and soil C:N ratio or nitrification. Relationships between foliar chemistry and N deposition are no stronger than with gradients of climate and elevation. The differences in patterns for these three groups of indicators are explained by the degree of spatial and temporal integration represented by each sample type. The surface water data integrate more effectively over space than the foliar or soil data and therefore allow a more comprehensive view of N saturation. We conclude from these data that N deposition is altering N status in northeastern forests.
    Tagged With: Appendix C: Case Studies, California, Chapter 4, Chapter 7, Chapter 9, Cited in First Draft, Northeast US, Southeast US
  • 4.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems: Excess nitrogen from fossil fuel combustion may stress the biosphere

    Authors: Aber, JD; Nadelhoffer, KJ; Steudler, P; Melillo, JM
    (1989) BioScience 39:378-386.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. National Science Foundation; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. #Human activity has greatly altered . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. National Science Foundation; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. #Human activity has greatly altered the biogeochemical cycles of Earth, generally increasing pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and deposition rates to the surface. The combustion of fossil-fuels is a major component of human impact on the atmosphere and biosphere. Acid deposition, or acid rain, is one important phenomenon associated with the burning of coal, gasoline, and oil. Until recently, sulfur emissions and sulfuric acid deposition have been the focus of US regulation on acid rain. There is, however, increasing concern about the nitrogen component of emissions and its potential effects on air quality, water quality, and the health of forest ecosystems.
    Tagged With: Appendix C: Case Studies, Chapter 4, Chapter 6, Cited in First Draft, Northeast US
  • 5.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Inorganic nitrogen losses from a forested ecosystem in response to physical, chemical, biotic, and climatic perturbations

    Authors: Aber, JD; Ollinger, SV; Driscoll, CT; Likens, GE; Holmes, RT; Freuder, RJ; Goodale, CL
    (2002) Ecosystems 5:648-658.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. #Nitrate leaching to streams is a sensitive indicator of the biogeochemical status of forest ecosystems. . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. #Nitrate leaching to streams is a sensitive indicator of the biogeochemical status of forest ecosystems. Two primary theories predicting long-term (decadal) changes in nitrate loss rates (N saturation theory and the nutrient retention hypothesis) both predict increasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) losses for watershed 6 (W6), the biogeochemical reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF). Measured values, however, have declined substantially since measurements began in the mid-1960s. Are these theories wrong, or are there other important controls on DIN losses at the annual to decadal time scale that have obscured the tendency toward higher losses over time? We tested the individual and combined effects of several forms of disturbance on DIN loss rates from northern hardwood forests by comparing predictions from a relatively simple model of forest carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics (PnET-CN) with the long-term record of annual DIN loss from W6 at HBEF. Perturbations tested include interannual climate variation, changes in atmospheric chemistry (CO2. O3, N deposition), and physical and biotic disturbances (two harvests, a hurricane salvage, and a defoliation event). No single disturbance caused changes in DIN losses to mimic measured values. Only when run with all of the disturbances combined did the model-predicted pattern of interannual change in DIN loss approach the measured record. Single-disturbance simulations allow an estimation of the role of each in the total pattern of DIN loss. We conclude that DIN losses from W6 were elevated in the 1960s by a combination of recovery from extreme drought and a significant defoliation event. N deposition alone, in the absence of other disturbances, would have increased DIN losses by 0.35 g N m(-2)y(-1). These findings indicate that predictions of DIN losses must take into account the full spectrum of disturbance events and changes in environental conditions impacting the systems examined.
    Tagged With: Appendix C: Case Studies, Cited in First Draft, Northeast US
  • 6.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Modeling nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems in response to land use and atmospheric deposition

    Authors: Aber, JD; Ollinger, SV; Driscoll, C
    (1997) Ecological Modelling 101:61-78.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. #A generalized, lumped-parameter model of carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) interactions in forest . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. #A generalized, lumped-parameter model of carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) interactions in forest ecosystems (PnET-CN) is presented. The model operates at a monthly time step and at the stand-to-watershed scale, and is validated against data on annual net primary productivity, monthly carbon and water balances, annual net N mineralization, nitrification, foliar N concentration and annual and monthly N leaching losses for two sites, Hubbard Brook (West Thornton, NH) and Harvard Forest (Petersham, MA). It is then used to predict transient responses in function resulting from changes in land use and N deposition, as well as the maximum rate of N cycling which can be sustained for any given combination of site, climate and species. Model predictions suggest a very long legacy effect of land use history on N cycling. Even with only one `active' soil organic matter pool, complete recovery from three modest harvests at Hubbard Brook is predicted to require more than two centuries at current N deposition rates. Complete recovery is predicted to take even longer at the Harvard Forest where biomass removals have been more intense. PnET-CN is used to predict maximum sustainable rates of N cycling for 14 sites throughout the northeastern USA. Predicted maximum values were higher, as expected, than measured N mineralization rates for all but one site. The measured fraction of N mineralization nitrified at these 14 sites showed a general relationship with the ratio of measured to maximum net N mineralization. This latter ratio is discussed as a potentially useful indicator of the degree of nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems. A regional map of predicted maximum N cycling rates is presented based on regressions between model predictions and summary climatic variables.
    Tagged With: Chapter 4, Cited in First Draft
  • 7.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems

    Authors: Aber, J; McDowell, W; Nadelhoffer, K; Magill, A; Berntson, G; Kamakea, M; McNulty, S; Currie, W; Rustad, L; Fernandez, I
    (1998) BioScience 48:921-934.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. National Science Foundation; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. #1st PARAGRAPH: Nitrogen emissions . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. National Science Foundation; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. #1st PARAGRAPH: Nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere due to human activity remain elevated in industrialized regions of the world and are accelerating in many developing regions (Galloway 1995). Although the deposition of sulfur has been reduced over much of the United States and Europe by aggressive environmental protection policies, current nitrogen deposition reduction targets in the US are modest. Nitrogen deposition remains relatively constant in the northeastern United States and is increasing in the Southeast and the West (Fenn et al. in press).
    Tagged With: Appendix C: Case Studies, Chapter 13, Chapter 4, Chapter 6, Cited in First Draft, Northeast US
  • 8.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Nitrogen uptake responses of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss under combined and single addition of nitrate and ammonium

    Authors: Abreu, MH; Pereira, R; Buschmann, AH; Sousa-Pinto, I; Yarish, C
    (2011) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407:190-199.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. The ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake responses of tetrasporophyte cultures from a Portuguese . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. The ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake responses of tetrasporophyte cultures from a Portuguese population of Gracilaria vermiculophylla were studied. Thalli were incubated at 5 nitrogen (N) levels, including single (50 mu M of NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-)) and combined addition of each of the N sources. For the combined additions, the experimental conditions attempted to simulate 2 environments with high N availability (450 mu M NO(3)(-) + 150 mu M NH(4)(+); 250 mu M NO(3)(-) + 50 mu M NH(4)(+)) and the mean N concentrations occurring at the estuarine environment of this population (30 mu M NO(3)(-) + 5 mu M NH(4)(+)). The uptake kinetics of NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) were determined during a 4 h time-course experiment with N deprived algae. The experiment was continued up to 48 h, with media exchanges every 4 h. The uptake rates and efficiency of the two N sources were calculated for each time interval. For the first 4 h, G. vermiculophylla exhibited non-saturated uptake for both N sources even for the highest concentrations used. The uptake rates and efficiency calculated for that period (V(0-4 h)), respectively, increased and decreased with increasing substrate concentration. NO(3)(-) uptake rates were superior, ranging from 1.06 +/- 0.1 to 9.65 +/- 1.2 mu M g(dw)(-1) h(-1), with efficiencies of 19% to 53%. NH(4)(+) uptake rates were lower (0.32 +/- 0.0 to 5.75 +/- 0.08 mu M g(dw)(-1) h(-1)) but G. vermiculophylla removed 63% of the initial 150 mu M and 100% at all other conditions. Uptake performance of both N sources decreased throughout the duration of the experiment and with N tissue accumulation. Both N sources were taken up during dark periods though with better results for NH(4)(+). Gracilaria vermiculophylla was unable to take up NO(3)(-) at the highest concentration but compensated with a constant 27% NH(4)(+) uptake through light and dark periods. N tissue accumulation was maximal at the highest N concentration (3.9 +/- 0.25% dw) and superior under NH(4)(+) (3.57 +/- 0.2% dw) vs NO3 (3.06 +/- 0.1% dw) enrichment. The successful proliferation of G. vermiculophylla in estuarine environments and its potential utilization as the biofilter component of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Tagged With: Chapter 10, Cited in First Draft
  • 9.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Article
    Importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in mercury methylation and demethylation in periphyton from Bolivian Amazon region

    Authors: Achá, D; Hintelmann, H; Yee, J
    (2011) Chemosphere 82:911-916.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are important mercury methylators in sediments, but information on mercury . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are important mercury methylators in sediments, but information on mercury methylators in other compartments is ambiguous. To investigate SRB involvement in methylation in Amazonian periphyton, the relationship between Hg methylation potential and SRB (Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae) abundance in Eichhornia crassipes and Polygonum densiflorum root associated periphyton was examined. Periphyton subsamples of each macrophyte were amended with electron donors (lactate, acetate and propionate) or inhibitors (molybdate) of sulfate reduction to create differences in SRB subgroup abundance, which was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene. Mercury methylation and demethylation potentials were determined by a stable isotope tracer technique using 200HgCl and CH3(202)HgCl, respectively. Relative abundance of Desulfobacteraceae (<0.01-12.5%) and Desulfovibrionaceae (0.01-6.8%) were both highly variable among samples and subsamples, but a significant linear relationship (p<0.05) was found between Desulfobacteraceae abundance and net methylmercury formation among treatments of the same macrophyte periphyton and among all P. densiflorum samples, suggesting that Desulfobacteraceae bacteria are the most important mercury methylators among SRB families. Yet, molybdate only partially inhibited mercury methylation potentials, suggesting the involvement of other microorganisms as well. The response of net methylmercury production to the different electron donors and molybdate was highly variable (3-1104 pg g(-1) in 12 h) among samples, as was the net formation in control samples (17-164 pg g(-1) in 12 h). This demonstrates the importance of community variability and complexity of microbial interactions for the overall methylmercury production in periphyton and their response to external stimulus.
    Tagged With: Chapter 12, Cited in First Draft
  • 10.
    The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
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    Agricultural wetlands as potential hotspots for mercury bioaccumulation: Experimental evidence using caged fish

    Authors: Ackerman, JT; Eagles-Smith, CA
    (2010) Environmental Science and Technology 44:1451-1457.
    Minus Sign. Click to see only selected choices. Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production . . . Plus Sign. Click to expand choices. Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services, but also can be sources of methylmercury (MeHg) production and export. Rice agricultural wetlands in particular may be important sites for MeHg bioaccumulation due to their worldwide ubiquity, periodic flooding schedules, and high use by wildlife. We assessed MeHg bioaccumulation within agricultural and perennial wetlands common to California's Central Valley during summer, when the majority of wetland habitats are shallowly flooded rice fields. We introduced caged western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) within white rice (Oryza saliva), wild rice (Zizania palustris), and permanent wetlands at water inlets, centers, and outlets. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and body burdens in caged mosquitofish increased rapidly, exceeding baseline values at introduction by 135% to 1197% and 29% to 1566% among sites, respectively, after only 60 days. Mercury bioaccumulation in caged mosquitofish was greater in rice fields than in permanent wetlands, with THg concentrations at wetland outlets increasing by 12.1, 5.8, and 2.9 times over initial concentrations in white rice, wild rice, and permanent wetlands, respectively. In fact mosquitofish caged at white rice outlets accumulated 721 ng Hg/fish in just 60 days. Mercury in wild mosquitofish and Mississippi silversides (Menidia audens) concurrently sampled at wetland outlets also were greater in white rice and wild rice than permanent wetlands. Within wetlands, THg concentrations and body burdens of both caged and wild fish increased from water inlets to outlets in white rice fields, and tended to not vary among sites in permanent wetlands. Fish THg concentrations in agricultural wetlands were high, exceeding 0.2 mu g/g ww in 82% of caged fish and 59% of wild fish. Our results indicate that shallowly flooded rice fields are potential hotspots for MeHg bioaccumulation and, due to their global prevalence, suggest that agricultural wetlands may be important contributors to MeHg contamination.
    Tagged With: Cited in First Draft, Chapter 12
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Cited in First Draft (2,604)
Preface (22)
Chapter 1 (131)
Chapter 2 (204)
Chapter 3 (91)
Chapter 4 (223)
Chapter 5 (97)
Chapter 6 (486)
Chapter 7 (230)
Chapter 8 (209)
Chapter 9 (138)
Chapter 10 (217)
Chapter 11 (106)
Chapter 12 (128)
Chapter 13 (111)
Chapter 14 (80)
Appendix A: Chapter 2 (0)
Appendix B: Chapter 12 (25)
Appendix C: Case Studies (485)
California (142)
Northeast US (140)
Rocky Mountain (94)
Southeast US (94)
Tampa Bay (50)
Appendix D: Other ecological effects of PM deposition (185)